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The   Polynesian  Wanderings 


Tracks  of  the  Migration  Deduced  from  an  Examination 

of  the  Proto-Samoan  Content  of  Efate  and 

other  Languages  of  Melanesia 


BY 

WILLIAM  CHURCHILL 

Sometime  Consul-General  of  the  United  States  in  Samoa  and  Tonga, 

Member  of  the  Polynesian  Society,  the  Hawaiian  Historical 

Society,  the  American  Philological  Association 


PUBLISHED   BY 

THE  CARNEGIE  INSTITUTION  OF  WASHINGTON 
1911  £  f 


CARNEGIE  INSTITUTION  OF  WASHINGTON 
Publication  No.  134 


PRESS  OF  GIBSON   BROTHERS 
WASHINGTON.  D.  C. 


-    PREFACE. 

To  introduce  the  work  contained  in  the  succeeding  pages  would 
be  irksome;  it  partakes  of  the  nature  of  a  task,  for  the  book  must 
be  its  own  best  record  of  the  results  of  years  spent  in  study  in  the 
distant  South  Seas,  of  yet  other  years  of  intimate  toil.  But  there 
is  pleasure  in  making  a  brief  and  prefatory  record  of  my  introduction 
to  these  Polynesian  researches. 

That  I  owe  to  James  D wight  Dana,  not  the  least  distinguished  of 
the  scientific  staff  of  the  United  States  Exploring  Expedition  which, 
under  the  naval  command  of  Lieutenant  Wilkes,  made  that  brilliant 
cruise  of  discovery  in  the  Pacific  Oceans  between  the  years  1838 
and  1842.  It  was  a  work  of  supererogation  on  the  part  of  my  pre- 
ceptor to  answer  my  questions  about  the  discovery  of  savage  men 
in  the  distant  sea  half  around  the  globe;  it  formed  no  part  of  the 
studies  which  I  was  pursuing  under  his  direction.  Yet  he  was  ever 
cordial;  my  questions  never  went  unanswered.  Thus  gradually  I 
acquired  a  distinctly  personal  knowledge  of  the  great  work  which 
had  been  done  in  Polynesia,  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  men 
and  scenes  which  serves  still  to  supplement  the  formal  record  con- 
tained in  the  reports  of  that  historic  voyage. 

Not  long  thereafter,  yet  it  was  all  of  forty  years  since  Dana's  day 
in  the  bright  South  Sea,  it  was  granted  me  to  cruise  over  many  of 
the  inter-island  courses  which  he  had  followed.  That  my  cruises 
were  easy  was  a  debt  which  I  owed  to  the  cartographic  work  of 
that  expedition ;  that  they  were  almost  always  safe  was  no  less  due 
to  the  moral  effect  which  jthe  'American  voyagers  had  impressed 
upon  the  savages  at  their  first  discovery. 

When  once  I  landed  on  the  island  of  Malolo,  remotely  set  in  the 
Fiji  Islands,  and  found  the  people  coming  to  the  beach  to  greet  me 
with  yams  and  bamboo  tubes  of  water,  it  seemed  an  interesting, 
somewhat  picturesque,  ceremony.  When  I  inquired  into  the  reason 
I  learned  that  it  was  called  an  ancient  custom  to  proffer  food  and 
water  to  all  visiting  strangers.  Yet  I  found  that  in  less  than  half 
of  a  stagnant  century  a  custom  had  become  ancient.  It  was  at 
MalolO  that  a  boat's  crew  of  the  Wilkes  expedition  had  been  cut 
off,  as  duly  set  forth  in  the  third  volume  of  the  narrative;  after 
exacting  punishment  for  this  act  of  murder  the  Americans  laid  the 


IV  PREFACE. 

injunction  on  Malolo  to  welcome  the  stranger,  and  thus  the  custom 
arose. 

After  an  interval  of  a  dozen  years  I  was  called  to  take  a  part  in 
the  administration  of  the  affairs  of  the  kingdom  of  Samoa  in  that 
historic  tangle  in  which  the  United  States  was  striving  to  hold  a 
disinterested  balance.  The  most  vivacious,  and  to  me  the  most 
valuable,  of  the  small  group  of  island  sages  whom  I  gathered  about 
me  in  the  windward  outskirts  of  Apia  to  help  in  the  prosecution  of 
my  researches  into  the  past  of  their  people,  was  a  very  old  chief 
of  Vaiala.  It  seemed  that  he  must  have  lived  forever,  this  ancient 
Lauta  who  had  long  since  retired  from  the  active  duties  which  fall 
to  the  village  chief.  Like  all  Samoans  he  had  no  sense  of  the  lapse 
of  time  and  no  knowledge  of  the  date  of  his  birth.  But  he  was  able 
to  contribute  one  early  landmark :  when  he  was  a  mere  stripling  he 
had  gone  to  Tutuila  to  undergo  his  tattooing;  when  that  painful  but 
socially  necessary  operation  had  been  completed  he  returned  to  Apia 
on  the  deck  of  "the  first  man-of-war."  So  far  as  related  to  that 
brief  voyage  from  Pagopago  to  'Upolu  he  was  a  survivor  of  the 
Wilkes  expedition  which  had  passed  through  his  seas  more  than 
half  a  century  before  I  knew  him. 

In  these  and  many  other  ways  my  participation  in  the  study  of 
the  South  Sea  has  always  seemed  to  me  an  inheritance  from  the 
voyagers  who  sailed  with  Wilkes  so  many  years  ago. 

Nor  should  I  omit  acknowledgment  of  the  obligation  under  which 
I  lie  to  Laupepa,  the  last  of  a  long  line  of  Malietoas  who  had  ruled 
Samoa  from  a  period  which  corresponds  to  the  time  in  our  own 
reckoning  when  Norman  William  crossed  the  Channel  and  fought 
down  Saxon  Harold  on  Senlac  Field.  We  had  made  him  king.  Poor 
weary  soul,  we  could  not  make  him  royal,  for  we  made  it  impossible 
for  him  to  reign.  Now  that  he  has  gone  beyond  the  sufferings  of 
a  king,  now  that  the  line  of  the  Malietoas  has  been  broken  off,  now 
that  the  puppet  kingdom  of  Samoa  is  no  more,  I  recall  with  pleasure 
that  he  did  enjoy  the  respite  from  the  cares  of  his  troubled  state 
in  the  many  hours  in  which  he  delighted  to  communicate  to  me 
his  stores  of  the  wisdom  of  the  past.  Few  there  were  who  could 
speak  Samoan  with  his  grace  of  diction;  few  indeed  had  minds  so 
replete  with  the  myth  and  tradition  in  which  is  preserved  the  ancient 
history  of  his  race.  In  regardful  memory  I  must  not  neglect  to 
include  among  those  who  introduced  me  to  these  studies  the  name 
of  Malietoa  Laupepa,  the  last  king  of  Samoa. 


PREFACE.  V 

By  rigid  processes  of  exclusion  I  have  sought  to  make  the  lin- 
guistic material  assembled  in  this  volume  tell  the  tale  of  the  peopling 
of  so  much  of  the  Pacific  as  is  comprehended  within  the  range  of 
its  extent.  It  will  be  seen  that  Micronesia  is  wholly  omitted ;  con- 
siderable material  is  available  for  the  study  of  that  equatorial  region, 
but  it  is  removed  by  an  irreducible  gap  from  the  sweep  of  the  data 
upon  which  these  studies  are  based.  In  Melanesia  this  material 
tells  no  tale  of  the  origin  of  the  dusky  races  there  found;  it  gives 
us  no  more  than  the  assurance  that  the  dark  races  were  already 
settled  in  their  crude  savagery  when  the  migration  swarms  of  the 
brilliant  Polynesians  swept  onward  to  happier  homes  ever  eastward. 
Not  all  of  Polynesia  are  we  to  find  included  within  the  scope  of 
this  work.  The  linguistic  record  here  dealt  with  excludes  of  its  own 
motion  the  later  sweep  of  migration,  that  to  which  I  have  given 
the  designation  of  Tongafiti,  the  adventurous  voyagers  who  swept 
onward  past  central  Polynesia  to  found  new  races  at  the  utmost 
verge  of  the  great  South  Sea. 

Our  material  restricts  us  to  the  most  ancient  Polynesians,  the  first- 
comers  into  the  Pacific,  voyagers  who  swept  the  unknown  sea  some 
two  thousand  years  ago.  Of  these  Proto-Samoans  we  find  here  a 
history  which  carries  them  back  to  their  expulsion  from  the  Asiatic 
archipelago.  I  have  essayed  to  plot  their  ocean  fairways.  I  have 
shown  that  in  two  swarms  they  came  out  from  Indonesia ;  that  one 
swarm  came  around  the  north  of  New  Guinea  and  entered  the  Pacific 
by  way  of  Saint  George's  Channel  and  at  last  came  to  new  homes  in 
Samoa;  that  the  other  was  driven  by  advancing  Malayans  into  the 
Arafura  Sea  and  south  of  New  Guinea  through  Torres  Straits  and 
thence  onward  to  a  new  home  in  Fiji.  There  in  Nuclear  Polynesia 
the  sundered  kin  resumed  their  fellowship;  thence  they  despatched 
yet  other  expeditions  which  brought  them  to  Hawaii,  to  New  Zealand, 
and  to  several  spots  in  the  distant  east  of  the  Pacific.  Upon  the 
smaller  of  the  accompanying  charts  I  have  plotted  so  much  of  these 
Proto-Samoan  voyages  as  I  have  been  able  to  determine,  and  to 
these  I  have  added  the  voyages  of  the  Tongafiti  folk  who  came  later, 
by  about  a  thousand  years,  leaving  uncertain  the  voyage  which 
brought  them  into  Nuclear  Polynesia,  since  this  material  affords  no 
record  thereof. 

Nor  is  this  all.  This  record  points  to  something  of  wider  value 
than  the  wandering  of  an  unimportant  folk  in  a  world  of  islands 
which  can  attain  but  scantily  to  economic  importance.     We  are 


VI  PREFACE. 

engaged  upon  a  group  of  languages  of  the  most  elemental  character,  a 
speech  wherein  the  parts  of  speech  have  but  just  begun  to  make  their 
appearance.  That  in  itself  would  be  matter  of  no  great  moment, 
for  we  know  many  languages  of  the  isolating  type.  That  which  is 
of  particular  value  herein  is  that  we  find  ourselves  engaged  with  a 
language  family  in  which  we  can  discover  the  beginnings  of  human 
speech.  We  find  ourselves  made  witnesses  of  the  man  who  can 
emit  a  cry  because  he  has  the  animal  equipment  of  a  throat  and 
lungs,  and  we  see  that  man,  with  a  sentient  mind  to  give  him  the 
impulse  of  progress,  striving  by  rude  and  uncouth  mouthings  to 
attain  to  facility  in  the  use  of  the  consonants  which  make  speech. 
It  will  be  an  acceptable  reward  of  pleasant  toil  if  it  shall  be  found 
that  the  Polynesian  language  family  is  capable  of  affording  us  a 
true  knowledge  of  a  genesis  of  the  speech  of  man. 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 


Chapter  I.  The  Problem  of  Melanesia i 

Inosculation  of  the  Melanesian  and  the  Polynesian  languages  and  the  determi- 
nation of  values  therein. — The  position  of  Melanesia. — Viti  an  area  of  the 
mingling  of  the  two  stocks. — Polynesia  has  charmed  and  Melanesia  revolted 
their  discoverers;  our  acquaintance  with  the  latter  therefore  falls  short  of 
our  knowledge  of  the  former. — Islands  of  the  Polynesian  verge. — Polyne- 
sian inclusions. — Languages  which  borrow. 

Chapter  II.  The  Dictionary  of  Efatt 5 

Most  of  the  accessible  vocabularies  are  very  scanty. — Only  three  Melanesian 
dictionaries,  those  of  Mota,  Efate,  and  Viti,  are  at  all  considerable. — The 
development  of  Macdonald's  theory  of  Semitic  origin. — His  Efate 
dictionary  and  its  false  lexicography. — Some  words  hidden  from  sight. — 
Clumsiness  in  the  definition. — Introduction  of  polemic  dishonesty. — His 
false  etymology. — No  clear  distinction  of  several  dialects. 

Chapter  III.  Sawaiori  Migrations 13 

Paucity  of  our  knowledge  of  the  Melanesian  origins. — They  may  be  autoch- 
thons.— There  are  two  principal  theories  of  Polynesian  migrations. — The 
sieve  theory  and  the  argument  of  Thilenius  in  its  behalf. — A  spurious  tale 
of  seven  times  seven  retailed  by  Deeken. — The  general  migration  theory. — 
Tregear's  statement  that  this  is  the  commonly  accepted  hypothesis. — Percy 
Smith  in  its  support. — A  fallacy  into  which  Thilenius  has  been  led. — -Per- 
sisting memories  of  an  inferior  race  once  encountered. — The  log  of  one  of 
the  great  voyages. 

Chapter  IV.  The  First  Polynesian  Home 25 

A  race  always  under  an  eastward  momentum. — No  positive  statement  of  the 
place  of  origin  possible. — Bopp  proposed  an  Aryan  source. — Max  Miiller 
connected  it  with  the  Turanian  stock. — Logan  regarded  the  Ganges  valley 
as  the  ancient  home. — Macdonald's  Semitic  theory  of  a  great  and  widely 
diffused  Oceanic  language  set  forth  at  large. 

Chapter  V.  Dissection  of  the  Theory 31 

The  result  of  independent  treatment  of  the  data  should  be  identical.— As  the 
other  elements  have  long  been  known  and  carefully  studied,  the  Melane- 
sian is  the  critical  test. — The  computation  of  exactly  what  material  is  now 
made  available  for  study. — In  what  proportion  the  Efate  vocabulary  con- 
tributes to  the  solution  of  the  problem  and  the  manner  in  which  properly 
it  may  be  employed. 

Chapter  VI.  EfaU  and  Viti  and  Polynesia 35 

Comparison  of  the  vowels  of  the  Melanesian  element  of  Efate  and  Viti. — The 
establishment  of  consonantal  variety. — Assumption  of  a  parent  speech  from 
which  these  deviate. — Viti  appears  to  be  the  younger  son. — The  compar- 
ison continued  through  the  Sawaiori  element  of  Viti. — Viti,  Samoan,  and 
their  parent  speech,  the  Proto-Samoan. — Comparison  of  Efate  with  Poly- 
nesia and  summation  of  results. — The  extent  to  which  Efate  identifications 
penetrate  into  Polynesia. — Argument  from  recorded  anomalies. — It  is  im- 
probable that  Efate  received  its  Polynesian  content  through  westward  drift 
of  castaways. — Proof  that  this  element  came  through  the  migration  of  the 
Proto-Samoan  wanderers. — Check-list  of  Polynesian  phonetic  mutations. 


VIII  CONTENTS. 

Chapter  VII.  Polynesian  Relics  throughout  Melanesia 55 

Check-list  of  the  material  for  this  section  of  the  work. — Tables  of  the  phonetic 
relations  of  81  languages  of  the  Melanesian  archipelagoes. — The  several 
mutations  of  vowels  and  consonants  and  the  languages  which  employ 
them. — Analysis  of  these  mutations,  those  which  are  found  in  Polynesia 
and  those  confined  to  Melanesia. — The  groundwork  of  Polynesian  muta- 
tion and  the  Melanesian  system  compared  therewith. — Two  Melanesian 
foci  of  Polynesian  influence  brought  to  light. — The  sieve  theory  disproved 
by  this  material. — Proof  of  the  general  migration  theory. — Crop  colonies 
and  the  important  part  they  play. — -Two  tracks  of  Proto-Samoan  migration 
through  Melanesia. — Proof  that  a  Melanesian  sojourn  preceded  the  settle- 
ment of  Samoa. 

Chapter  VIII.  Sawaiori  Material  in  Indonesia 151 

Limitation  of  the  points  of  inquiry. — Check-list  of  the  Indonesian  material. — 
Synoptical  tables  of  mutation  varieties. — Mutations  compared  with  the 
systems  of  the  Pacific  languages. — Character  and  probable  place  of  the 
contact  of  Indonesian  and  Polynesian. — The  nature  of  an  ethnic  swarm 
discussed. — The  Malay  advance  was  an  affair  of  outposts. — Whence  arose 
the  speech  community,  which  after  all  is  a  matter  of  but  a  gross  of  words. — 
The  Indonesians  are  shown  to  be  borrowers. — Two  lines  of  Sawaiori  escape 
through  the  Malay  archipelago  lead  to  the  two  tracks  identified  through 
Melanesia. — The  designation  Malayo-Polynesian  should  be  discarded 
because  false. 

Chapter  IX.  The  Sawaiori  Beginning  Rests  Unknown 175 

Check-list  of  the  Semitic  words  for  which  affinity  has  been  sought. — Failure  of 
the  effort  to  identify  this  material  with  Sawaiori  stock. — The  reasons  lie 
in  false  definitions  and  irregularity  of  phonetic  principles. — The  Semitic 
does  not  conform  to  the  laws  of  the  family. — Summation  of  the  results  of 
this  inquiry. — The  two  Sawaiori  swarms,  the  earlier  through  Melanesia, 
the  latter  not  yet  discovered  on  the  face  of  the  trackless  sea. — The  double 
migration  track  in  the  western  Pacific. — The  problem  of  the  Melanesians 
has  been  considered  only  in  so  far  as  they  have  been  affected  by  the  wan- 
dering Sawaiori. — End  of  the  classification  which  has  joined  Malay  and 
Polynesian. — The  beginning  of  the  great  Polynesian  race  is  lost  in  west- 
ward and  empty  sea. 

Appendix  i.  Data  and  Notes ig5 

Appendix  2.  The  Southern  Gateway ., , 

Appendix  3.  Bibliography ._, 


The  Polynesian  Wanderings 

Tracks  of  the  Migration  Deduced  from  an  Examination 

of  the  Proto-Samoan  Content  of  Efate  and 

other  Languages  of  Melanesia 


CHAPTER  I. 
THE  PROBLEM  OF  MELANESIA. 

Inosculation  of  the  Melanesian  and  the  Polynesian  languages  and  the 
determination  of  values  therein — The  position  of  Melanesia — Viti  an 
area  of  the  mingling  of  the  two  stocks— Polynesia  has  charmed  and 
Melanesia  revolted  their  discoverers ;  our  acquaintance  with  the  latter 
therefore  falls  short  of  our  knowledge  of  the  former — Islands  of  the 
Polynesian  verge — Polynesian  inclusions — Languages  which  borrow. 

Based  upon  the  possession  of  a  greater  mass  of  material  than  we 
have  ever  enjoyed  for  the  examination  of  any  one  of  the  languages 
of  the  islands  of  the  Western  Pacific,  the  purpose  of  this  work  is  to 
present  such  determinations  of  ascertainable  values  in  the  inoscula- 
tion of  the  Melanesian  and  the  Polynesian  tongues  as  the  present 
state  of  our  knowledge  may  be  found  to  warrant.  We  shall  find  it 
convenient,  in  due  course,  to  list  a  brief  bibliography  of  such  works 
as  have  become  available  in  the  study  of  this  topic.  These  inter- 
esting and  valued  works  of  my  predecessors  in  this  tangled  field  will 
be  found  to  lie  in  two  classes,  the  record  of  data  and  the  discussion 
based  upon  such  data. 

The  publication  of  Dr.  Macdonald's  studies  in  the  speech  of  Efate\ 
eagerly  welcomed  and  as  warmly  reprobated,  has  seemed  to  make 
it  incumbent  upon  me  to  engage  more  intimately  upon  the  prose- 
cution of  the  studies  whose  results  are  offered  in  the  present  volume. 
His  work  upon  Efate"  falls  into  each  class.  It  is  a  considerable 
vocabulary  of  a  speech  largely  Melanesian;  it  is  a  labored  essay  to 
build  a  structure  of  criticism  and  comment  upon  this  material.  We 
shall  welcome  it  in  its  former  capacity  as  a  long  stride  onward  in 
our  knowledge  of  Melanesia;  we  shall  find  it  quite  as  necessary  to 
subject  its  argumentative  deductions  to  rigid  scrutiny,  in  which  our 
interest  is  to  remain  cordial  even  though  our  judgment  prove 
adverse. 

The  least  known  of  the  trine  division  of  the  Pacific,  Melanesia 
affords  the  most  numerous  and  the  greatest  problems  which  confront 
those  of  us  who  have  given  time  and  have  expended  thought  upon 
the  study  of  the  life  of  man  in  the  South  Sea.  These  problems  are 
of  two  sorts.  One  great  class  consists  of  the  problems  internal  to 
Melanesia  itself,  the  other  has  to  do  with  the  problems  of  the  Poly- 
nesian ethnic  and  linguistic  stock.  Being  problems  of  human  life, 
they  are  by  no  means  discrete.  The  closer  into  them  our  examina- 
tion carries  us  the  more  intimately  do  we  learn  the  interdependence 
of  the  problems  of  the  one  sort  upon  the  problems  of  the  other. 


^  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Considered  geographically,  Melanesia  is  a  unit  easy  of  definition, 
save  at  its  northern  projection  where  it  impinges  upon  areas  in  one 
direction  known  to  be  Papuan  and  in  another  upon  yet  other  areas 
known  to  be  Indonesian.    The  islands  (to  which  the  skin  pigmen- 
tation of  the  inhabitants,  in  marked  contrast  with  that  of  their 
neighbors  eastward,  has  made  it  a  simple  metaphor  to  apply  the 
designation  of  the  Black  Islands)  he  in  a  loose  linking  of  chains  a 
thousand  miles  offshore  from  the  northeastern  coast  of  Australia, 
and  in  their  extent  in  a  roughly  northwest  direction  they  closely 
parallel  that  coast.     The  southern  verge  of  this  area  falls  little  short 
of  the  Tropic  of  Capricorn;  its  northern  limit  lies  almost  exactly  on 
the  Equator.     These  limits  are,  respectively,  the  considerable  land 
mass  of  New  Caledonia  and  the  tiny  islets  of  the  Admiralty  Group. 
Reckoning  northward  from  New  Caledonia,  we  include  in  the  larger 
subdivision  of  the  area  the  Loyalty  Group,  the  New  Hebrides,  the 
Banks  Group,  the  Solomon  Islands,  and  the  Bismarck  Archipelago. 
The  designation  of  this  last  component  we  owe  to  a  colonizing  zeal 
which  has  proved  sufficiently  potent  to  act  upon  the  Germans, 
geographers  as  well  as  statesmen,  in  blunting  a  sense  of  common 
geographical  propriety.     The  islands  had  borne  the  names  of  New 
Britain,  New  Ireland,  the  Duke  of  York,  and  New  Hanover,  collec- 
tively the  New  Britannia  Archipelago,  so  long  and  so  familiarly  that 
it  was  force  rather  than  any  necessity  which  new-named  them  Neu- 
Pommern,  Neu-Mecklenburg,  Neu-Lauenburg,  and  dedicated  them 
in  totality  to  the  then  Iron  Chancellor.     A  geographical  sin,  unfortu- 
nately a  sin  accomplished. 

The  Fijian  Archipelago  may  or  may  not  be  included  in  Melanesia; 
all  depends  upon  the  interpretation  of  certain  well-defined  problems 
of  its  own.  Geographically  it  is  not  necessary  so  to  include  it,  for 
it  lies  remote,  out  of  the  northwest  chain,  set  by  itself  in  its  own 
sea  midway  between  the  scarcely  contaminated  Melanesia  of  New 
Caledonia  and  the  equally  uncorrupted  Polynesia  of  Samoa  and 
Tonga  the  region  to  which  I  have  assigned  the  convenient  designa- 
tion of  Nuclear  Polynesia.  Ethnically  and  philologically  Viti  must 
be  acknowledged  to  lie  in  a  position  of  mixture  of  the  two  neighbor 
stocks.  I  know  that  I  go  beyond  many,  if  not  all,  of  my  fellow 
workers  in  weighing  the  Polynesian  element  in  Viti. 

While  with  this  exception  we  find  Melanesia  a  well-defined  unit 
upon  the  charts  we  are  by  no  means  qualified  to  decide  if  this .unity 
extends  to  the  ethnography  and  philology  of  the  region  and  that 
because  of  our  lack  of  consistent  information.  We  are  sad  y ^deficient 
in  the  necessary  data,  for  Melanesia  has  received  scant  attention 

W^M^La  has  attracted,  Melanesia  has  repelled  its  dis- 
coverers About  the  islands  of  the  central  tract  of  ocean  romance 
halcSt  itf charm;  its  power  remains  even  in  these  later  days. 


THE  PROBLEM   OP   MELANESIA.  3 

Sensitive  natures  have  counted  the  world  well  lost  for  the  enjoyment 
of  its  delights;  ignorant  men  have  yielded  to  the  same  compulsion 
and  have  found  dingy  pleasure  in  settling  down  as  beachcombers. 
The  great  nations  have  sent  brave  fleets  to  the  exploration  of  these 
islands,  have  lent  their  most  competent  administrators  to  foster  the 
states  of  island  monarchs.  The  people  have  won  those  who  came  to 
seek  them;  they  have  been  treated  as  gentlefolk. 

But  Melanesia  is  a  volume  whose  chapters  are  horror  upon  horror. 
The  islands  of  this  western  area  lack  the  charm  which  holds  the  eye 
upon  the  atoll  with  its  palm  tiara  or  upon  the  towering  summits 
forest-clad  and  necklaced  with  cascades  so  familiar  in  the  Polynesian 
scene.  The  people  of  Melanesia  have  an  aspect  more  savage  than 
the  statuesque  dignity  of  the  Polynesian.  It  does  no  violence  to 
the  sense  of  the  fitness  of  things  to  look  upon  them  as  a  servile  crew. 
It  was  only  upon  the  score  of  our  morals,  not  of  social  propriety, 
that  objection  was  raised  to  the  labor  trade  in  Melanesia,  a  form 
of  slavery  to  which  the  Polynesian  never  was  subjected.  Explorers 
in  Melanesia  have  relatively  been  few.  Missionary  endeavor  was 
slow  to  attack  this  field  of  crying  need,  and  when  the  missions  did 
effect  a  lodgment  in  this  dark  region  of  the  sea  the  pioneers  were 
members  of  a  sect  which  affected  repugnance  toward  all  matters 
which  make  solely  for  broader  culture.  From  many  the  crown  of 
martyrdom  was  not  withheld.  Yet  that  blessing  was,  after  all,  indi- 
vidual; we  compare  the  information  derived  from  the  Melanesian 
missionaries  with  the  treasures  of  scholarship  which  mark  the  work 
of  their  fellows  in  Polynesia,  and  we  deplore  the  comparison. 

Of  such  sort  are  the  reasons  wherewith  we  must  account  to  our- 
selves for  the  fact  that  Melanesia  yet  remains  to  the  student  almost 
wholly  in  darkness  and  gross  darkness  upon  the  people,  and  that 
the  light  which  here  and  there  in  a  random  ray  has  been  shed  upon 
its  problems  must  first  be  subjected  to  close  analysis. 

In  the  early  lines  of  this  chapter  use  has  been  made  of  the  term 
inosculation  of  the  Melanesian  and  Polynesian  tongues.  It  is  now 
in  order  to  define  the  nature  of  the  approximation  of  these  two 
language  series  within  the  Melanesian  area. 

We  have  first  the  several  islands  wholly  or  principally  inhabited 
by  folk  of  Polynesian  race  and  speech,  yet  lying  within  the  region 
which  geographically  is  classed  as  Melanesia.  Such,  among  others 
in  a  short  list,  are  Aniwa  and  Fotuna  *  Sikayana,  Ticopia,  Liueniua.f 

*This  spelling  having  been  in  some  general  use,  I  find  it  a  convenient  means  of 
differentiation  from  the  Futuna  of  Nuclear  Polynesia. 

t"The  name  of  this  atoll  as  given  on  the  chart  is  Leueaeuwa,  but  the  name,  I  think, 
is  wrongly  spelled,  as  it  bears  no  meaning  that  I  know  of  in  any  Polynesian  language. 
The  proper  spelling  is  Le  ua  Niua.  This  was  certainly  the  way  in  which  I  wrote  it 
before  I  knew  of  the  other  spelling,  and  the  Samoan  who  was  with  me  also  spelled  it  in 
the  same  way."  The  Rev.  G.  Brown,  D.  D.,  "Reports  of  the  Australasian  Association 
for  the  Advancement  of  Science,"  IX,  258. 


4  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Tauu,  Nukumanu,  Nuguria,  Rennel,*  and  Moiki.  Since  these  islands 
represent  the  western  limit  of  Polynesian  race  and  Polynesian  speech, 
we  may  name  them  the  islands  of  Polynesia's  western  verge,  or  sim- 
ply and  briefly  the  Polynesian  verge. 

In  the  next  class  we  find  small  communities  on  islands  with  an 
otherwise  Melanesian  population,  where  Polynesian  speech  is  spoken 
by  folk  presenting  sometimes  more  and  sometimes  less  of  Polynesian 
race  traits.  Under  this  designation  come,  among  others,  Mae  in 
the  New  Hebrides  (on  the  island  known  as  Three  Hills)  and  Fileni 
in  the  Swallow  Group.  To  this  class  of  traces  of  Polynesian  origin 
we  shall  apply  the  term  the  Polynesian  inclusions. 

Necessarily  the  foregoing  classes  are  limited  in  the  number  of  the 
instances  properly  to  be  assembled  under  one  or  the  other.  The 
third  class  is  more  widely  extended  than  we  are  yet  in  a  position 
to  estimate.  This  class  is  to  include  all  the  instances  in  which  we 
find  peoples  of  Melanesian  stock  and  speaking  languages  prepon- 
derantly non-Polynesian,  who  yet  derive  some  portion  of  their 
vocabulary  from  Polynesian  loan  material.  For  convenience  we  use 
this  term,  recognizing  that  the  subject  is  open  to  argument.  In  a 
diagrammatic  scheme  of  the  possibilities  it  is  as  antecedently  pos- 
sible also  that  the  Polynesian  has  borrowed  from  the  Melanesian, 
or  that  the  common  element  derives  in  Melanesian  and  Polynesian 
from  an  earlier  undistributed  source.  Yet  I  have  no  hesitation  in 
anticipating  the  result  of  the  argument  and  describing  this  common 
matter  as  Polynesian  loan  material.  It  is  this  latter  topic  which 
is  principally  to  engage  our  attention  in  this  work. 

At  this  point  it  seems  proper  to  invite  attention  to  the  appendix 
introducing  a  bibliography  of  the  published  matter  which  has  been 
consulted  and  which  has  yielded  more  or  less  of  assistance  in  the 
study  of  this  topic.     This  will  be  found  on  pages  493-506. 

*A  word  of  explanation  may  not  be  out  of  place  as  to  the  unequal  dealing  with  the 
names  of  the  twin  islands  Rennel  and  Bellona.  These  are  chart  names  and  secondary 
in  rank  to  the  names  in  use  by  the  islanders.  For  Bellona  we  have  the  valuable  record 
of  Dr.  Sidney  H.  Ray,  who  has  recorded  its  vocabulary  under  the  name  Moi-ki;  the 
hyphen  is  wrongly  placed  through  a  typographical  error,  as  has  been  pointed  out  by 
W.  von  Billow;  I  prefer  to  standardize  the  name  with  other  Polynesian  forms  and  there- 
fore omit  the  hyphen.  The  name  of  Rennel  is  cited  by  Wawn  and  by  Thilenius  as 
Muava  or  Mungava;  probably  it  should  be  Moava,  but  as  my  notes  are  not  positive  I 
hesitate  to  adopt  the  form.  Thilenius  makes  the  distinct  statement  that  Moiki  has  no 
fixed  population  and  is  no  more  than  a  fishing  station  for  the  people  of  Rennel.  This 
is  not  in  accord  with  my  observation  nor  with  that  of  Captain  Wawn,  who  has  written 
an  interesting  narrative  of  the  long  search  for  his  home  in  which  he  assisted  a  labor  boy 
who  had  been  carried  away  to  Queensland.  The  home  was  found  at  last  in  Moiki,  which 
Wawn  calls  Mungiki. 


CHAPTER  II. 
THE  DICTIONARY  OF  EFATE. 

Most  of  the  accessible  vocabularies  are  very  scanty — Only  three  Mel- 
anesian  dictionaries  (those  of  Mota,  Efat£  and  Viti)  are  at  all  consider- 
able^— The  development  of  Macdonald's  theory  of  Semitic  origin — His 
Ef ate1  dictionary  and  its  false  lexicography — Some  words  hidden  from 
sight — Clumsiness  in  the  definition — Introduction  of  polemic  dishon- 
esty— His  false  etymology — No  clear  distinction  of  several  dialects. 

Quantitatively  regarded,  the  lists  presented  in  the  bibliography- 
seem  to  show  that  we  have  no  inconsiderable  material  bearing  more 
or  less  directly  upon  the  philological  problems  of  the  islands  of  the 
Western  Pacific  chain.  When  investigated  more  closely,  when 
measured  in  a  qualitative  analysis,  the  tale  is  far  other.  Many  of 
these  vocabularies,  so  diligently  sought  and  so  sedulously  treasured, 
are  mere  lists  of  but  a  score  or  so  of  words  and  often  of  problematical 
accuracy  in  reporting.  In  very  few  cases  have  they  been  subjected 
to  intelligent  criticism.  Yet  they  are  by  no  means  to  be  despised. 
They  are  the  best  we  have,  and  with  them  we  must  perforce  be 
content  until  future  exploration  affords  better  data. 

We  have  in  the  Melanesian  tract  but  three  vocabularies  of  any 
considerable  magnitude.  The  dictionary  of  the  Fijian  is  of  inesti- 
mable value,  a  storehouse  of  information;  yet  it  has  been  found  to 
yield  its  most  valuable  results  when  associated  with  more  strictly 
Polynesian  investigations.  The  Mota  dictionary  is  of  far  lower  order, 
yet  none  the  less  is  it  a  valuable  implement  of  Melanesian  study. 
The  Efate1  dictionary  is  by  far  our  best  contribution  of  data  upon 
which  is  to  rest  the  science  of  Melanesian  speech;  and  this  hearty  com- 
mendation must  be  kept  in  mind  through  all  the  adverse  criticism 
which  it  will  be  necessary  to  pass  upon  it  in  many  details. 

Dr.  Macdonald  awakens  our  envy  when  we  note  the  opportunity 
he  has  enjoyed  for  the  study  of  the  speech  and  the  habit  of  Efatd, 
thirty-five  years  spent  in  the  search  into  the  language  and  the 
mind  of  this  interesting  family  of  Melanesians,  a  study  directed 
solely  to  the  attainment  of  such  knowledge  as  should  better  fit  him 
to  become  the  guide  of  the  souls  to  whose  cure  he  had  been  sent  in 
the  isles  of  the  sea  at  the  uttermost  parts  of  the  earth. 

In  the  bibliography  it  will  be  observed  that  in  1882  he  exhibited 
his  Semitic  theory  to  the  Royal  Society  of  Victoria.  In  1889  he 
presented  it  anew  and  in  richer  development  in  "Oceania."  At 
intervals  he  has  contributed  minutely  prepared  papers  to  the  Journal 
of  the  Polynesian  Society  exhibiting  yet  further  argument  in  behalf 
of  his  theory.     Now  he  has  attained  to  such  a  mass  of  evidence, 


6  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

so  satisfactory  to  himself,  that  he  feels  justified  in  entitling  his 
latest  work  "The  Oceanic  Languages-^Origin,"  rather  than  the 
dictionary  of  Efate\  which  it  really  is.  His  Semitic  theory  we  shall 
have  to  study  in  a  later  chapter  of  this  work;  at  this  point  we  feel 
it  proper  to  comment  upon  the  work  as  dictionary  alone  and  freed 
from  its  speculative  adornments. 

An  initial  and  serious  objection  to  the  work  is  that  it  is  devoid 
of  even  the  slightest  summary  or  sketch  of  the  grammar  of  the 
language.  True  there  is  an  introductory  section  of  well  nigh  a 
hundred  pages  to  which  a  hint  in  the  title  points  as  grammar.  Yet 
in  the  whole  treatise  there  is  not  so  much  as  a  single  page  by  read- 
ing which  the  student  may  arrive  at  any  comprehension  of  the 
manner  in  which  to  combine  into  sentences  the  words  so  plentifully 
listed  in  the  vocabulary;  there  is  no  hint  by  which  he  may  be 
directed  in  the  use  of  these  many  words  as  actual  speech  expressive 
of  the  thoughts  he  would  convey.  Despite  its  presence  where  a 
grammar  is  properly  to  be  expected,  this  assemblage  of  introductory 
chapters  is  the  argument  of  a  fine-spun  theory,  interesting  to  phi- 
lologists, yet  wholly  useless  lumber  to  the  person  who  must  rely 
upon  this  work  as  his  introduction  to  the  speech  of  Efate. 

So  little  has  Dr.  Macdonald  understood  the  proper  purpose  of  a 
dictionary-maker  that  he  will  not  even  head  his  vocabulary  for  what 
it  really  is,  but  prefers  the  polemical  statement  of  his  dear  theory  in 
the  title  "  The  Oceanic  Languages,  their  Material  or  Vocabulary  Set 
Forth  in  a  Complete  Dictionary  Comparative  and  Etymological  of 
One  of  Them,  the  Language  of  Ef ate\  "  It  is  only  as  an  afterthought, 
deferred  to  the  last  possible  moment,  that  the  man  who  has  spent 
more  than  a  generation  in  the  study  consents  to  affix  its  title  to  the 
really  valuable  part  of  his  work. 

Such  a  mental  attitude  on  the  part  of  a  lexicographer,  the  gran- 
deur of  his  privilege  to  record  that  which  is  being  so  completely 
obscured  in  his  zeal  to  register  what  he  fondly  imagines  ought  to 
be,  is  difficult  of  comprehension  to  those  of  us  who  content  our- 
selves through  busy  years  of  dictionary-making.  Yet  this  attitude 
is  not  new  with  Dr.  Macdonald;  it  is  well  known  that  Webster 
refused  to  sully  the  first  edition  of  his  great  dictionary  of  the  English 
language  by  including  the  word  "bridegroom,"  which  merely  existed 
in  English  speech  and  had  no  right  to  exist,  yet  in  the  end  he  failed 
to  secure  currency  for  "bridegoom."  With  this  record  of  lexico- 
graphic pertinacity  we  are  ready  to  make  due  allowances  for  the 
outcrop  of  the  theory  which  to  Dr.  Macdonald  means  so  much. 

To  what  extent  this  dictionary  answers  the  author's  character- 
ization of  "complete"  we  have  no  means  of  ascertaining.  I  prefer 
to  record  the  fact  that  it  contains  3,657  word  entries,  a  fact  estab- 
lished by  my  own  tally.    This  gives  us  a  positive  measure  ^and 


THE   DICTIONARY   OP   SPATE.  7 

establishes  at  once  the  great  superiority  of  the  Efate  dictionary 
over  all  Melanesian  word  collections.  It  is  of  inestimable  value  to 
us  by  reason  of  its  comprehensiveness  as  speech  record. 

When  we  examine  carefully  and  in  detail  this  work  in  the  aspect 
of  that  which  must  represent  its  permanent  value,  that  which  will 
remain  after  the  demolition  of  the  theories  of  which  it  is  made  the 
vehicle,  namely,  its  value  as  a  dictionary  of  the  Efat^  speech,  our 
criticism  will  fall  broadly  into  two  classes,  the  mechanical  and  the 
sense  characteristics. 

The  former  class  is  but  a  particularization  of  the  postulate  that 
lexicography  has  grown  into  a  science  with  no  little  exactitude  in 
its  method.  Without  close  study  of  the  principles  of  the  science, 
it  is  wholly  impossible  for  any  student  of  language,  no  matter  how 
intimate  may  be  his  knowledge  of  the  speech  upon  which  his  study 
has  been  directed,  to  win  success  as  a  lexicographer  solely  by 
reason  of  his  familiarity  with  his  language  theme.  Sage  as  Dr. 
Macdonald  is  in  all  that  pertains  to  the  speech  of  Efat£,  he  makes 
all  the  typical  errors  of  the  unskilled  dictionary-maker. 

In  a  dictionary  the  alphabetical  order  of  entries  is  necessarily 
supreme.  Almost  any  page  at  random  in  this  work  will  exhibit 
instances  where  the  entries  capsize  the  alphabetical  order.  Our 
author  will  undoubtedly  explain  his  inversions  on  the  score  that 
thus  he  is  able  to  keep  together  stems  and  derivative  forms  which 
on  the  alphabetical  system  would  be  scattered.  It  is  hardly  worth 
while  remarking  that  the  user  of  a  dictionary  has  the  right  to  demand 
that  the  word  of  which  he  is  in  search  shall  be  found  in  its  proper 
place.  I  may  note  that  in  the  most  assiduous  use  of  this  dictionary, 
extending  over  many  months  of  close  examination,  I  have  not 
succeeded  in  conquering  my  annoyance  at  the  difficulty  of  finding 
many  a  word  which  is  not  in  the  place  where  it  should  be;  in  fact 
that  I  have  been  able  to  make  use  of  it  only  after  the  compilation 
of  an  index — an  index  to  a  dictionary ! 

If  this  is  the  case  in  the  mere  arrangement  of  the  words  on  the 
page,  where  a  misplacement  entails  no  greater  hardship  than  a 
search  through  one  or  more  of  the  neighboring  pages,  what  shall 
we  say  of  those  forms  which  are  secreted — it  may  be  pages  away 
and  under  a  different  initial — in  some  entry  from  which  they  may 
be  extracted  only  through  a  knowledge  of  the  language  far  beyond 
those  who  are  likely  to  use  this  work?  For  the  exhibition  of  this 
blemish  we  may  cite  the  noun  futei,  the  white  ant,  the  entry  con- 
taining note  of  the  variant  forms  mitoi  and  mitei;  yet  neither  of 
these  forms,  though  equally  in  use,  occupies  its  alphabetic  position 
by  so  much  as  the  merest  tag  of  a  cross-reference;  to  a  student  of 
Efate  encountering  the  word  mitei  and  seeking  its  meaning  this 
dictionary  would  offer  no  help. 


b  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

In  the  latter  class  of  criticism  we  note  that  many  of  the  defini- 
tions are  so  clumsy  as  to  suggest  that  the  author  had  very  slight 
knowledge  of  what  the  English  name  is  of  objects  which  he  is  describ- 
ing.    This  is  notably  illustrated  in  the  definition 

sumill,  a  thing  like  india  rubber  in  a  clam  shell  which,  when  touched,  causes  the 
shell  to  close. 

This  fairly  parallels  the  entry  in  Shirley  Baker's  Tonga  dictionary 
of     balolo,  a  reptile  much  like  the  earthworm  found  in  the  sea." 

In  further  showing  of  Dr.  Macdonald's  ineptitude  in  definition 
we  note  the  following,  somewhat  at  random: 

alo-fl,  wave  (with  a  circular  and  rolling  motion)  to  him,  to  beckon  to. 

atu  saki,  plop  up  (of  a  turtle,  also  of  the  sound  of  the  breath  in  the  throat  of  a 

man  recovering  from  a  faint  or  dying). 
beingo,  a  kind  of  flute  (coconut  shell). 
blsa,  to  utter  inarticulate  sounds  (as  those  made  by  a  coconut  on  the  gravel 

which  a  rat  is  turning  about  trying  to  get  at  its  kernel), 
nakasu  nabwo  na,  the  cartilaginous  substance  on  the  front  of  the  throat,  lit.  the 

stick,  or  tree,  of  the  bwo  (pectus). 
kita  roa  sa,  to  hate  turning  after  him  (someone),  as  a  boy  sent  a  message  meeting 

another  boy  and  (hating  to  do  the  message)  turns  after  him  to  play. 
libu,  lebu,  the  middle  of  the  lower  part  of  the  body  at  the  upper  part  of  the  back 

of  the  pelvis. 

These  are  sins  of  ignorance,  and  ignorance,  though  stupid,  is  at 
least  innocent.  In  general,  in  my  work  upon  these  dictionaries 
coming  first  hand  from  missionaries  who  lay  no  claim  to  skill  in  the 
arts  of  lexicography,  I  have  welcomed  the  naivete  and  have  employed 
the  definition  wherever  its  terms  have  not  been  too  ridiculous.  They 
are  original  documents;  their  simplicity  is  their  warrant  of  honesty. 
In  some  former  paper,  I  believe,  I  have  mentioned  the  care  with 
which  I  have  refrained  from  recasting  these  definitions  and  the 
reasons  therefor.  Such  sins  as  have  been  here  presented  we  are 
glad  to  forgive.     Our  glee  at  their  discovery  carries  no  malice. 

But  when  the  definition  begins  to  squint  at  something  ulterior, 
when  a  word  is  added  with  the  sly  insinuation  of  a  purpose  to  link 
the  fact  and  the  theory  more  tightly,  when  definition  becomes 
polemic,  such  exhibitions  I  do  not  hesitate  to  stamp  as  scientific 
dishonesty;  they  prove  an  absence  of  conscience,  without  which 
speculation  is  mere  trickery  held  in  check  only  by  consideration  of 
the  risk  of  discovery. 

A  very  few  instances  here  (the  volume  abounds  with  such  and 
they  will  receive  detailed  attention  in  the  critical  notes)  will  suffice 
to  show  at  this  point  that  my  characterization  is  not  lacking  in 
support. 

tere,  the  mast  (of  a  canoe  or  ship),  calf  (column)  of  the  leg;  Arabic,  sariyat,  sari, 
the  mast  of  a  ship,  a  column. 

If  Dr.  Macdonald's  compelling  Semitic  theory  had  not  already  pro- 
duced a  moral  strabismus  of  the  insight,  is  it  to  be  imagined  that  he 


THE  DICTIONARY  OF  EFATE.  9 

would  have  cast  into  a  parenthesis  that  word  "column"  in  explica- 
tion or  suggestion  of  an  explication  of  the  sense  of  calf?  That 
offensive  and  offending  parenthesis  was  not  set  into  the  definition 
innocently. 

alo,  to  swim  (wave  hands). 

The  parenthesis  is  expressly  for  the  purpose  of  linking  it  with  the 
verb  alo-fi,  which  I  have  already  cited  for  its  clumsiness  of  definition. 

bare,  to  be  dirty-looking,  like  a  sightless  eye  (of  half-raw  food) ;  Hebrew  'avar, 

Ethiopic  'awir,  to  be  blind, 
bwes,  besu,  a  young  pig  whose  mother  is  dead  and  which  is  brought  up  as  a  pet 

and  is  therefore  tame  and  gentle;  also  a  motherless  child,  so  called  from 

being  deprived  of  the  mother's  milk  and,  as  it  were,  arid;  Arabic  yabisa,  to 

be  dry. 

The  same  leering  argument  will  appear  in  the  study  of  ngoko  (95), 
where  he  introduces  hack  in  definition  of  Hebrew  hakah.  If  his  use 
of  italics  has  any  meaning  at  all  it  must  be  intended  to  mark  his 
obiter  dictum  that  the  name  of  the  Teutonic  ax  is  Semitic.  And 
this  in  a  work  of  polemical  philology ! 

Such  childish  efforts  to  misdirect  the  comprehension  arouse 
repugnance;  they  cast  upon  the  whole  work  a  suspicion  which  really 
it  does  not  deserve.  The  result  of  such  discoveries  of  obliquity  is 
that  one  loses  confidence  in  each  uncorroborated  point  in  the  book. 
To  many  students  it  will  render  the  work  valueless.  Yet  so  far  as 
my  acquaintance  with  the  speech  of  Efate"  extends,  reinforced  by  a 
considerable  familiarity  with  other  tongues  of  Melanesia  and  of 
Polynesia,  I  have  no  hesitation  in  repeating  my  former  statement 
that  this  is  far  and  away  the  most  valuable  contribution  to  our 
knowledge  of  the  speech  of  the  Western  Pacific. 

It  is  not  only  when  Dr.  Macdonald  espies  the  chance  to  lug  in  his 
Semitic  theory  that  he  takes  unwarranted  liberties.  He  etymol- 
ogizes generalities  on  materials  which  do  not  reach  beyond  the  two 
entrances  to  Havannah  Harbor. 

binauta,  to  be  numb,  devoid  of  feeling,  as  one's  limb  from  stoppage  of  circulation 
of  the  blood  in  it:  id,  to  be,  nata,  a  person  (as  if  the  limb  belonged  to  some 
other  person) . 

batua  na,  the  knee,  prob.  bau,  the  head,  and  tua,  leg. 

kuruku,  the  ankle  is  so  called  because  the  leg  gathers  itself,  as  it  were,  into  the 
knob  of  the  joint. 

To  these  three  add  tere,  as  presented  a  little  earlier.  It  is  quite 
fortuitous  that  no  less  than  four  glaring  errors  have  to  do  with  the 
leg ;  one  can  but  wonder  how  it  has  come  about  that  Dr.  Macdonald 's 
legs  have  proved  such  unruly  members. 

Yet  another  grave  fault  vitiates  this  dictionary  as  speech  record. 
The  author  supplies  a  copious  store  of  variant  forms  for  many  words, 
each  ticketed  with  the  simple  notation  of  "d.,"  meaning  dialectic. 
Nowhere  is  any  hint  afforded  us  of  the  habitat  of  such  dialects. 


10  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Efate  is  not  a  large  island,  yet  in  every  smallest  Melanesian  island 
we  are  sure  to  find  dialects  from  village  to  village,  often  amounting 
to  such  extensive  variation  as  to  produce  incomprehensibility.  It 
would  have  added  clarity  to  this  record  if  Dr.  Macdonald  had  identi- 
fied these  dialects  by  their  place  names,  if  by  nothing  else. 

As  it  is,  we  are  left  without  the  knowledge  of  what  is  the  speech 
which  he  assumes  as  the  standard  from  which  these  dialects  diverge. 
It  is  inferential,  and  only  inferential,  that  he  has  assumed  for  such 
standard  the  speech  in  the  community  nearest  his  mission  station; 
that  is  to  say,  one  of  several  petty  villages  on  Havannah  Harbor. 
Since  the  seat  of  the  administration  of  the  New  Hebrides  is  at  Vila, 
in  a  different  bay,  it  is  possible  that  the  speech  there  in  use  may  tend 
to  become  standard  for  official  communication;  yet  not  a  single 
entry  in  connection  with  these  comprehensively  noted  dialectic 
variants  indicates  which  are  Vila  forms. 

More  than  this.  In  the  examination  of  Efate  material  presented 
in  extenso  in  a  succeeding  chapter  we  have  felt  a  grievous  loss  in  the 
inability  to  coordinate  the  several  dialects  in  order  that  we  might 
study  the  several  systems  of  vowel  and  consonant  mutation,  a 
matter  of  vital  importance.  The  most  we  can  say  from  the  study 
of  this  dictionary  is  that  at  one  spot  on  Efate\  presumably  proximate 
to  the  mission  station,  the  people  use  this  word,  other  peoples  at 
one  or  more  undefined  places  on  Efat£  use  this  or  that  other  and 
frequently  quite  dissimilar  word.  To  what  a  disadvantage  this 
necessarily  puts  the  student  appears  in  quantities  that  may  be 
measured  in  two  brief  Efat6  vocabularies,*  upon  which  we  had  to 
rely  before  Dr.  Macdonald 's  dictionary  was  published.  From  Hans 
Conon  von  der  Gabelentzf  we  learn  that  one  of  these  vocabularies 
comes  from  Mele,  the  other  from  Erakor  on  the  south  coast  of  the 
island.  The  two  lists  contain  resembling  words  to  the  number  of 
26,  all  lying  within  their  common  Polynesian  content.  The  Mele 
list,  numbering  118  words,  shows  no  less  than  87  words  immediately 
recognizable  as  Polynesian;  the  Erakor  list,  numbering  121  words, 
shows  but  27  of  Polynesian  source.  Mele  is  the  language  spoken 
between  Havannah  Harbor  and  Vila;  Erakor,  on  the  south  coast, 
has  the  mountain  center  of  the  island  between  it  and  the  mission 
station  which  we  have  inferred  to  be  the  seat  of  Dr.  Macdonald 's 
standard  speech.  Yet  the  Erakor  dialect,  and  not  the  nearer  Mele, 
most  accords  with  this  dictionary.  With  this  suggestion  of  the 
magnitude  of  the  dialectic  differences  we  shall  feel  great  uncer- 
tainty as  to  the  results  of  the  more  intimate  inspection  of  this 
dictionary  record  upon  which  we  are  to  enter.  Dr.  Macdonald:" is 
the  one  man  who  knows  these  dialects  apart;  it  was  his  duty|to 

♦Turner,  "Samoa  a  hundred  years  ago  and  long  before,"  page  354. 
•j-Die  melanesischen  Sprachen  II,  1. 


THE  DICTIONARY  OF  EFATE.  11 

differentiate  them  for  the  benefit  of  others  who  must  rely  upon  his 
accuracy.* 

No  one  can  regret  more  than  I  the  necessity  under  which  I  lie  to 
pass  such  comments  as  those  which  have  preceded.  Yet  let  it  be 
well  understood  that  they  are  by  no  means  conclusions  superficially 
drawn.  The  difficulties  mentioned  have  been  encountered  by  me  in 
no  mere  casual  glance  at  the  work,  but  have  arisen  to  hamper  me 
in  my  close  study  to  learn  this  language  from  the  material  here 
afforded.  How  close  this  study  has  been  will  be  shown  in  the  follow- 
ing discussions,  in  which  it  will  appear  that  the  words  have  been 
analyzed  down  to  the  very  letters  of  which  they  are  composed. 

Despite  these  great  drawbacks,  despite  a  still  greater  fault  yet  to 
be  discussed,  I  would  not  recede  from  the  characterization  which  I 
have  presented  and  which  I  have  reiterated.  Imperfect  as  it  proves 
itself  to  be,  Dr.  Macdonald's  dictionary  is  amply  the  most  valuable 
contribution  to  our  knowledge  of  any  speech  of  Melanesia. 

*Even  as  these  pages  are  passing  to  print  I  am  in  opportune  receipt  of  a  letter  from 
Captain  Rason,  until  quite  recently  British  commissioner  in  the  New  Hebrides.  This 
letter  affords  us  valuable  information  upon  this  very  point  and  not  ungracefully  mani- 
fests the  writer's  true  kindness  of  heart. 

"I  wish  to  explain  as  soon  as  possible,  if  possible  in  time  for  your  book,  the  inner 
meaning  of  Dr.  Macdonald's  muddle.  When  the  missionaries  established  themselves  on 
Efat6  he  was  in  Havannah  Harbor,  and  natives  who  first  became  Christians  left  their 
villages  and  came  to  the  mission  station  for  protection.  Thus  the  language  of  the  mis- 
sion station  became  a  medley  of  all  the  dialects  around.  This  gradually  coalesced  into 
a  special  dialect  which  became  a  lingua  franca  with  the  natives  and  was  partially  under- 
stood by  all.  As  the  heathen  natives  died  out  or  became  Christian  the  mission  language 
was  claimed  as  the  language  of  the  island.  Then  the  Bible  was  translated  into  this 
language  and  Dr.  Macdonald  wrote  a  dictionary  of  it  as  if  the  missionary  language  was 
the  original  language  of  the  various  villages  before  they  were  Christian.  The  poor  man 
only  deceived  himself  and  is  now  deceiving  others,  but  it  is  not  wilful  scientific  dishonesty. 
I  should  like  him  cleared  of  that.     It  is  a  case  of  self-deception." 


CHAPTER  III. 
SAWAIORI  MIGRATIONS. 

Paucity  of  our  knowledge  of  the  Melanesian  origins — They  may  be 
autochthons — There  are  two  principal  theories  of  Polynesian  migra- 
tions— The  sieve  theory  and  the  argument  of  Thilenius  in  its 
behalf — A  spurious  tale  of  seven  times  seven  retailed  by  Deeken — 
The  general  migration  theory — Tregear's  statement  that  this  is  the 
commonly  accepted  hypothesis — Percy  Smith  in  its  support — A 
fallacy  into  which  Thilenius  has  been  led — Persisting  memories  of  an 
inferior  race  once  encountered — The  log  of  one  of  the  great  voyages. 

Thus  far  we  have  considered  the  work  in  respect  of  its  status  as 
an  Efate"  dictionary,  a  status  which  it  has  comported  with  Dr. 
Macdonald's  lucubrations  in  the  realm  of  theory  to  adumbrate  in 
the  text  even  as  he  has  buried  it  as  an  afterthought  in  the  title. 

Before  advancing  upon  his  main  theme,  the  theory  and  effort  at 
substantiation  of  a  Semitic  origin  for  the  languages  of  the  Pacific, 
we  shall  find  it  well  to  devote  some  consideration  to  the  present 
state  of  our  opinion  as  to  the  movement  in  migration  which  has 
brought  to  the  Pacific  area  the  peoples  now  spread  to  its  remotest 
isles. 

So  far  as  relates  to  migrations  of  the  Melanesian  peoples,  we  are 
wholly  without  information.  This  work  of  Dr.  Macdonald  is  practi- 
cally the  first  essay  toward  giving  any  of  the  Melanesians  a  race 
history  anterior  to  their  residence  upon  the  islands  which  they  now 
inhabit.  Until  this  or  some  other  theory  is  properly  established, 
we  can  do  no  more  than  to  regard  them  as  ex  hypothesi  autochthons. 
If  future  students  of  their  life  and  thought  succeed  in  bringing  to 
light  traditions  which  may  point  to  a  movement  over  seas  from  an 
older  to  their  present  homes,  then  we  shall  have  a  basis  on  which 
to  found  new  speculations.  Until  such  a  time  arrive  we  shall  find 
it  better  to  stand  on  the  commonly  accepted  hypothesis. 

But  in  the  case  of  the  brown  Polynesian  race  the  circumstances 
are  far  other.  We  have  ample  traditions  of  migration,  we  have 
the  names  of  the  halting-places ;  we  find  a  whole  race,  widely  sun- 
dered upon  the  sea,  looking  back  to  the  west  with  a  single  gaze  to  an 
ancestral  home.  We  have  here  and  there  the  belief  in  westward 
Pulotu  as  the  abode  of  the  dead;  no  mean  proof,  since  the  dead  go 
home.  Above  all  we  have  the  primordial  Hawaiki  across  the  great 
sea  of  Kiwa,  the  illuminating  Saba  myth,  than  which  no  tradition 
of  men  has  ever  had  a  wider  extent. 

13 


14  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

In  so  far  as  this  element  of  knowledge  impinges  upon  Melanesian 
areas  we  have  theories  which  have  been  elaborated  to  account  for 
the  recognized  inosculation  of  brown  Polynesian  and  black  Melane- 
sian. Omitting  mention,  as  here  unnecessary,  of  movements  of 
convection  within  the  general  migrating  mass,  we  find  two  main 
theories  ably  propounded  and  stoutly  argued.  Each  will  receive 
our  attention  to  the  extent  in  which  it  bears  upon  the  phenomena 
of  this  inosculation. 

We  are  first  to  examine  the  theory  which  may  be  not  inaptly 
designated  the  sieve  theory.  In  its  briefest  presentation  it  is  that 
the  islands  of  Melanesia  and  the  Polynesian  verge  have  served  as 
the  meshes  of  a  net  to  catch  the  drift  of  castaways  from  islands  of 
central  Polynesia  blown  away  from  home  and  set  to  the  westward  by 
the  concurrence  of  the  prevailing  winds  and  currents  of  that  oceanic 
area.  Its  most  recent  and  not  the  least  ingenious  presentation  is 
found  in  the  extensive  studies  of  Dr.  G.  Thilenius,*  professor  of 
anthropology  and  ethnology  at  Breslau. 

His  theory  is  brilliantly  conclusive — upon  the  hydrographic 
charts.  Taking  the  eastern  islands  of  Malaysia  as  a  datum-point, 
he  draws  the  line  of  least  resistance  to  migrant  fleets,  the  line  where 
the  current  sets  them  on  their  way  and  where  the  wind  blows  fair. 
On  the  chart  he  dots  their  track  far  to  the  north  of  New  Guinea 
and  the  Bismarck  Archipelago.  He  gives  them  successive  landfalls 
in  the  southern  Carolines  and  along  the  chains  of  the  Marshalls. 
Thence  onward  to  the  Gilberts  the  constants  of  the  weather  are 
still  in  their  favor.  They  make  fair  weather  of  it  still  further  to 
the  Tokelaus,  and  at  last  they  come  to  port  in  Samoa.  Once 
established  in  central  Polynesia,  the  winds  and  currents  which  have 
served  them  so  well  become  malefic.  They  blow  boats  away  from 
peaceful  shores  and  out  for  starving,  thirsty  voyages  upon  unfriendly 
seas.  If  the  Melanesian  sieve  catches  any  of  these  involuntary 
wanderers  their  fate  is  that  of  the  castaway  upon  inhospitable  shores 
of  savagery.  In  the  work  cited  it  is  very  argutely  presented,  yet 
it  can  scarcely  be  called  convincing. 

No  one  who  has  had  occasion  to  recognize  that  the  work  of  the 
real  Polynesian  research  is  being  to-day,  as  always,  painfully  prose- 
cuted by  enthusiastic  workers  in  remote  islands  of  the  sea,  where 
one  book  is  a  treasure  indeed  and  library  privileges  seem  no  more 
substantial  than  the  seraphic  and  impossible  vision,  will  regret  the 
space  here  given  to  a  presentation  of  the  arguments  of  Dr.  Thilenius. 
Thus  only  will  they  reach  earnest  students  in  savage  scenes  who 
could  never  have  access  to  the  rare  and  costly  work  in  which  these 
arguments  are  presented.  We  acknowledge  the  pleasure  in  helping 
these  distant  students,  for  they  are  the  real  workers. 

*Ethnographische  Ergebnisse  aus  Melanesien:  Die  polynesischen  Inseln  an  der  Ost- 
grenze  Melanesiens. 


SAWAIORI  MIGRATIONS.  15 

After  recording  known  instances  of  involuntary  voyages  from 
central  Polynesia  to  the  safe  landfall  of  the  Polynesian  verge,  after 
discussing  the  Polynesian  verge  as  a  sieve  for  such  migrations,  Dr. 
Thilenius  concludes  his  argument  as  follows  :* 

When  one  considers  the  remarkable  exiguity  of  our  islands  [the  Poly- 
nesian verge],  of  whose  surface,  furthermore,  only  a  fraction  is  habitable  or 
productive  of  food,  certainly  we  find  an  adequate  explanation  of  their 
present  population  through  these  involuntary  migrations.  Whether  at 
any  former  time  a  Melanesian  population  of  any  sort  lived  upon  these 
islands  is  a  question  easy  to  put  but  hard  to  decide .  No  data  of  any  nature 
bear  upon  this  idea.  It  is  possible  to  hold  the  idea  that  there  had  been  a 
Melanesian  population,  but  that  for  reasons  unknown  it  had  withdrawn 
before  the  coming  of  the  first  wanderers,  for  the  earliest  settlers  on  Nuguria 
and  Liueniua  found  the  land  uninhabited  and  there  is  no  ground  on  which 
to  set  aside  their  testimony  as  false. 

Therefore  the  migration  theory  needs  a  brief  discussion.  Our  islands 
might  have  been  halting-places  of  the  peoples  swarming  from  somewhere 
in  the  northern  Moluccas  toward  Polynesia.  These  early  Polynesians  must 
have  come  hither  out  of  the  northwest,  fairly  enough  along  the  same  course 
as  was  traversed  by  the  boats  coming  from  Ninigo,  Taui  (?)  and  Kapinga- 
marangi.  That  presupposes  that  our  little  atolls,  at  least  800  or  1,000 
years  ago,  constituted  a  region  offering  an  adequate  supply  of  vegetation. 
Whether  this  was  the  case  may  readily  be  questioned  on  the  score  of  the 
thinness  of  the  soil-layer  on  the  islands  to-day.     It  is  always  a  possibility. 

The  wanderers  found  the  islands  uninhabited  and  left  behind  them,  on 
each  or  on  some,  a  company  of  those  who  were  travel-weary.  But  these 
folk,  wholly  ignorant  of  geography,  in  some  wonderful  fashion  hit  upon 
the  course  to  the  other  islands  of  northwest  Polynesia.  The  knowledge  of 
these  may  have  come  to  them  from  the  fabulous  aboriginal  Melanesian 
population,  who  surely,  to  have  been  able  to  give  such  information,  con- 
trary to  the  character  of  the  present  north  Melanesians,  must  have  con- 
ducted extended  voyages  and  thus  have  known  one  or  other  of  the  large 
islands  of  Melanesia.  The  wanderers  would  surely  have  made  sufficient 
inquiry.  Yet  they  prefer  to  follow  a  chain  of  poor  atolls  instead  of  seizing 
and  holding  the  great  and  fertile  islands  that  lay  close  at  hand.  They 
had  sufficient  numbers,  for  we  can  think  of  them  only  as  the  complement 
of  a  fleet.  But  Buka,  which  lies  so  close  to  Nuguria  at  which  they  first 
touched,  shows  no  trace  of  Polynesians.!  Then  the  whole  aboriginal  Melan- 
esian population  of  our  atoll  is  become  a  picture  painted  by  the  fancy. 

None  the  less  it  is  highly  probable  that  the  wanderers  came  to  one  of 
the  great  islands,  for  they  sailed  hither  against  the  trades,  and  it  is  more 
likely  that  they  fell  to  leeward  than  that  they,  ignorant  of  the  situation  of 
Samoa,  busied  themselves  to  make  headway  against  them.  At  the  least 
it  is  probable  that  wind  and  current  set  the  wanderers  westward.  That 
not  a  single  boat,  on  the  ten-degree  stretch  from  Nuguria  to  Sikayana, 
was  driven  westward  by  only  so  much  as  a  degree  and  a  half,  which  was 
sufficient  to  bring  one  of  the  great  islands  into  sight,  is  so  much  the  stranger 
since  Kilinailau  and  Nisan  lie  west  of  Nuguria  and  approximately  in  the 
longitude  of  Buka.    These  were  originally  settled  by  Polynesians,  and  in 

*Op.  c,  page  78. 

tl  can  not  let  this  statement  go  unchallenged.  In  this  work  I  have  collated  thirty- 
one  vocables  from  Buka,  of  which  twenty-four  are  borrowed  from  the  Polynesian,  the 
quality  being  computed  at  70  per  cent. — W.  C. 


16  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

the  sense  of  the  migration  theory  simultaneously  with  Nuguria.  This  can 
be  understood  only  on  the  theory  that  a  part  of  the  fleet,  at  least  on  this 
stretch,  was  set  somewhere  about  two  degrees  westward. 

Are  we  then  to  assume  that  a  people  endowed  with  the  energy  to  enter 
upon  a  voyage  into  the  unknown  were  not  in  condition  to  set  foot  on  one 
of  the  great  Melanesian  islands?  Did  they  find  the  whole  island  thickly 
set  with  towns  which  beat  them  back?  Had  the  weeks  since  they  had 
forsaken  the  homeland  caused  them  to  avoid  a  conflict  which  would  have 
put  them  into  possession  of  a  fertile  island  in  order  that  on  the  other  hand 
they  might  follow  with  marvellous  instinct  a  chain  of  islets  which  would 
lead  them  next  to  Ticopia,  after  which  they  must  sail  a  long  voyage  on 
the  open  ocean?  And  all  this  against  the  trades!  Furthermore  we  are 
confident  that  the  wanderers  carried  with  them  useful  animals  and  plants. 
Probably  they  landed  some  of  these  upon  our  islands.  What  has  become 
of  them?  Tradition  and  history  know  them  as  introduced  by  settlers  or 
altogether  the  gift  of  the  white  men.  Have  those  originally  introduced 
perished,  have  they  run  out? 

The  more  we  try  to  establish  details  of  the  voyage  in  regard  of  local 
conditions  and  the  present  character  of  the  Polynesians,  so  much  the  more 
improbable  becomes  the  thought  that  strikes  us  at  first  glance  that  our 
atolls  were  the  halting-places  of  the  early  Polynesians. 

Readily  enough  the  possibility  is  suggested  in  accordance  with  which 
the  wanderers  journeyed  in  close  accord  with  the  theory,  used  the  islands 
as  stopping-places,  etc.  But  among  the  multitude  of  possibilities  that 
suggest  themselves  the  exact  coincidence  would  mark  this  as  an  astounding 
accident.  For  not  only  during  the  voyage  along  the  Melanesian  islands 
must  an  unusually  great  series  of  accidents  have  been  actively  at  work,  but 
in  the  same  measure  the  same  must  have  been  true  from  the  outset  of  the 
journey. 

The  early  Polynesian  left  the  Malayan  tract,  as  is  properly  to  be  assumed, 
by  way  of  the  Celebes  Sea  and  Straits  of  Molucca  and  then  encountered 
current  and  wind  conditions  varying  from  season  to  season.  From  Novem- 
ber to  March  northwest  and  north  winds  blow  with  interruptions  and  a 
current  sets  toward  the  southeast.  In  the  latter  case  the  Polynesians 
might  actually  reach  our  islands.  But  that  implies  the  beginning  of  the 
voyage  in  the  bad  season.  If  one  takes  into  consideration  the  remarkable 
sensitiveness  of  the  Oceanic  peoples  to  rain,  almost  laughable  in  our  sight, 
he  will  scarcely  admit  the  conclusion  that  the  Polynesians  intentionally 
set  forth  in  the  stormy  season  of  the  rains.  To  this  is  to  be  added  the  fact 
that  the  seasonal  .change  of  wind  and  current  which  holds  in  the  Pacific 
was  unknown  to  them,  for  they  are  assumed  to  be  coming  out  of  regions  in 
which  this  change  does  not  exist  in  anything  like  the  same  fashion. 

Consequently  there  is  much  in  support  of  the  argument  that  the  early 
Polynesians  left  the  Malay  Archipelago  during  the  good  season,  that  is  to 
say  while  the  southeast  trades  held  in  the  eastern  regions.  They  came 
then  immediately  into  the  equatorial  countercurrent,  which,  moreover, 
flows  in  the  northwest  season,  although  with  diminished  strength;  or  they 
were  forced  into  it  by  the  south  equatorial  current.  This  area  is  also  the 
region  of  calms  and  variables.  They  were  thus  especially  directed  toward 
the  current  upon  which  they  were  necessarily  borne.  The  importance  of 
these  equatorial  currents,  which  attain  a  considerable  velocity,  is  known 
through  the  Spanish  attempts  to  reach  the  Palaus  and  from  the  history 
of  boats  drifted  off  from  the  Carolines.  From  the  Palaus  the  boats  always 
drift  to  Samar  or  the  southern  Philippines  (north  equatorial  current) ;  on 


SAWAIORI  MIGRATIONS.  17 

the  other  hand  there  never  came  folk  from  the  Philippines  to  the  Palaus, 
but  only  from  Celebes  and  the  Celebes  Sea  (equatorial  countercurrent). 
The  journey  against  these  streams  is  possible  only  with  very  favorable 
winds;  they  are  so  considerable  that  even  in  the  present  time  the  sailing 
vessels  of  the  white  men  have  to  take  them  very  largely  into  the  reckoning. 
The  schooner  in  which  I  went  to  Ninigo  traveled  the  long  stretch  from  New 
Hanover  to  Ninigo  only  with  the  south  equatorial  current,  and  most  of  the 
time  against  the  stormy  but  certainly  light  northwest  wind.  On  the  return 
voyage  the  current  was  so  strong  against  us  that  we  had  a  great  notion  to 
work  up  to  40  N.,  where  we  could  catch  the  countercurrent  which  would 
help  us  to  an  easting  from  which  we  could  reach  southward — that  is,  back 
to  the  Gazelle  Peninsula. 

The  early  Polynesians  coming  out  of  the  Celebes  Sea  drifted  in  all  prob- 
ability along  the  southern  edge  of  the  Carolines  toward  the  east.  With 
this  current,  not  exposed  to  strong  contrary  winds,  they  could  reach  the 
Gilbert  Islands,  where  local  currents  make  their  appearance ;  among  them 
such  as  would  set  them  southeast,  even  through  the  Ellice  group.  Accord- 
ingly, on  meteorological  grounds,  the  Polynesians  voyaged,  not  along  the 
Melanesian  islands,  but  by  a  straight  course  through  Micronesia,  and 
reached  Samoa,  whose  Savai'i  may  have  been  the  prototype  of  Hawaiki. 
Perhaps  the  boats  drifted  still  farther  to  Fanning  Island,  in  order  to  reach 
Samoa.  There  are  many  possibilities  in  a  region  where  the  countercurrent 
has  less  force  than  between  the  Moluccas  and  the  Gilberts.  This  is  not  the 
place  to  follow  out  the  further  distribution  of  the  wanderers  after  they  had 
once  reached  the  present  Polynesia.  But  that  an  importance  attaches  to 
the  countercurrent  for  migration  theories,  particularly  in  its  western  part, 
is  clear  from  the  phenomena  of  the  flora.  Its  distribution  is  such  that  the 
botanical  boundary  incloses  central  Polynesia,  Viti  in  part,  next  the  Ellice 
and  Gilbert  groups,  finally  the  Carolines,  as  closer  to  India,  while  Melanesia 
forms  a  province  of  its  own.  The  men  and  the  plants  of  Polynesia,  there- 
fore, must  be  regarded  as  having  migrated  along  the  same  track.  Would  it 
not  be  intelligible  that  to  the  Polynesian,  who  came  from  the  rich  Moluccas, 
the  atolls  would  be  less  pleasurable  and  after  a  short  sojourn  they  swept 
farther  along  until  at  last  they  reached  again  a  better  endowed,  a  moun- 
tainous, and  a  greater  island,  Samoa? 

Considerations  such  as  these,  of  which  much  is  lacking  to  the  theory, 
suggest  themselves  with  divers  variations.  Here,  before  all  things,  should 
there  be  but  a  single  probability,  it  would  be  of  significance  for  the  further 
fate  of  the  early  Polynesians  who  reached  the  equatorial  counterstream, 
and  for  the  case  that  they  migrated  from  Halmahera,  in  favor  of  which  are 
many  good  arguments. 

The  initial  point  of  the  wandering  is  of  great  importance  for  our  chain 
of  islands,  for  upon  that  it  depends  with  great  probability  that  the  early 
Polynesians  did  not  come  to  Nuguria,  etc.  This  would  not  be  altered  by 
the  arrival  in  I,iueniua  of  the  boat  from  Kapingamarangi,  for  the  conditions 
of  current  allow  us  to  recognize  with  certainty  such  voyages  as  exceptional. 
We  can  make  our  account  always  and  only  with  typical  phenomena.  Wind 
and  current  conditions  do  not  allow  a  decision  at  variance  with  the  tradi- 
tions of  our  islanders,  which  seem  all  the  more  credible  since  the  industrial 
products  as  yet  met  with  on  the  islands  quite  confirm  the  essential  points 
of  all  these  statements.  The  peopling  of  the  northwestern  Polynesian 
islands  quite  uniformly  has  its  origin  in  small  beginnings,  through  the 
coming  to  shore  of  crews  of  for  the  most  part  single  boats,  and  through 
infrequent  raiding  expeditions.     The  great  majority  of  the  immigrants. 


18  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

came  hither  from  the  east,  from  Micronesian  and  from  Polynesian  groups  ; 
a  distinctly  smaller  portion  went  out  from  Melanesia,  a  movement  which 
did  not  assume  larger  proportions  until  it  came  to  the  southern  islands  of 
the  series  on  account  of  the  more  peaceful  relations  with  the  southern 
Solomons,  with  the  Deni  Group  (Santa  Cruz),  and  other  neighbors. 

It  is  easy  to  point  out  the  easy  way  upon  the  charts  and  to  prove 
it  easy.  To  us,  in  these  days  of  veritable  islands  which  make  their 
way  across  the  seas  under  impulse  of  mighty  enginery,  it  is  easy 
to  feel  convinced  that  if  Polynesians  ever  did  travel  far  and  wide 
over  the  stormy  ocean  in  frail  canoes  held  together  with  stitches, 
they  must  have  selected  the  course  where  the  resistance  was  least. 
So  far  a  most  excellent  case  has  been  made  out. 

But  the  Polynesians  were  the  most  hardy  race  of  daring  navi- 
gators that  the  world  has  ever  known.  They  know  which  way 
they  came,  they  have  preserved  the  logs  of  these  ancient  voyages 
when  yet  the  sea  was  all  their  own,  theirs  alone.  They  were  not 
afraid  of  the  sea,  they  fought  it,  and  they  had  no  charts  to  point 
them  to  an  easier  traverse.* 

Before  we  proceed  to  further  examination,  it  seems  proper  to 
interject  a  brief  mention  of  another  presentation  of  the  theory  to 
whose  support  Dr.  Thilenius  has  brought  all  the  resources  of  his 
great  acumen.  The  presentation  upon  which  I  would  animadvert 
does  not  pretend  to  be  a  scientific  statement.  But  since  it  has 
found  its  way  into  print  as  something  proved,  I  can  not  feel  it  time 
wasted  to  impugn  the  bona  fides  of  the  author  who  presents  it  or 
the  source  from  which  he  derived  it.  This  pseudo-myth,  this  rather 
clever  fabrication,  is  given  to  the  world,  at  a  by  no  means  ungraceful 
length,  in  the  fourth  chapter  of  Richard  Deeken's  "  Manuia  Samoa," 
a  volume  of  travel  sketches  which  has  been  somewhat  severely 
criticised  from  the  economic  side.  With  no  word  of  credit  to  any 
authority,  with  all  the  positiveness  of  statement  proper  to  the 
record  of  approved  history,  he  begins  his  chapter  with  the  account 
of  a  plague  in  Sumatra:  "Niemand  kann  sagen  wann  es  war, 
wahrscheinlich  jedoch  lange  bevor  Christi  Geburt,  als  auf  Sumatra 
eine  vernichtende  Seuche  wiitete,  die  die  junges  und  altes  Iyeben 
in  Massen  hinmordete." 

The  story  is  all  the  more  dangerous  because  well  told.  He  recites 
the  ineffectual  efforts  to  stay  the  disease  culminating  in  the  heroic 

*I  had  written  these  words  several  months  before  the  first  of  such  charts  was  put 
into  the  hands  of  the  skilled  navigators  of  the  world,  the  Pilot  Chart  of  the  South  Pacific 
for  the  months  of  September,  October,  and  November,  1909,  issued  by  the  Hydro- 
graphic  Bureau  of  the  United  States  Navy.  In  the  three  months  for  which  these  data 
are  tabulated,  months,  as  I  well  know,  of  good  sailing  in  those  seas,  the  currents  between 
the  Gilberts  and  Samoa  do  not  facilitate  canoe  voyaging,  as  Dr.  Thilenius  is  so  satisfied. 
The  average  set  is  westward  and  southwestward,  and  the  rate  averages  between  10  and 
50  knots  a  day. 


SAWAIORI  MIGRATIONS.  19 

determination  of  forty-two  of  the  bravest  young  men  and  seven 
of  the  fairest  maidens  (the  sacred  seven  squared  by  a  race  to  whom 
four  was  the  perfect  number)  to  offer  themselves  in  sacrifice  to  the 
plague  demon  that  he  might  spare  the  people.  They  put  to  sea 
in  seven  canoes,  and  the  plague  ceased.  The  tale  now  follows  these 
victims  oversea,  to  an  island  in  the  Philippines,  where  seven  were 
claimed  by  the  demon.  The  second  seven  was  overwhelmed  in  a 
gale  upon  the  high  sea.  The  third  seven  was  drawn  to  abysms  of 
destruction  by  a  fish  monster.  The  fourth  seven  got  drunk  on 
toddy  at  Nukuoro  and  blasphemed  the  god  until  he  slew  them. 
The  fifth  seven  was  killed  for  food  on  the  eastward  voyage.  The 
survivors  reached  Hawaii  and  refreshed,  then  sailed  seventy-seven 
nights  to  the  south  and  came  to  land  on  Manu'a. 

From  what  source  this  tale  came  to  Lieutenant  Deeken  I  can  not 
say.  To  me  it  smacks  of  the  ability  at  fabrication  of  a  half-caste 
in  Samoa  whom  I  was  never  able  to  meet,  but  whose  store  of  tradi- 
tions was  tantalizingly  reported  as  truly  remarkable.  Their  worth 
may  readily  be  judged  from  this  synopsis  of  one  of  them  that  was 
brought  me  at  second  hand,  namely,  that  the  Samoan  ancestors  set 
sail  from  "Sumatala"  under  the  leadership  of  their  hero-chief 
"  Niu-sisila. "  If  one  is  willing  to  believe  in  this  preservation  of  a 
recognizable  name  of  Sumatra,  what  shall  be  said  of  the  prophetic 
instinct  which  gives  to  the  voyagers  a  chief  already  named  New 
Zealand  ?  Slightly  proleptic.  Whatever  source  may  be  responsible 
for  the  myth  which  Deeken  records  so  positively,  I  should  not  rest 
content  without  recording  its  total  lack  of  credibility. 

We  are  now  to  take  up  the  general  migration  theory,  a  division 
of  our  subject  which  may  be  dismissed  with  more  summary  treat- 
ment since  it  is  commonly  known. 

In  the  foregoing  consideration  of  the  sieve  theory  it  will  have 
been  observed  that  Thilenius  explains  the  route  of  peopling  between 
termini,  Malaysia  as  the  point  of  departure,  Samoa  or  Nuclear  Poly- 
nesia as  the  point  of  arrival.  This  traverse  he  covers  by  a  northern 
and  generally  equatorial  route.  Relative  to  the  same  termini  the 
general  migration  theory  covers  the  traverse  by  a  southeasterly 
course,  largely  a  coasting  voyage  through  or  on  the  fringes  of  Mela- 
nesia. The  final  link,  the  distribution  eastward  from  Nuclear  Poly- 
nesia, remains  unaffected  by  the  diverse  views  herein  presented. 
Similarly  the  Indonesian  link  is  common  to  both  theories. 

That  Malayan  or  Indonesian  link,  regarded  solely  as  filling  geo- 
graphical space,  we  may  safely  assume  as  an  antecedent  probability; 
yet  when  we  reflect  that  it  has  been  regarded  as  a  linguistic  link, 
although  this  estimate  of  its  value  rests  upon  high  authority  and 
we  find  the  names  of  Wilhelm  von  Humboldt,  Franz  Bopp,  and 
Friedrich'Muller  associated  therewith,  we  must  not  be  carried  away 


20  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

by  the  weight  of  the  authority.  Skilled  as  were  these  distin- 
guished students,  I  can  not  avoid  the  conclusion  that  their  results 
are  vitiated  by  two  sources  of  error :  Polynesia  was  known  to  them 
from  scanty  and  not  always  accurate  information,  and  Melanesia 
was  scarcely  known  at  all.  In  the  course  of  the  present  work  we 
shall  have  to  animadvert  upon  this  Indonesian  link  in  its  philologic 
bearings  and,  from  the  material  which  is  about  to  engage  our 
attention  and  exact  our  best  powers  of  analysis,  we  shall  essay  to 
draw  certain  conclusions  which  will  point  to  the  need  of  revising 
the  estimate  which  served  as  the  foundation  for  the  name  Malayo- 
Polynesian,  under  which  designation  these  languages  of  the  ocean 
have  entered  into  the  classification  of  linguistic  systems. 

In  its  most  concise  form  the  general  migration  theory  could  not 
be  stated  more  clearly  than  in  the  words  of  that  master  of  Polynesian 
lore,  Edward  Tregear,  recently  president  of  the  Polynesian  Society: 

We  must  leave  the  fascinating  subject  of  the  whence  of  the  Maori  as 
an  open  question,  to  be  settled  hereafter  when  more  full  and  perfect  knowl- 
edge enables  the  student  of  the  future  to  gather  up  the  ravelled  strands  of 
evidence  and  twist  them  into  a  cord  that  will  bear  the  strain  of  scientific 
investigation.  In  the  meantime  the  Polynesian  Society  is  doing  much  to 
gather  together  the  facts  and  preserve  the  knowledge  fading  fast  with  the 
elders  of  the  Maori  people.  It  may  be  of  interest  to  put  before  the  reader 
the  hypothesis  most  generally  accepted  by  Polynesian  scholars  as  to  the 
advent  of  the  Maori  in  the  Pacific.     It  is  as  follows : 

The  Polynesians  are  a  people  which  either  originated  in  India  or  in 
central  Asia  and  passed  through  India.  Leaving  the  mainland  they 
journeyed  eastward  through  the  Malay  Archipelago,  occupying  perhaps 
many  generations  in  the  voyages  from  island  to  island.  At  the  time  of 
their  passage  the  archipelago  was  not  occupied  by  Malays,  who  are  a  sub- 
sequent migration  from  the  Mongolian  seaboard.  The  Maori  expedition 
or  expeditions  passed  by  the  Melanesian  and  Papuan  islands,  inhabited  by 
black  people  (New  Guinea,  New  Caledonia,  etc.),  and  reached  the  Fiji 
Group,  where  they  settled  for  a  long  time.  From  Fiji  as  a  center  they 
colonized  Samoa,  Tonga,  Hawaii,  the  Marquesas,  Mangareva,  and  extended 
their  colonies  even  so  far  as  Faster  Island.  In  process  of  time  they  either 
hived  off  or  were  expelled  from  Fiji  and  the  waves  of  migration  passed  to 
and  fro  among  the  groups  of  islands.  (Tregear:  "The  Maori  Race," 
page  558.) 

So  much  in  the  general  aspect  of  the  case.  Now  let  us  note  from 
another  scholar,  S.  Percy  Smith,  the  present  incumbent  of  the 
presidency  of  the  Polynesian  Society,  the  traversing  in  detail  of 
some  of  the  elements  of  the  problem  upon  which  Thilenius  founds 
his  argument.  These  are  cited  from  "Hawaiki"  in  its  second 
edition.  I  refer  to  this  edition  because  it  is  intended  as  the  defini- 
tive statement  of  the  author's  position  and  because  it  will  be  the 
edition  most  readily  accessible.  For  myself  I  have  a  fond  prefer- 
ence for  the  ear  her  edition,  the  same  materials  treated  in  a  different 
manner.    That  first  "  Hawaiki"  appeals  to  me  with  a  personal  note 


SAWAIORI  MIGRATIONS.  21 

lacking  to  the  rewritten  edition;  it  was  the  intimate  record  of  the 
periplus  which  the  distinguished  author  and  myself  made  in  Samoan 
storm  and  sun  in  a  tiny  boat  upon  the  sea,  and  of  our  wanderings 
over  the  northern  ocean  and  on  the  hot  slopes  of  Hawaii. 

Of  the  objection  that  early  Polynesians  could  not  sail  against 
the  wind  he  says : 

In  the  present  state  of  our  knowledge  of  the  Polynesians  as  navigators — 
about  which  we  shall  learn  something  further  on — it  is  useless  for  some 
writers  to  insist  that  the  prevalence  of  the  southeast  trade  winds  would 
form  a  bar  to  voyages  made  from  central  Polynesia  to  the  American  coast. 
The  number  of  easterly  voyages  on  record  from  various  parts  and  under  all 
sorts  of  weather  conditions  is  so  large  that  we  must  conclude  these  able 
navigators  paid  little  attention  to  the  trade  wind  if  a  sufficient  object 
required  them  to  face  it.     (Page  40.) 

Whatever  powers  of  navigation  the  people  may  have  possessed  prior  to 
their  arrival  at  Java  (Hawaiki),  the  vast  number  of  islands  in  the  archi- 
pelago would  induce  a  great  extension  of  their  voyages,  and  generate  a 
seafaring  life,  through  which  alone  were  they  able  at  later  periods  to 
traverse  the  great  Pacific  from  end  to  end  in  the  remarkable  manner  that 
will  be  indicated.  In  the  archipelago,  where  most  of  the  islands  are  forest- 
clad  to  the  water's  edge  to  this  day,  the  water  was  the  principal  highway 
and  this  necessitated  constant  use  of  canoes;  whilst  the  location  of  the 
various  branches  of  the  people  on  different  islands  with  considerable  spaces 
of  sea  between  would  induce  the  building  of  a  larger  class  of  vessels.  It 
certainly  seems  from  the  very  nature  of  the  surroundings  that  Indonesia 
was  the  school  in  which  the  Polynesians  learned  to  become  great  navigators. 
(Page  99.) 

Having  now  presented  the  two  opinions  on  this  vital  point,  this 
seems  a  fitting  spot  in  which  to  record  a  flaw  in  the  reasoning  of 
Dr.  Thilenius  which  will  have  suggested  itself  already  to  the  reader. 
He  is  ready  enough  to  admit  the  possibility  of  early  Polynesians 
navigating  against  a  head  wind  from  Samoa  eastward,  while  denying 
their  ability  to  perform  the  same  sort  of  navigation  toward  Samoa 
from  Indonesia.  Samoa  was  no  Annapolis  for  this  race  of  seamen ; 
the  skill  of  seacraft  which  carried  them  for  thousands  of  miles  over 
eastward  ocean  was  the  skill  which  had  brought  them  over  balanced 
thousands  of  miles  of  westward  waters. 

Where  Tregear  has  outlined  the  disputed  section  of  the  route  in 
general,  yet  wholly  unmistakable,  terms,  Percy  Smith  is  particular, 
as  we  shall  see. 

Starting  from  Avaiki-te-varinga,  which  is  probably  Java,  the  route 
followed  by  the  migrations  would  be  via  the  Celebes,  Ceram,  and  Gilolo, 
where,  no  doubt,  were  colonies  of  their  own  people,  to  the  north  shores  of 
New  Guinea.  Finding  this  country  already  occupied  by  the  Papuans 
they  would  coast  along  to  the  southeast  end,  where,  it  would  seem,  a  very 
early  migration  settled,  which  is  now  represented  by  the  Motu  and  cognate 
tribes.  This  same  route  was  probably  followed  by  the  ancestors  of  the 
Rarotongans  until  they  branched  off  past  New  Britain  and  the  Solomon 


22  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Islands  on  their  way  to  Fiji,  probably  leaving  a  colony  at  Sikayana,  or 
Stewart's  Island,  off'  the  coast  of  the  Solomons,  where  the  people  speak  a 
dialect  of  Maori  or  Rarotongan  and  are  Polynesians.  Whether  Lord 
Howe's  Island,  or  Liueniua,  also  called  Ongtong  Java,  was  peopled  at  the 
same  time  is  uncertain.  It  is  inhabited  by  Polynesians,  as  Mr.  Churchill 
tells  me.  Possibly  Nukuoro  and  Lukunor  were  also  colonized  at  this  time. 
In  more  than  one  Rarotongan  tradition  an  island  or  country  is  mentioned 
named  Enua-kura,  or  the  "land  of  the  red  feathers,"  which  is  possibly  New 
Guinea,  so  called  by  the  Rarotongans  after  the  bird  of  paradise,  the  beau- 
tiful feathers  of  which  would  be  to  them  treasures  of  the  highest  value — 
such  treasures  as  Europeans  who  do  not  know  the  race  can  hardly  believe 
in ;  they  were  their  jewels.     (Page  113.) 

The  same  indefatigable  research  supplies  us  yet  another  argument, 
a  persisting  memory  of  intercourse  with  an  inferior  and  servile  race. 
Because  of  its  length  I  am  forced  to  omit  a  few  details : 

Again,  there  ought  to  be  traces  of  some  recollection  of  the  black  or  very 
dark-brown  negrito  races  of  Indonesia.  In  the  Maori  traditions  there  are 
incidental  notices  of  an  ancient  people  called  Manahune  or  Manahua,  who 
are  by  some  supposed  to  be  a  diminutive  race  and  somewhat  like  the  elves 
of  Old  World  stories.  But  they  are  not  said  to  have  lived  in  New  Zealand. 
This  people  is  also  known  in  Hawaii  under  the  same  name,  where  they  are 
described  as  somewhat  like  those  of  the  Maori  traditions.  They  appear  at 
one  time  to  have  been  very  numerous  and  lived  in  the  mountains,  but  were 
in  a  state  of  subjection  to  the  Hawaiians.  Again  in  Tahiti  we  find  mention 
of  the  same  people,  Manahune,  who  in  Ellis's  time  formed  the  lower  orders 
of  the  people,  but  they  were  an  ancient  tribe  or  people.  In  a  Paumotu 
genealogy  in  my  possession  I  find  one  of  their  chiefs  named  Tangaroa- 
Manahune,  who  lived  many  generations  ago ;  and  it  is  known  that  there  was 
a  tribe  in  old  times  in  Mangaia  named  Manaune.  We  shall  find  later  on  a 
reference  to  them  in  Rarotonga  history,  where  they  are  again  referred  to  as 
little  people.  The  word  manahune,  both  in  Maori  and  Rarotonga,  means 
a  scab  or  mark  on  the  body.  It  may  be  that  the  origin  of  the  name  is  due 
to  the  people  who  bore  it  being  marked  with  cicatrices.  The  vague  notions 
the  Polynesians  generally  now  have  in  regard  to  the  Manahune — their 
living  in  the  mountains  and  forests,  the  wonderful  powers  of  sorcery,  etc., 
accredited  to  them — seem  to  point  to  their  having  been  a  race  living  in  the 
remote  past,  conquered  by  the  Polynesians,  and  probably  often  enslaved 
by  them.  In  fact  the  traditions  no  doubt  point  to  the  Papuan  or  Melane- 
sian  race,  who,  it  is  well  known,  mark  their  flesh  in  gashes  as  an  ornament, 
instead  of  tattoo  as  with  the  Polynesians.  The  same  Nga-Puhi  tradition 
goes  on  to  state:  "Some  of  the  people  of  those  parts  were  very  black,  a 
people  who  smelt  very  strong  when  near,  their  hair  was  bunched  out  to  be 
stiff  and  appeared  in  tufts,  and  their  appearance  was  ill-favored."  This 
is  in  brief  form  a  fair  description  of  a  Papuan  or  Melanesian.     (Page  103.) 

I  have  preferred  to  use  the  words  of  these  two  great  authorities 
because  they  are  authorities  and  because  my  own  conclusions  as 
to  the  two  theories  will  more  properly  be  presented  in  the  discussion 
of  the  pertinent  linguistic  material. 

As  between  the  two  theories,  we  must  recognize  that  each  is  an 
attempt  to  close  a  gap,  the  gap  between  Indonesia  and  Polynesia 


SAWAIORI  MIGRATIONS.  23 

in  the  race  history.  Thilenius  works  it  out  painfully  but  coldly,  with 
every  resource  that  may  be  drawn  from  the  armamentarium  of  the 
ocean  physiographer.  He  neglects  wholly  the  record  of  the  only 
folk  who  retain  any  recollection  of  this  great  ethnic  movement,  the 
corpus  of  Polynesian  tradition.  This  we  shall  summarily  examine. 
In  the  Rarotongan  accounts  of  the  voyages  and  discoveries  of  Ui- 
te-rangioro  we  find  the  following  list  of  new  lands : 


Te  Ravaki. 

Nu-taara. 

Nu-amo. 

Iti-takai-kere. 

Avaiki. 

Rangi-raro. 

Nu-mare. 

Iti-nui. 

Papua. 

Kuporu. 

Mata-te-ra. 

Nu-pango. 

Iti-rai. 

Tangi-te-pu. 

Te  Tuira. 

Nu-kare. 

Nu-iti. 

Iti-anaunau. 

Rara. 

Manuka. 

Nu-takoto. 

These  last  we  have  no  difficulty  in  comprehending  as  Savai'i, 
'Upolu,  Tutuila,  Manu'a — Samoa,  in  fact,  plainly  named.  A  little 
earlier  in  the  list  the  four  which  bear  specific  names  of  Iti  are  quite 
as  clearly  the  Viti  Archipelago.  These  two  points  establish  the 
direction  of  the  voyaging,  a  direction  which  in  the  long  remainder 
of  the  list,  after  the  mention  of  Samoa,  covers  the  eastern  Pacific. 
It  is  not  improper,  then,  to  reason  back  in  the  same  direction  from 
our  two  known  points  and  assign  to  the  unidentified  places  a 
position  somewhere  between  Viti  and  Indonesia. 


CHAPTER  IV. 
THE  FIRST  POLYNESIAN  HOME. 

A  race  always  under  an  eastward  momentum — No  positive  statement 
of  the  place  of  origin  possible — Bopp  proposed  an  Aryan  source — Max 
M  filler  connected  it  with  the  Turanian  stock — Logan  regarded  the 
Ganges  Valley  as  the  ancient  home — Macdonald's  Semitic  theory  of 
a  great  and  widely  diffused  Oceanic  language  set  forth  at  large. 

Noting  that  the  Indonesian  area  presents  its  own  group  of  prob- 
lems relative  to  the  Polynesian,  which  have  yet  by  no  means  come 
to  a  satisfactory  solution,  we  pass  for  the  present  to  a  summary 
statement  of  the  theories  which  have  been  proposed  in  elucidation 
of  the  Polynesian  migration  before  its  entrance  upon  the  Malayan 
region. 

Wherever  we  know  this  race  we  find  it  under  a  momentum 
directed  eastward,  under  the  impulse  of  some  power  behind,  which 
has  sufficed  to  overcome  the  inertia  of  a  race  settled  as  autochthons. 
But  what  that  power  may  have  been,  what  the  place  of  autoch- 
thonous settlement,  we  are  without  positive  information. 

Beyond  peradventure  we  recognize  the  momentum  toward  eastern 
Polynesia  from  Nuclear  Polynesia.  In  Nuclear  Polynesia  we  recog- 
nize the  momentum,  some  of  it  from  Viti.  In  Viti  we  are  more 
and  more  distinctly  certifying  ourselves  of  the  same  momentum 
exerted  along  intervening  steps  of  the  Melanesian  archipelagoes 
from  the  Malayan  exits.  In  Indonesia  we  find  the  same  momentum 
from  Sumatra  toward  the  east.  But  behind  Sumatra,  the  Malayan 
entrance,  while  we  may  believe  in  the  impulse,  we  are  at  a  loss  to 
find  the  next  earlier  point  from  which  dislodgment  was  made.  Yet, 
as  the  direction  sense  remains  constant,  we  need  have  no  hesitation 
in  looking  toward  the  west. 

The  first  great  guess  at  a  point  of  origin  we  owe  to  Bopp  in  his 
classic  study  (1841)  "Uber  die  Verwandschaft  der  malayisch-poly- 
nesischen  Sprachen  mit  den  indisch-europaischen. "  His  effort  was 
to  establish  these  sea  wanderers  as  an  early,  perhaps  the  earliest, 
offshoot  from  the  stock  which,  after  long  wanderings  otherwhither, 
has  produced  our  race. 

After  discussion  of  the  same  material  Max  Miiller  evolved  the 
theory  that  the  sea  people,  by  then  definitely  accepted  as  Malayo- 
Polynesian,  were  related  to  the  Turanian  through  the  Thai  of  Siam. 
Later  students  along  the  same  line  have  reached  a  similar  conclusion 
through  the  Mon-Khmer. 

25 


26  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Percy  Smith  (in  "Hawaiki"  passim)  follows  the  conclusions  of 
J.  R.  Logan  in  seeing  the  more  probable  seat  of  the  early  Polynesians 
in  the  Ganges  valley.  Logan  himself  says,  in  his  "  Ethnology  of  the 
Indo-Pacific  Islands:" 

I  was  especially  struck  with  the  constantly  accumulating  evidence  of 
the  derivation  of  the  leading  races  of  the  islands  (Indonesia)  from  Ultra- 
india  and  India,  and  was  led  to  the  conclusion  that  the  basin  of  the  Ganges 
and  a  large  portion  of  Ultraindiawere  occupied  by  tribes  akin  to  the  Malayo- 
Polynesians  before  the  movement  of  the  Aryan  or  Indo-Germanic  race  into 
India. 

A  survey  of  the  character  and  distribution  of  the  Gangetic,  Ultraindian, 
and  Asianesian  (Indonesian)  peoples  renders  it  certain  that  the  same 
Himalayo-Polynesian  race  was  at  one  time  spread  over  the  Gangetic  basin 
and  Ultraindia.  As  this  race  is  allied  to  the  Chinese  and  the  Tibetan,  it 
is  probable  that  it  originally  spread  from  Ultraindia  into  northeast  India. 

We  shall  now  proceed  to  the  presentation  of  Dr.  Macdonald's 
Semitic  theory,  premising  that  in  his  writing  Oceanic  race  and 
Oceanic  language  are  an  anticipation  of  the  proof  of  his  deductions. 
This  he  explains  in  the  following  form : 

These  three  groups  of  languages  and  dialects — the  Malayan,  the  Poly- 
nesian and  the  Melanesian — naming  them  in  the  order  in  which  they  have 
successively  become  known,  are,  as  Friedrich  Miiller  has  shown,  members 
or  branches  of  the  Oceanic,  which  is  as  perfectly  well-defined  a  family  of 
languages  as  is  the  Semitic  or  the  Indo-European.  The  Oceanic  is,  as  its 
name  indicates,  insular.  Its  habitat,  which  we  may  call  Oceania,  stretches 
from  Madagascar  off  the  east  coast  of  Africa,  across  the  Indian  Ocean  to 
the  Malay  Archipelago,  and  on  through  the  Pacific  Ocean  to  Easter  Island. 
On  the  north  it  has  invaded  from  the  island  world  and  settled  only  on  the 
southeastern  extremity  of  the  Asiatic  continent,  hence  called  the  Malay 
Peninsula.  On  the  south  it  has  not  reached  the  Australian  continent, 
though  closely  approaching  it  in  New  Guinea.  The  islanders  who  speak 
Oceanic  number  about  fifty  millions,  or  one-thirtieth  of  the  human  race. 

To  say  that  the  Oceanic  languages  are  a  perfectly  well-defined  family  is  to 
say  that  they  are  all  sprung  from  one  mother  tongue — the  Oceanic  mother 
tongue ;  and  to  establish  the  Asiatic  relationship  of  the  Oceanic  is  to  estab- 
lish that  that  mother  tongue  was  originally  carried  by  its  speakers  from 
the  Asiatic  continent  to  the  island  world.  *  *  * 

It  is  not  until  we  take  into  account  the  linguistic  data  that  we  get  upon 
the  solid  ground  of  certainty.  And  first  of  all  it  is  to  be  observed  that 
though  there  was  an  element  of  negro  blood  in  the  race,  due  to  intermixture, 
the  race  itself,  as  its  language  proves,  was  not  negro.  What  that  race  was 
can  only  be  determined  from  its  language,  and  what  that  mother  language 
was  is  to  be  learned  from  an  examination  of  its  descendants  and  repre- 
sentatives, the  spoken  Oceanic  languages  and  dialects  of  the  present  day. 
If  the  race  came  from  the  Arabian  Peninsula,  the  Semitic  motherland, 
sprung  from  the  people  of  the  commercial  empire  that  existed  there,  then 
their  language  was  Semitic.  For  the  Phenicians,  the  people  of  that  ancient 
South  Arabian  empire  and  of  their  Abyssinian  colony,  and  their  descend- 
ants now  in  Abyssinia  and  Arabia,  all  are  Semitic  speakers.     If  the  race 


THE   FIRST  POLYNESIAN  HOME.  27 

came  from  the  Indian  Peninsula  one  might  suppose  with  Bopp  that  the 
language  was  Indo-European;  if  from  the  Indo-Chinese  Peninsula,  with 
Max  Miiller  that  it  was  Scythian  or  Turanian.  The  problem  thus,  as 
is  clear,  can  only  be  solved  linguistically;  and  the  praiseworthy  efforts 
of  Bopp  and  Miiller  to  solve  it  are  valuable  if  only  as  having  led  to  the 
certainty  that  the  Oceanic  mother  tongue  was  neither  Indo-European  nor 
Turanian.  Their  attempts  failed  because  made  on  insufficient  data,  and 
their  methods  were  for  the  same  reason  inadequate  *  *  * 

When  we  say  that  Arabia  was  the  motherland  of  the  island  family  of 
languages,  this  does  not  mean  that  the  primitive  Oceanic  tongue — of  which 
the  multitudinous  dialects  of  Oceania  as  at  present  spoken  are  the  analytic 
or  simplified  descendants,  as  English  is  of  Anglo-Saxon,  or  the  Romance 
dialects  of  Latin — was  derived  from  the  Arabic ;  but  that  Arabia  was  the 
motherland  of  the  primitive  Oceanic  as  it  is  of  the  Ethiopic,  Amharic,  and 
Tigre,  and  of  the  Assyrian,  Phenician,  Hebrew,  and  Aramaic.  If  it  had 
more  in  common  with  Arabic  than  with  any  other  Semitic  language,  that 
is  because  Arabic  has  more  than  any  other  preserved  the  features  of  the 
primitive  Semitic  tongue,  the  common  mother  of  all  of  them.  The  primi- 
tive Oceanic  must  be  regarded,  not  as  a  descendant  of,  but  as  a  sister  to 
the  Arabic,  Himyaritic,  Ethiopic,  Assyrian,  Phenician,  Hebrew,  and  Ara- 
maic and  the  Efate,  Samoan,  Malagasy,  Malay,  etc.,  as  cousins  to  the  Mahri, 
Amharic,  Tigre,  Mandaitic,  Modern  Syriac,  and  vulgar  Arabic  dialects,  due 
allowance  being  made  for  the  fact  that  these  latter  have  always  been 
more  or  less  under  the  conserving  influence  of  the  surrounding  Semitic  lit- 
erature and  civilization,  from  which  the  island  dialects  have  been  for  ages 
completely  cut  off,  as  well  as  completely  isolated  from  each  other. 

It  should  be  premised  that  Dr.  Macdonald's  argument,  loaded  with 
minute  details  and  seldom  stating  clear  principle,  is  nowhere  lucid. 
The  profundity  and  the  breadth  of  his  Semitic  erudition  will  be 
estimated  by  each  student  in  proportion  as  he  is  fitted  to  pass  crit- 
ically upon  such  topics.  From  the  confusion  of  statement  tangled 
with  partial  proof  involving  more  statement  with  yet  more  proof  I 
have  endeavored  to  present  a  simple  syllabus  of  his  argument : 


The  gist  of  our  author's  chapter  on  Oceanic  phonology,  a  plexus 
of  multitudinous  detail,  is  this : 

i.  Letters  interchange  freely  within  their  own  vertical  series. 

2.  Letters  interchange  freely  as  between  series  and  series. 

3.  Letters  conveniently  efface  themselves,  whether  initial,  medial, 
or  final. 

4.  Initial  syllables  may  drop  off. 

5.  Initial  syllables  may  be  added  "  to  lighten  the  pronunciation." 
Granting  all  or  most  of  these  postulates,  it  will  be  seen  that  no 

particular  limit  need  be  set  to  philological  comparison.  For  such 
proof  as  these  positions  seem  to  require  the  student  will  have  to 
follow  out  the  intricacies  of  Dr.  Macdonald's  argument  to  such  con- 
viction as  he  may  be  able  to  discover. 


28  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

B. 

Dr.  Macdonald  now  plunges  into  the  critical  test,  that  triliteralism 
of  the  root  which  has  stamped  the  Semitic  as  a  speech  apart.  It  is 
so  vital  to  his  contention  that  the  thesis  must  be  presented  in  his 
own  words : 

It  is  now  to  be  shown  that  the  Oceanic  primitive  language  had,  like  each 
of  its  sister  dialects,  Arabic,  Assyrian,  etc.,  its  share  of  the  common  stock 
of  purely  and  exclusively  Semitic  trilateral  words  (nouns  and  verbs)  with 
the  purely  Semitic  common  method  of  word  formation  or  inflection  by 
internal  vowel  change  and  external  additions  (prefixed,  infixed,  suffixed) 
and  its  share  also  of  the  limited  common  stock  of  purely  Semitic  particles. 
This,  if  it  can  be  shown,  will  be  admitted  to  be  conclusive.  The  particles 
will  be  dealt  with  subsequently. 

The  ancient  Semitic  finite  verb,  with  its  perfect  and  imperfect,  was 
simply  a  verbal  noun  joined  in  a  certain  way  with  the  personal  pronouns, 
and  with  it  or  from  it  other  and  numerous  verbal  nouns  were  formed  by 
vowel  changes  and  external  formative  additions.  The  ancient  finite  verb 
with  its  perfect  and  imperfect  so  formed  is  no  longer  found  in  the  existing 
broken-down  Oceanic  languages,  though  as  analytic  substitutes  for  it  we 
have  as  the  finite  verb,  for  instance,  in  Efatese  "the  verbal  pronoun" 
joined  with  these  verbal  nouns  after  the  fashion  of  the  imperfect ;  as  a  bano 
I  (amor  was)  going,  equal  to  I  go  (or  I  went),  and  in  Malagasy  the  "pro- 
nominal adjunctive"  joined  with  these  verbal  nouns,  after  that  of  the 
perfect,  as  tiaku,  my  loving,  equal  to  I  loved  or  I  love.  The  verbal  nouns 
that  were  formed  with  or  from  that  of  the  ancient  finite  verb  were  numerous, 
and  in  them  we  have  the  ground  forms  of  the  modern  Oceanic  verb.     *  *  * 

We  now  proceed  to  compare  the  Oceanic  triliteral  words  with  Arabic, 
Assyrian,  etc.,  just  as,  for  instance,  we  compare,  say  Assyrian  or  Himyaritic 
words  with  Arabic,  Hebrew,  Syriac,  or  Ethiopic. 

Take  the  simple  Efat6  lifai,  to  bend  round;  malibai,  bent;  lofa,  a  thing 
bent;  lofai,  to  bend;  malofa,  bent;  kalofa  or  kolofa,  bent;  lufa  (Samoan 
lavalava),  a  wrapper  round  the  loins;  Samoan  lofa,  to  crouch;  lofata'ina, 
to  cause  to  crouch;  lave,  lavelave  (Arabic  lafelafa,  to  wrap  round,  etc.),  to 
entangle;  lavelavea,  to  be  entangled;  Fiji  love,  lovedha  (Samoan  lavasi),  to 
coil,  to  fold,  to  bend;  kalove,  bent;  salove,  flexible;  Malay  lipat,  lampit, 
lampis,  lapis,  a  fold,  to  fold,  to  plait;  Malagasy  lefitra,  also  lufitra,  folded, 
bent,  plaited ;  Arabic  laffa,  to  be  involved,  intertwined,  to  wrap  up,  wrap 
round  (oneself,  as  clothing),  to  fold;  laff,  lift,  laftat,  liftat,  involved,  inter- 
twined, etc. ;  lofta,  loftat,  coil  of  turban,  winding  of  road.  In  this  example 
the  six  commonest  forms  of  the  modern  Oceanic  verb  (or  noun),  the  ancient 
verbal  noun,  are  seen,  viz : 

1.  lave.  3.  lofa,  love,  lufa.  5.  lipat. 

2.  Ufa.  4.  lampit,  lavasi.  6.  lovedha. 

The  inference  is  irresistible  that  in  the  Oceanic  primitive  or  mother 
tongue  this  word  was  triliteral,  and  had  the  vowel  changes  peculiar  to  the 
Semitic  languages  most  fully  preserved  in  the  ancient  Arabic ;  and  that  as 
a  triliteral  word  with  the  middle  radical  doubled  it  underwent  the  usual 
contractions,  set  forth  in  all  Semitic  grammars,  of  such  words,  as  is  plainly 
seen  by  comparing  it  with  the  Arabic.  These  forms,  originally  verbal 
nouns  and  still  often  used  as  such,  formed  from  the  ancient  finite  verb, 
as  lipat,  a  fold,  lofa,  a  thing  bent  or  bending,  have  become  ground  forms 


THE  FIRST  POLYNESIAN  HOME.  29 

of  the  modern  verb,  as  lipat,  lipatkan,  to  fold,  lofai,  to  bend ;  from  which 
again  are  formed,  by  external  additions,  modern  verbal  nouns  and  derived 
verb  forms.  Thus  we  have  lipatan,  a  fold;  lofaian,  a  bending  or  being 
bent;  lavelavea,  entangled  or  entangling,  malibai,  bent;  and  the  derived 
verb  forms — 

Safal Fiji  salove,  flexible. 

Mafal Malay  malipat,  to  fold,  plait;  F,fate"  malifus,  bent,  flexed. 

Mifal Malagasy  milefitra,  folded. 

Tafal Fiji  kalove,  Efat6  kalofa,  bent. 

Manfal Malagasy  mandefilra,  to  fold,  bend. 

Matafal Samoan  ja'alave,  to  take  a  turn  of  a  rope  as  round  apin. 

As  seen  in  this  example  the  vowels  of  the  ground  forms  of  the  Oceanic 
verb  are  retained  in  the  modern  derived  forms  and  verbal  nouns.  It  is  in 
the  ground  forms,  therefore,  that  we  find  the  proof  of  the  part  played  in 
the  ancient  language  (the  primitive  Oceanic)  by  internal  vowel  change. 

To  show  that  this  is  a  fair  specimen  of  modern  Oceanic  words,  that  it  is 
not  exceptional  but  only  one  out  of  the  mass  and  of  a  piece  with  the  rest, 
would  prove  conclusively  that  the  Oceanic  primitive  or  mother  tongue 
had,  like  each  of  the  sister  dialects,  Arabic,  Assyrian,  etc.,  its  share  of  the 
purely  and  exclusively  common  stock  of  Semitic  triliteral  words  with  the 
purely  Semitic  common  method  of  word  formation  or  inflexion  by  internal 
vowel  change  and  external  additions.  This  then  is  what  we  have  now 
to  endeavor  to  show. 

This  he  follows  by  an  example  of  intricate  ingenuity  in  bringing 
many  insular  words  under  one  or  other  of  eight  types  of  triliterals ; 
and  thus  concludes : 

These  examples  sufficiently  show  that  the  above  Oceanic  word  first 
given  (lifai,  etc.)  is  not  exceptional,  but  only  one  out  of  the  mass  and  of 
a  piece  with  the  rest,  and  this  conclusively  establishes,  etc.  [in  the  same 
form  of  words  as  before,  a  protracted  Q.  F.  F.]. 

C. 

He  next  takes  up  the  subject  of  prefixes,  infixes,  and  suffixes. 
Employing  the  freedom  of  phonetic  treatment  which  he  has  already 
postulated  in  his  chapter  of  phonology,  he  identifies  every  form  of 
these  inflectional  or  word-forming  elements  known  to  Semitic  speech 
with  word  components  in  Malayan,  Melanesian  and  Polynesian.  The 
value  of  such  identification  is  wholly  conditioned  by  the  adhesion 
which  one  inclines  to  give  to  his  system  of  sound  mutation. 

D. 

The  last  chapter  of  the  presentation  of  the  theory  rests  upon 
the  pronouns  and  particles,  the  demonstrative  elements  of  speech. 
With  remarkable  patience  in  research,  and  with  even  more  remark- 
able generosity  of  treatment,  he  satisfies  himself  that  he  has  detected 
the  same  kinship  in  this  section  of  the  compared  vocabularies. 
Yet,  while  permitting  himself  the  use  of  this  material  and  erecting 
much  of  the  edifice  of  his  argument  thereupon,  he  takes  the  similar 


30  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

use  of  the  same  class  of  data  by  other  students  as  the  basis  upon 
which  to  combat  their  conclusions  when  they  differ  from  his  own. 
He  says  of  his  predecessors  in  this  field : 

They  trusted  mainly  if  not  wholly  on  the  comparison  of  words,  chiefly 
the  pronouns  and  numerals,  in  which  there  is  always  great  liability  to 
error,  and  which  apart  from  comparison  of  grammar  and  structure  can 
never  be  conclusive.  As  to  the  pronouns,  for  instance,  Bopp,  and  Max 
Miiller  following  him,  chose  to  regard  the  Malay  kita,  kami,  we,  and  kamu, 
ye,  as  composed  of  an  article  ki,  or  ka,  and  the  pronouns  ta,  mi,  mu.  This 
enabled  Bopp  to  compare  the  latter  with  the  Indo-European  pronouns, 
and  Max  Miiller,  it  should  be  added,  to  compare  them  with  equal  prob- 
ability or  improbability  with  the  Turanian ;  and  by  this  method  the  Oceanic 
pronouns  might  just  as  well  be  compared  with  any  others  whatsoever.  The 
fact  is,  as  the  Melanesian  clearly  shows,  that  this  ki,  or  ka,  is  not  an  article 
at  all,  and  that  this  comparison  of  Bopp,  and  also  that  of  Miiller,  founded 
on  the  notion  that  it  is,  is  illegitimate  and  futile. 

In  this  chapter  it  has  been  my  aim  to  present  the  line  of  Dr. 
Macdonald's  argument  as  simply  as  possible;  to  avoid,  wherever  it 
might  be  done,  the  complexity  and  intricacy  of  the  detail  of  his 
method;  and  in  general  to  refrain  from  debating  the  controversial 
points  which  arise,  the  latter  pleasure  being  reserved  for  the  critical 
examination  of  his  material,  upon  which  now  we  shall  enter. 


CHAPTER  V. 
DISSECTION  OF  THE  THEORY. 

The  result  of  independent  treatment  of  the  data  should  be  identical — 
As  the  other  elements  have  long  been  known  and  carefully  studied, 
the  Melanesian  is  the  critical  test — The  computation  of  exactly 
what  material  is  now  made  available  for  study — In  what  pro- 
portion the  Efate  vocabulary  contributes  to  the  solution  of  the 
problem  and  the  manner  in  which  properly  it  may  be  employed. 

The  force  of  Dr.  Macdonald's  argument,  the  proof  of  the  theory 
thus  summarily  outlined,  must  rest  upon  the  data  which  he  has 
utilized  for  its  development.  Those  data  we  find  available  in  the 
vocabulary  which  he  has  given  us  as  a  complete  dictionary  of  Efate\ 
He  has  made  use  of  this  material  in  a  certain  fashion,  such  as  most 
commended  itself  to  his  thought;  he  has  prosecuted  long  and  pain- 
fully a  certain  method.  All  this  was  within  his  prerogative.  If 
the  theory  be  valid,  if  the  method  be  true,  the  same  data  should 
yield  the  same  result,  and  no  other  than  the  same  result,  when 
studied  in  accordance  with  such  other  method,  being  valid,  as  may 
commend  itself  to  another  philological  investigator. 

This  it  is  which  is  now  to  engage  our  attention.  We  are  to  take 
his  data,' his  vocabulary  material  assumed  to  be  in  itself  accurate, 
to  argue  it  afresh  and,  I  feel  confident,  without  preconception  or 
other  such  prejudice,  and  let  it  lead  us  where  it  may. 

If  really  there  be  an  Oceanic  speech  family  tree,  with  its  roots  in 
the  Hadramaut  and  its  distal  twigs  in  Te  Pito  te  Henua,  then  we 
may  expect  to  find  in  the  material  in  the  course  of  this  examination 
such  a  mass  of  words  showing  clearly  a  nexus  of  development — 
enabling  us  thereby  to  establish  a  distinct  and  probable  law  of  the 
mutation  of  sounds — that  we  may  finish  the  investigation  with  the 
happy  satisfaction  that  the  Oceanic  tongue  has  proved  itself. 

We  are  not  to  ask  that  every  Polynesian  word  shall  reveal  to 
us  through  the  operation  of  this  law  of  mutation  its  primitive 
triliteron  in  some  Semitic  household.  We  are  by  no  means  to 
expect  that  we  can  take  any  Semitic  stem  and  by  the  application 
of  the  rule  develop  the  succeeding  forms  in  Indonesia,  Melanesia, 
and  Polynesia.  Not  even  Grimm's  law  will  do  that  for  us  in  the 
Aryan  family.  But  we  do  have  the  right  to  expect  that,  if  there 
prove  to  be  a  substantial  base  for  this  theory,  there  be  a  sufficiency  of 
examples  in  each  direction  and  a  consistency  in  their  establishment. 

31 


32  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Dr.  Macdonald  has  presented  a  captivating  theory  of  an  Oceanic 
family  wandering  from  a  Semitic  home,  bold  sailors  over  unknown 
seas  and  far  from  the  tents  of  Kedar.  This  theory  must  rest  on 
the  data  which  he  presents  to  us.  If  it  be  valid,  the  data  must 
yield  the  same  result  to  independent  examination. 

This  Oceanic  speech  family  comprises  four  households.  The 
Polynesian  is  known  intimately,  the  Malayan  has  been  even  more 
extensively  studied,  the  Semitic  has  engaged  the  attention  of  the 
most  able  scholarship  for  centuries.  The  Melanesian  is  now  just 
being  admitted  to  the  family  circle;  it  has  been  scarcely  known 
until  the  publication  of  this  Efate  work. 

But  the  position  of  this  new  household  is  significant  geographi- 
cally, for  it  bridges  the  gap  between  Indonesia  and  the  nearest  point 
of  Polynesian  culture.  We  are  therefore  warranted  in  expecting 
Melanesia,  on  this  theory,  to  establish  its  articulation  with  the 
Malayan  speech  group  in  one  direction,  with  the  Polynesian  tongues 
in  the  other,  and  internally  we  look  to  find  some  thread  of  inter- 
relation between  Efate-  and  such  other  languages  of  Melanesia  as 
are  known  at  all.  In  the  order  of  antecedent  probability,  a  mathe- 
matical deduction  as  generally  applicable  as  an  algebraic  equation, 
these  associations  should  be  arranged  in  the  following  order : 

Melanesian  interrelations ;  the  most  frequent. 

Indonesian  and  Polynesian  articulations;  either  equal  in 

frequency  or  exhibiting  a  slight  preponderance  toward 

the  Indonesian. 

These  two  terms  are  immediately  limiting.  Established  cases  in 
which  the  two  terms  are  combined  will  have  a  great  weight.  Similar 
weight  will  attach  to  examples  which  are  found  common  to  Mel- 
anesia, Indonesia,  and  the  Semitic.  The  examples  which  can  be 
established  in  an  indisputable  chain  from  Polynesia  through  each 
link  back  to  the  Semitic  will  be  compelling  evidence. 

These  are  the  matters  which  we  are  to  look  for  in  the  exploration 
of  the  material,  in  independent  study  of  the  Efate"  dictionary. 

In  an  earlier  chapter  I  mentioned  the  number  of  the  dictionary 
entries,  3,657,  and  I  gave  that  as  the  result  of  a  count  seriatim. 
The  operations  of  arithmetic  did  not  cease  with  the  attainment  of 
that  figure.  I  made  a  table  of  all  the  words  for  which  Dr.  Macdonald 
claimed  relationship  with  other  households  of  his  Oceanic  family. 
This  table  I  now  present,  for  it  contains  matter  of  note.  In  it  I 
have  cast  out  the  purely  demonstrative  words.  Since  I  have  shown 
that  Dr.  Macdonald  is  willing  to  base  his  own  theory  upon  them  to 
a  certain  considerable  degree,  but  is  averse  from  allowing  their  use 
to  other  inquirers,  I  think  it  preferable  to  put  them  aside  lest  I  be 
classed  with  Bopp  and  Max  Miiller. 


DISSECTION   OE  THE   THEORY. 


33 


In  this  table  I  have  made  use  of  the  convenience  of  abbreviations, 
M  for  Melanesian,  V  for  Viti,  P  for  Polynesian,  My  for  Malayan, 
S  for  Semitic.  With  each  entry  the  name  Efatd  is  to  be  understood. 
Thus  the  first  entry  in  the  table,  M  31,  signifies  that  Dr.  Macdonald 
notes  31  words  in  which  he  finds  for  Efat£  relation  with  some  lan- 
guage elsewhere  in  Melanesia,  but  without  recognizing  further  affilia- 
tions. Similarly  the  final  entry  signifies  that  he  has  found  29  words 
in  Efate"  for  which  he  provides  identification  with  words  along  the 
whole  chain  from  Polynesia  to  the  Arabian  Saba. 

In  such  a  study  as  this  the  position  of  the  Fijian  speech  is  anom- 
alous. It  is  neither  wholly  Melanesian  nor  pure  Polynesian.  As  in 
part  it  may  be  claimed  for  each  household,  there  seemed  but  one 
way  of  securing  fair  treatment  wherever  it  chances  to  be  involved 
in  this  investigation;  namely,  to  set  it  apart  and  in  each  instance 
to  sift  out  the  Melanesian  or  the  Polynesian  affiliation. 


M 

V 

P 

My 

S 

M 

31 

V 

22 

P 

67 

My 

43 

S               346 

MV 

3 

MV 

3 

MP 

9 

MMy 

10 

MS               31 

MP 

9 

VP 

9 

VP 

9 

VMy 

7 

VS               30 

MMY 

10 

VMy 

7 

PMy 

17 

PMy 

17 

PS              103 

MS 

31 

VS 

3° 

PS 

103 

MyS 

100 

MvS           100 

MVP 

i 

MVP 

1 

MVP 

1 

MVMy 

0 

MVS               6 

MVMy 

0 

MVMy 

0 

MPMy 

3 

MPMy 

3 

MPS            22 

MVS 

6 

MVS 

6 

MPS 

22 

MMyS 

28 

MMyS          28 

MPMy 

3 

VPMy 

9 

VPMy 

9 

VPMy 

9 

VPS             25 

MPS 

22 

VPS 

25 

VPS 

25 

VMyS 

26 

VMyS          26 

MMyS 

28 

VMyS 

26 

PMyS 

95 

PMyS 

95 

PMyS          95 

MVPMy 

4 

MVPMy 

4 

MVPMy 

4 

MVPMy 

4 

MVPS            8 

MVPS 

8 

MVPS 

8 

MVPS 

8 

MVMyS 

6 

MVMyS         6 

MVMyS 

6 

MVMyS 

6 

MPMyS 

24 

MPMyS 

24 

MPMyS       24 

MPMyS 

24 

VPMyS 

44 

VPMyS 

44 

VPMyS 

44 

VPMyS       44 

MVPMyS 

29 

MVPMyS 

29 

MVPMyS 

29 

MVPMyS 

29 

MVPMyS    29 

Total 

217 

229 

468 

443 

923 

P.  ct.   5 

•93 

6 

.20 

12 

•79 

12 

.  11 

25-24 

The  total  of  the  words  for  which  his  ingenuity  has  suggested 
affiliations  outside  the  island  of  Efate"  is  1,154.  or  31-55  per  cent 
of  this  dictionary,  which  he  calls  complete.  That  is  to  say,  for  not 
so  much  as  one-third  of  the  vocables  in  the  language  of  Hate"  can 
his  liveliest  fancy — how  lively  that  may  be  we  shall  see  hereafter — 
find  any  sort  of  ground  for  his  promise  of  "the  Oceanic  languages, 
their  material  or  vocabulary  set  forth  in  a  complete  dictionary  of 
one  of  them."  Furthermore  we  find  that  an  even  smaller  number, 
in  effect  no  more  than  a  quarter  of  the  whole  number  of  entries, 
covers  all  the  suggestions  of  Semitic  affiliation  which  he  has  ven- 
tured upon.  Compare  his  claim  that  no  more  than  29  words  establish 
the  complete  chain  from  Arabia  to  Samoa  with  his  identification  of 
346  words  which  connect  Efate"  with  the  Semitic  without  having 
left  a  trace  elsewhere  in  Melanesia  or  anywhere  throughout  the 


34  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

varying  languages  of  Indonesia.  As  soon  as  he  attempts  to  link 
Indonesia  in  the  backward  bight  of  the  chain,  his  figures  fall  to 
ioo,  and  when  he  links  in  Melanesia  he  finds  but  28  available  words. 
Accepted  even  at  his  own  valuation,  philologically  a  most  faulty 
one,  these  are  but  small  foundations  for  so  lofty  an  erection  of  a 
Babel  building  which  is  to  confound  Max  Miiller  and  other  names 
by  no  means  inconsiderable  in  systematic  philology. 

In  these  studies  my  position  is  eastward.  From  Polynesia  I  am 
looking  through  all  available  linguistic  material  toward  the  west, 
hoping  to  find  some  data  that  will  establish  the  partition  of  the 
Polynesian  and  the  Melanesian  elements  in  Viti,  welcoming  any- 
thing that  promises  to  enable  us  to  comprehend  the  Melanesian  in 
areas  where  its  proportion  in  speech  is  the  more  considerable, 
rejoicing  at  the  accession  of  new  knowledge  which  will  equip  us 
to  give  better  study  to  the  possibility  of  some  manner  of  proof  that 
kinship  does  or  does  not  exist  among  Polynesian,  Melanesian,  and 
Indonesian,  convinced  that  only  as  we  establish  these  three  links 
of  the  chain  in  positive  knowledge  can  we  approach  the  yet  earlier 
history  of  these  tongues  with  clear  sight. 

In  Dr.  Macdonald's  material  I  see  three  classes  of  data. 

1 .  A  central  area,  Melanesian  material  for  which  we  have  not  yet 
established  connections  with  either  of  the  known  areas,  Polynesian 
and  Indonesian,  respectively.  We  therefore  want  the  means  to 
subject  this  to  comparative  study,  and  on  this  account  it  remains 
unavailable. 

2.  An  eastward  extension,  through  so  much  of  Melanesia  as  is 
known,  to  the  well-established  knowledge  of  Viti  and  Polynesian. 

3.  A  westward  extension,  through  Melanesia  to  the  equally  well- 
established  knowledge  of  the  Indonesian;  and,  yet  more  remote, 
Dr.  Macdonald's  confident  projection  to  the  Semitic. 

The  second  class  is  that  which  shall  provide  the  instruments  for 
our  study  of  these  data  upon  which  we  are  now  to  engage  at  much 
length  and  with  the  utmost  attention  to  the  minuteness  of  detail. 
The  Indonesian  languages,  and  in  yet  greater  measure  the  Semitic 
tongues,  have  their  own  enthusiastic  students,  and  to  such  we  may 
confidently  leave  the  prosecution  of  similar  research  from  the 
vantage-ground  of  their  own  knowledge,  in  case  this  ambitious 
theory  should  seem  at  its  western  extremity  as  proper  a  subject  of 
debate  as  it  does  to  those  of  us  who  are  engaged  at  the  eastern 
extremity. 

In  the  following  detailed  study  I  have  purposely  omitted  many 
examples,  for  simple  inspection  will  show  our  author  patently  in 
error.  At  the  same  time  I  have  endeavored  to  afford  room  for  all 
such  as  seemed  at  least  debatable.  The  process  of  elimination  will 
be  continued  in  these  studies. 


CHAPTER  VI. 
EFATE"  AND  VITI  AND  POLYNESIA. 

Comparison  of  the  vowels  of  the  Melanesian  element  of  Efatg  and 
Viti — The  establishment  of  consonantal  variety — The  assumption  of 
a  parent  speech  from  which  these  deviate — The  Viti  appears  to  be 
the  younger  son — The  comparison  continued  through  the  Sawaiori 
element  of  Viti — Viti,  Samoan  and  their  parent  speech,  the  Proto- 
Samoan — Comparison  of  Efat6  with  Polynesian  and  summation  of 
results — The  extent  to  which  Efat6 identifications  penetrate  into  Poly- 
nesia— Argument  from  recorded  anomalies — It  is  improbable  that 
Efat£  received  its  Polynesian  content  through  westward  drift  of  casta- 
ways— Proof  that  this  element  came  through  the  migration  of  Proto- 
Samoan  wanderers — Check-list  of   Polynesian  phonetic  mutations. 

At  the  eastern  extremity  of  the  language  groups  which  it  is  sought 
to  associate  into  this  Oceanic  family  we  have  two  firm,  if  unsaintly, 
foundations,  the  Polynesian  (or  Sawaiori  of  Whitmee's  proposed 
nomenclature,  convenient  even  if  not  wholly  acceptable),  and  the 
Viti.  Such  element  of  the  Viti,  somewhat  less  than  half  of  the 
vocabulary  according  to  my  estimate,  as  is  not  identifiable  with 
the  Sawaiori  we  assume  to  be  of  Melanesian  origin.  The  larger 
element  we  shall  consider  in  its  clear  connection  with  the  Sawaiori. 
We  shall  examine  the  Efate"  first  in  its  relation  to  the  Melanesian 
Viti;  thence  we  shall  proceed  to  the  examination  of  the  Efate-  in  its 
relation  to  the  Sawaiori  with  the  inclusion  of  so  much  of  the  Viti 
as  properly  pertains  to  that  stock;  last  of  all  to  the  consideration 
of  the  element  of  Efate'  which  appears  in  the  Sawaiori  without 
having  left  an  impress  upon  the  Viti. 

The  data  1-47  in  Appendix  I  enable  us  to  complete  our  con- 
spectus of  the  material  in  Efate"  which  is  identifiable  with  that 
element  in  the  carefully  wrought-out  Viti  vocabulary  which  has  not 
been  identified  with  any  of  the  equally  familiar  tongues  of  Polynesia. 
Two  explanations  here  are  possible:  the  former  that  this  is  truly 
a  portion  of  the  Melanesian  component  of  Viti;  the  latter  that  this 
element  is  Polynesian,  but  that  it  has  failed  of  preservation  in  the 
eastward  languages.  The  former  we  adopt  provisionally  as  by  far 
the  more  probable. 

Now  let  us  sum  the  observations  as  to  the  phonetic  relations  of 
Efate"  and  the  Melanesian  component  of  Viti,  and  first  the  vowel 
system. 

By  far  the  largest  mass  of  vocalic  dissimilarities  in  the  data  under 
study  lies  within  the  area  of  the  neutral  vowel.     I  have*  already 

♦17  Journal  of  the  Polynesian  Society,  87. 

35 


36  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

had  to  deal  with  this  matter  in  the  consideration  of  the  phonetics 
of  the  more  strictly  Polynesian  languages.  The  same  holds  true, 
mutatis  mutandis,  of  these  two  Melanesian  tongues.  I  cite  the 
earlier  discussion  of  the  subject : 

A  man  with  a  quick  ear  and  an  obedient  tongue  may,  as  the  result  of 
long  discipline,  acquire  almost  perfect  use  of  the  Samoan  consonants,  but 
it  is  most  probable  that  no  Caucasian  has  really  mastered  the  art  of  the 
Samoan  vowels.  It  is  as  in  their  music :  the  intervals,  the  supertones,  and 
the  fractions  of  the  tone  are  developed  on  a  system  which  we  find  it 
impossible  to  acquire.  It  establishes  a  new  group  of  units  of  vibration 
of  the  vocal  cords,  for  which  the  fundamental  diapason  of  our  own  speech 
is  not  set  in  unison. 

With  this  in  mind,  we  shall  find  a  plain  explanation  of  the  central  triangle 
of  the  vowel  changes  if  we  regard  the  short  a,  e,  o  as  merely  so  many 
approximations  to  a  primal  obscure  short  vowel  which  lies  centrally  situ- 
ated in  respect  of  these  three  apical  points.  One  congeries  of  the  Polyne- 
sian tongues  may  have  had  a  vibration  series  and  period  which  inclined 
its  use  of  the  primal  obscure  vowel  somewhat  in  the  a  direction ;  to  another 
congeries  the  e  component  was  the  more  grateful;  to  yet  another  the 
tendency  was  in  the  o  or  labial  grade.  *  *  *  Thus  we  have  no  hesitation 
in  taking  this  central  triangle  of  a-e-o  out  of  the  group  of  vowel  changes 
in  Samoan,  of  regarding  it  as  no  more  than  a  doubly  muffled  rendering  of 
a  single  central  sound,  and  of  removing  it  entirely  from  consideration 
among  the  criteria  of  vowel  changes  as  dialectic  indicia. 

When  we  diagram  upon  the  common  alphabetic  scheme  the  vowel 
changes  not  in  this  class,  we  find  some  interesting  developments. 
Along  the  palatal  strut,  that  which  rests  upon  i  and  peaks  in  a, 
in  the  data  thus  compared  we  find  but  a  single  instance  of  the 
dialectic  vowel  change  a-i  in  bila  (12)  to  pick  up  Viti  vili,  and  of 
i-e  in  seri  (22)  to  loose  a  tabu  Viti  sereka  to  untie;  and  the  weight 
of  these  instances  is  considerably  lessened  by  the  fact  that  they  lie 
in  an  unaccented  syllable,  and  a  terminal  one  at  that,  unaccented 
terminal  vowels  in  Viti  being  evanescent. 

On  the  labial  strut,  from  a  to  u,  most  of  these  vowel  changes  are 
seen  to  lie.  The  maximum  frequency,  four  instances,  is  found 
between  o  and  u,  the  change  u-o  is  seen  in  bure  (14)  to  wash  Viti 
mborea;  lume  a  (19)  to  dip  Viti  lomotha;  and  suba  (33)  to  break 
Viti  sovetaka;  the  change  o-u  in  mako  (41)  offspring  Viti  makumbu 
grandchild.  A  change  over  a  slightly  longer  interval,  o-a,  is  found 
in  trim  (38)  turmeric  Viti  ndamu,  red.  A  still  longer  gap  is  found 
in  a-u  in  bera  (27)  to  crumble  Viti  vuruvuru;  and  in  the  reverse  direc- 
tion, u-a,  in  mutrei  (5)  breadfruit  cake  Viti  mandrai. 

There  remain  three  changes  which  vary  from  the  foregoing  simple 
system  of  vocalic  mutation  along  one  or  the  other  of  these  struts, 
for  they  cut  across  diagonally.  Of  the  change  e-u  we  have  two 
examples,  in  tefa  ki  (24)  to  range  Viti  tuva,  and  in  bera  (27)  to 
crumble  Viti  vuruvuru.  The  change  i-o  is  found  in  bori  (28)  to 
break  Viti  vorota;  and  u-i  in  lubwa  (30)  to  pour  out  Viti  livia. 


EFATE  AND  VITI  AND  POLYNESIA.  37 

We  now  proceed  to  the  examination  of  the  consonant  scheme  of 
the  two  languages.     They  thus  appear  in  the  diagram: 

EfaU.  Viti. 

Semivowels y     r,  1      w  y  r,  1     w 

Nasals ng     n       m  ng  n      m 

Sibilants{|^.. ....... ...........    -  -  - 

^ants{l--..................:chcm(0T-  _    dh     v 

Ml1t.p<!  [Sonant g     —       b  nggnd    mb 

wutes  \Surd k      t      —  k      t     — 

(kw-bw-kb) 
(ngm-ngw-mw) 
ts 
tr 

The  constant  consonants  are  ng,  k,  I,  n,  s,  m;  the  constant  muta- 
tion is  f-v.  It  does  not  seem  advisable,  in  the  limited  supply  of 
data,  to  essay  the  quantitative  weighting  of  the  mutations ;  but  in 
qualitative  examination  it  seems  altogether  permissible  to  deduce 
a  scheme  of  the  consonant  skeleton  of  the  common  ancestor  from 
which  derive  the  Ef  at£  and  the  Melanesian  component  of  Viti.  This 
we  shall  designate  the  Efat£-Viti  parent  speech,  and  for  convenience 
shall  refer  to  it  by  initials  E-V.  In  this  diagram  we  present  in  each 
triple  entry  the  Efat£  consonant  at  the  left,  the  parent  in  bold-face 
type,  the  Viti  at  the  right : 

EjaU-Parent-  Viti. 

r-r-r,  1 
1-1-1 
tr-r-ndr 

ng-ng-ng  n-n-n  m-m-m 

—  s-s-s 

dh-dh-dh  b-v-v 

(ch)  —  f-f-v 

g.g-ngg  t-d-nd  b-b-mb 

k-k-k  t-t-t  b-p-mb 

The  characteristic  Melanesian  compounds,  kw-bw-kb,  ngm-ngw-mw, 
and  ts  are  left  unplaced  in  reference  to  E-V  by  reason  of  the  fact 
that  this  particular  group  of  data  affords  no  opportunity  to  link  them 
to  the  known  physics  of  the  Viti  consonant  structure.  Abundant 
material  for  their  intimate  study  will  be  afforded  us  later  in  the  work. 
For  the  present,  our  comments  on  the  results  thus  far  attained  shall 
be  summary;  the  discussion  will  properly  follow  upon  the  similar 
analysis  of  the  remaining  data,  so  much  more  voluminous. 

If  we  examine  the  diagram  attentively  we  note  the  particular 
features  in  which  the  offspring  equally  favor  the  parent.  In  the 
upper  portion  the  resemblance  is  perfect;  the  nasals  and  sibilants 
are  the  same;  so,  in  effect,  are  the  semivowels;  so  the  sonant  lin- 
gual spirant,  and  of  the  surd  mutes  the  palatal  and  the  lingual.     In 


38 


THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


the  palatal  series  and  again  in  the  lingual  series  only  one  of  the  two 
inheriting  languages  falls  away  from  the  ancestral  estate  and  that 
in  but  a  single  item  in  each  series.  In  the  labial  series  both  lan- 
guages have  lost,  and  in  equal  measure,  a  possession  of  the  parent. 
In  the  comparison  of  the  two  junior  languages  we  shall  see  that  the 
Efate"  more  nearly  takes  the  property  as  heir-at-law,  and  the  Viti  is 
struggling  to  keep  a  younger  son's  uncertain  hold  upon  the  family 
possessions.  The  proof  of  this  lies  in  our  comprehension  of  the 
inward  significance  of  the  reinforced  or  prefaced  consonants. 

Both  languages  show  the  impossibility  of  reproducing  the  uvular 
r  without  a  conscious  effort  to  produce  a  sound  for  whose  expression 
the  buccal  organs  lack  training.  The  effort  takes  the  same  form; 
Efate  with  its  tr  shows  a  shade  less  exertion  to  be  necessary  than 
the  Viti  ndr.  In  all  other  cases  where  Viti  employs  the  nasal  of 
the  same  series,  namely,  in  the  three  sonant  mutes,  it  is  seen  that 
Efate"  is  able  to  take  the  sound  without  assistance.  This  makes  it 
clear  that  Efate\  lying  relatively  toward  the  west,  closer  approaches 
E-V  thanViti,  which  lies  so  far  at  the  eastern  verge  of  Melanesia  as  to 
have  been  overlaid  deeply  by  Polynesian  sounds,  forms,  and  usages. 

So  far  as  these  two  points  may  determine  the  line,  so  far  as  the 
comparison  of  the  two  tongues  shows  the  direction  along  that  line, 
we  look  for  E-V  at  some  point  on  the  line  produced  beyond  Efate\ 
Now  the  inspection  of  our  charts  shows  that  the  line  produced 
westward  beyond  Efate  is  immediately  drowned  in  empty  sea.  We 
may,  then,  look  for  the  E-V  parent  either  among  the  islands  lying 
south  of  the  central  New  Hebrides  or  among  those  lying  in  the 
northern  area.  So  far  we  have  considered  but  these  two  points; 
we  need  new  points  to  establish  to  our  satisfaction  what  becomes 
of  that  line  when  once  it  turns  the  corner  at  Efate\  The  remaining 
data,  which  we  are  now  to  study,  will  tend  to  acquaint  us  with 
these  points.  That  is  the  definite  object  which  the  close  scrutiny 
of  this  store  of  newly  available  Melanesian  material  has  presented 
to  my  investigation. 


Table  A. 


Viti. 

Proto- 
Samoan. 

Samoan. 

Viti. 

Proto- 
Samoan. 

Samoan. 

Viti. 

Proto- 
Samoan. 

Samoan. 

a 

a 

a 

u 



o 

h 

h 



e    1 

{  e 

u 

u 

u 

dh 

h 

s 

Y 

(Obscure 

\ 

0 

u 

dh 

s 

s 

C 

vowel) 

) 

a    J 

(  a 

a 

— 

u 

s 

s 

s 

e 

e 

e 

y 

y 

— 

mb 

V 

V 

i 

i 

i 

r 

r 

1 

mb,  v 

f 

f 

i 

— 

e 

ndr 

r 

I 

ngg,k,dh 

k 

' 

e 

— 

i 

1,  n 

1 

1 

t,  nd,  k, 

}' 

t 

u 

— 

i 

ng.  v 

ng 

ng 

dh,  s 

a 

— 

— 

n,  ng 

n 

n 

mb,  v 

P 

P 

o 

0 

o 

m,  ng 

m 

m 

EFATE   AND  VITI   AND   POLYNESIA. 


39 


We  shall  next  pass  under  review  the  comparison  of  Efate  with 
that  element  of  Viti  which  has  been  proved  to  be  Polynesian.  The 
data  for  this  study  will  be  found  under  the  items  64-72,  121-146, 
186-238,  272-365. 

Before  entering  upon  this  examination  we  present  a  tabular  aspect 
of  the  mutations  between  Viti  and  Samoa  as  derived  from  the 
discussion  of  the  465  words  in  the  Viti  dictionary  which  are  satis- 
factorily identified  as  Polynesian,  and  to  collocate  therewith  the 
Proto-Samoan  as  in  the  relation  of  parent.     (See  table  A,  page  38.) 

Table  B. 


E 

V 

P-S 

S 

Data. 

E 

V 

P-S 

S 

Data. 

a 

a 

a 

a 

e 

a 

gl 

I320 
1 340 

322 

324 

339 

»g 

»g 

ng 

rag 

(12  cases) 

m 

rag 

ng 

rag 

199 

i 

a 

a 

a 

232 

322 

324 

n 

n 

ng 

rag 

125 

0 

a 

a 

a 

195 

357 

k 

k 

k 

' 

(28  cases) 

u 

a 

a 

a 

129 

rag 

k 

k 

' 

136     297 

299 

36i 

a 

e 

a 

a 

70 

188 

307 

— ■ 

ragg 

k 

188 

a 

u 

a 

a 

144 

202 

k 

ragg 

k 

191     202 

224 

e 

e 

e 

e 

rag 

rag 

k 

135 

a 

e 

e 

e 

134 

203 

j 

s 

s 

.f 

(12  cases) 

[203 
1354 

210 

297 

338 

t 

s 

s 

s 

232 

1 

e 

e 

6 

s 

dh 

s 

s 

/  65     143 
134 1     342 

298 

337 

0 

e 

e 

e 

189 

344 

a 

a 

e 

e 

121 

126 

s 

s 

— 

— 

206     339 

e 

i 

e 

e 

65 

s 

dh 

h 

r  72   215 
1352   363 

338 

340 

i 

0 

e 

e 

191 

i 

i 

i 

i 

— 

dh 

h 

— 

274   278 

e 

i 

i 

204 

319 

/ 

dh 

— 

— 

235 

0 

i 

i 

196 

t 

t 

t 

(34  cases) 

a 

a 

i 

225 

t 

nd 

t 

(208     347 
1350     353 

348 

349 

a 

e 

i 

237 

u 

u 

i 

298 

305 

362 

t 

dh 

t 

70     141 

e 

u 

i 

133 

s 

s 

t 

133 

0 

0 

0 

0 

t 

s 

t 

238 

a 

0 

0 

0 

137 

138 

205 

m 

m 

m 

m 

(25  cases) 

e 

0 

0 

0 

349 

m 

rag 

m 

m 

3i3 

i 

0 

0 

0 

205 

231 

33i 

353 

b 

TO 

m 

m 

191 

u 

0 

0 

0 

219 

f 

V 

V 

V 

296 

0 

u 

0 

0 

3'4 

b 

■v 

V 

V 

307 

u 

u 

u 

u 

f 

w 

V 

V 

291 

a 

u 

u 

u 

273 

b 

w 

V 

V 

281 

i 

u 

u 

u 

134 

284 

321 

34i 

bw 

w 

V 

V 

189 

0 

u 

u 

u 

125 

286 

273 

} 

V 

(10  cases) 

a 

0 

u 

u 

129 

b 

V 

(13  cases) 

0 

0 

u 

u 

138 

194 

u 

V 

206     273 

363 

u 

0 

u 

u 

288 

— 

V 

360 

I 

I 

1 

I 

(27  cases) 

b 

mb 

273 

r 

I 

1 

I 

(11  cases) 

bw 

mb 

'33 

I 

r 

r 

I 

(123 
L341 

138 

3" 

3i5 

b 

mb 

p 

p 

(65       125 
I207     285 

190 
289 

192 

r 

r 

r 

I 

/132 
1336 

136 

355 

225 
359 

327 
364 

bw 

mb 

p 

p 

[124     128 
I279 

'39 

218 

I 

ndr 

r 

I 

272 

f 

mb 

p 

p 

134 

r 

ndr 

r 

I 

334 

335 

b 

V 

p 

p 

45     284 

286 

ft 

n 

n 

n 

bw 

V 

p 

p 

361 

n 

n 

n 

I 

296 

— 

V 

p 

p 

36i 

/ 

V 

— 

w 

295 



-         -  1 

40 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


The  mutations  properly  referable  to  the  parent  neutral  vowel  are 
very  numerous.  The  less  frequent  vowel  mutations  are  here  set 
down  with  the  authority  on  which  they  rest,  and  in  case  of  material 
involved  in  this  collection  of  data  the  serial  number  is  appended  for 
convenience  of  reference. 


i-e  siapo-seavu.     Note,  the  mutation  e-t 

is  extremely  common. 
\-a  ofanga-ovi. 
I-m  'ili-kuli  (294),  milo-mulo,  isu-uthu 

(289),  ilo-uloulo  (334). 


u-i   tulu-iiri  (332). 

u-o  'uli-koli  (118),  lofia-luvu  (253),  ma/w- 

tnavo,  ufi-oiri,  jangu-vango. 
u-a  ngungulttr-ngalo,  liu-lia  (197). 


The  less  frequent  of  the  constant  mutations  are  these : 


I-»      lama-nama,  lamu-namu. 

k-dh 

se'e-dhedhe. 

ng-fe   anga-dhaka. 

k-ng 

'i-ngi. 

ng-ii    lingi-livi  (103). 

t-k 

tupoto-tumboko. 

n-reg   sina-nngasingau. 

t-s 

lata-lasa,  uta-usa  (238). 

m-ng  lima-linga  (313). 

t-dh 

tofe-dhove,  matala-madhala 

Table  C. 


E 

P 

Data. 

E 

P 

Data. 

a 

a 

(73  cases) 

a 

I  S3     95     "7     157     163     164 
\i6s     256     268 

m 

ng 

246     264 

€ 

mw 

ng 

167 

i 

a 

63     86     117      175      178     258 

k 

ng 

248 

0 

a 

95      109     161      181 

g 

ng 

248 

u 

a 

86     167     250 

t 

ng 

61 

e 

e 

(12  cases) 

k 

' 

(21  cases) 

a 

e 

120     163     172     249 

ng 

* 

95     169     171     178 

250 

i 

e 

87     115     152     173     261 

— 

' 

258 

0 

e 

247 

.r 

s 

(20  cases) 

u 

e 

87 

/ 

s 

90  (cf  96)  169 

i 

(30  cases) 

t 

s 

170 

a 

171     24 1 

h 

s 

255 

e 

165     174     24i     254 

t 

t 

(36  cases) 

0 

241 

m 

m 

(26  cases) 

u 

91     242     251 

b 

m 

76 

a 

0 

(25  cases) 

bw 

m 

172 

a 

0 

96     99     172     244     255 

m 

— 

102 

e 

0 

88     244 

mw 

— 

107 

i 

0 

87     244     255 

bw 

V 

50     84     109     242 

[52     58     59     75     160     163 

■w 

V 

"7 

u 

0 

\i84     264 

f 

V 

152 

u 

u 

(42  cases) 

b 

V 

87 

a 

u 

103     109     no     123 

f 

f 

(17  cases) 

e 

u 

179 

b 

f 

[49     51     83     86     147 

148 

i 

u 

105 

(.174     243     246 

0 

u 

51     83     88     245 

bw 

f 

245 

I 

1 

(26  cases) 

kb 

f 

157 

r 

1 

(22  cases) 

b 

p 

(15  cases) 

r 

— 

158 

bw 

p 

179     183     241 

n 

n 

(18  cases) 

} 

p 

173     176     250 

»g 

ng 

/83     92     93     94     '5i     '54 
\i77     246     264 

m 

p 

103 

Dealing  now  with  so  much  of  the  Efate  material  as  possesses  in 
the  Viti  a  possible  bridge  across  the  gap,  we  construct  table  B, 
on  the  preceding  page.  The  mass  of  the  data  under  consideration, 
amounting  to  175  entries,  is  sufficient  to  establish  these  results  upon 


EFATK   AND  VITI  AND  POLYNESIA. 


41 


a  satisfactory  basis.  The  Efate  material  is  adjusted  to  the  preceding 
table  of  Viti-Proto-Samoan-Samoan.  Corroboration  is  not  listed 
in  the  case  of  the  more  frequent  concords  or  mutations. 

The  following  mutations,  which  have  been  observed  in  the  com- 
parison of  Viti  and  Samoan,  are  not  involved  in  any  of  the  material 
for  which  we  possess  Ef ate"  data :  a-u,  nd-h,  dh-k,  k-t,  v-ng,  ng-n,  mb-v. 

The  results  of  this  collation  are  exhibited  in  the  following  table 
showing  to  what  extent  there  is  an  agreement  persisting  through 
Efatd-Viti-Samoa,  in  cases  where  Viti  and  Samoa  differ  to  what 
extent  Efate"  agrees  with  Samoa  and  with  Viti  respectively,  and  to 
what  extent  it  differs  from  each.  The  cases  of  agreeing  vowels  have 
been  omitted  for  convenience.  The  spirants  and  mutes  of  the  labial 
series  have  been  omitted  because,  owing  to  the  absence  of  one  or 
other  from  each  language,  it  has  proved  impracticable  to  establish 
a  comparison;  the  items  involved  in  this  omission  amount  to  52. 


Vowels. 

Semi- 
vowels. 

Pala- 
tals. 

Lin- 
guals. 

Labi- 
als. 

Total. 

Throughout 

With  Samoa 

With  Viti 

8 

8 

43 

41 

6 

11 

12 

40 

3 
2 
6 

46 
18 

3 
8 

25 

1 

152 
36 
24 
69 

We  now  pass  to  the  consideration  of  the  data  involving  Efate 
and  Polynesian  which  find  no  bridge  in  Viti.  (Table  C,  page  40.) 
These  will  be  found  under  the  items  48-63, 73-I2°»  147-185,  239-271. 
Here  again,  in  the  possession  of  160  items,  we  have  satisfactorily 
sufficient  data  for  a  comparative  study. 

The  results  of  this  collation  are  displayed  in  the  following  table. 
As  before,  the  spirants  and  mutes  of  the  labial  series  have  been 
omitted  because  comparison  is  impracticable;  /,  however,  being 
comparable,  is  included. 


Vowels. 

Semi- 
vowels. 

Pala- 
tals. 

Lin- 
guals. 

Labi- 
als. 

Total. 

182 
7i 

26 
23 

30 
12 

74 
5 

43 
'5 

355 
126 

From  this  material  we  diagram  the  relation  of  Efate"  and  Samoa 
to  their  common  parent. 

EjaU-Parent-Samoa. 

r-r-1 

1-1-1 

tr-r-1 


ng-ng-ng 

n-n-n 

s-s-s 

m-m-m 

bw-v-v 
f-f-f 

g-g-' 

t-d-t 

b-b-p 

k-k-' 

t-t-t 

b-p-p 

42  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Comparing  this  with  the  similar  diagram  Efate-Parent-Viti  (page 
37)  we  note  the  following  differences : 

1.  That  Samoan  '  has  to  do  duty  for  parent  g  and  k. 

2.  That  Efate"  and  Samoan  t  alike  are  called  upon  to  do  duty 

for  parent  d  and  t. 

3.  That  Samoan  p  does  duty  for  parent  b  and  p. 

4.  That  Efate"  b  does  duty  for  parent  b  and  p. 

5.  That  Efate  bw  does  duty  for  parent  v. 

In  yet  broader  comparison  we  observe  that  all  but  one  of  these 
differences  is  found  among  the  mutes  in  their  three  series;  that 
Efate"  possesses  both  sonant  and  surd  of  the  palatal  mutes;  that 
it  accords  with  Samoan  in  the  loss  of  the  sonant  lingual  mute,  and 
that  in  the  labial  mutes  it  has  lost,  or  has  not  yet  acquired,  the 
surd,  while  Samoan  has  lost  the  sonant. 

When  we  add  to  this  latter  item  the  consideration  that  Efate"  has 
difficulty  in  compassing  the  sonant  spirant  of  this  same  series  and 
has  to  render  it  by  the  muted  semivowel  bw,  we  are  led  to  the 
conclusion  that  while  the  Efate"  folk  have  a  richer  endowment  of 
palatals  their  lips  are  not  sufficiently  under  nice  control  to  do  justice 
to  the  wealth  of  the  Proto-Samoan  labials,  a  determination  which 
naturally  arises  from  inspection  of  what  we  may  deem  a  mouthing 
process  in  pronunciation.  We  are,  therefore,  not  at  all  surprised 
that  in  the  instances  where  Efate  is  comparable  with  Viti  and 
Samoan,  and  they  are  not  in  concord,  this  ruder  speech  of  the  west- 
ern seas  agrees  with  the  rougher  Viti  in  40  per  cent  of  such  cases. 

We  shall  next  pass  to  the  consideration  of  the  width  of  these 
Efate"  identifications  with  Polynesian,  and  we  shall  reckon  the  tale 
of  those  that  are  found  only  in  Nuclear  Polynesia,  the  proximate 
islands ;  and  those  which  have  reached  to  the  most  distant  verge  of 
Sawaiori  migration.  We  shall  be  narrowly  particular  in  specializ- 
ing geographically  the  identifications  in  Nuclear  Polynesia,  except 
for  a  certain  important  subdivision  more  general  in  regard  of  the 
classification  of  identifications  in  the  eastward  Polynesia  of  the 
later  swarming.  In  each  case  we  treat  Nukuoro*  as  practically 
Samoa,  and  the  few  instances  drawn  from  Polynesian  inclusions  in 
Melanesia  or  islands  of  the  Polynesian  vergef  we  class  with  Nuclear 
Polynesia.  Furthermore  we  segregate  the  data  as  involving  or 
omitting  the  Viti,  a  major  subdivision  in  scope,  yet  one  which  more 
complete  scrutiny  of  distal  Polynesia  may  quite  as  probably  show 
to  be  devoid  of  existence;  it  is  accordingly  maintained  as  no  more 
than  provisional. 


♦17  Journal  of  the  Polynesian  Society,  152.     t*7  Amer.  Journal  of  Philology,  370. 


EFATE   AND  VITI   AND  POLYNESIA. 


43 


EjaU-Viti-Nuclear  Polynesia. 


Samoa 65 

Tonga 121 

Nukuoro 348 

Moiki 356 

Samoa-Tonga 70 

Samoa-Futuna 186 

Samoa-Niue 127 

Futuna^-Nukuoro 45 

■195 
/?* 


191     357 


Samoa-Tonga-Niue 

Samoa-Tonga-Futuna 

Samoa-  Tonga-Niue-  \ 
Uvea] ' 

Samoa-Tonga-Niue-  \ 
Futunaj  ' 

Samoa-Tonga-Futunai.,  ^^ 


129    221     337 
\(and  Fotuna) 

131 

66  135  188  202 
225  341  (and  Nu- 
kuoro) 


Samoa-Tonga-Niue-  \ 
Futuna-Uvea/ ' 


136     145     311 


Samoa-Tonga-Niue-1  /132     198     ; 
Futuna-Uvea-Nukuoro/  \  (etc.)  209 


Samoa  . 


EfatS-Nuclear  Polynesia. 

(54  60  77  79  84 
1 102     105     109    115 

J117     "9    247     251 

[246  (and  Nukuoro) 

Samoa-Tonga 56     85     156     169 

Samoa-Futuna 50     82 

Samoa-Tonga-Niue..  {ku7ro)93    (and  Nu- 


(and 
(and 


Nu- 


Samoa-Tonga-Futunajj*2     254 

Samoa-Niue-Futuna .  .  1 1 1 
Samoa-Niue-Uvea ....  53 
Tonga-Futuna-Uvea  ..112     174 

Samoa-Tonga-Niuel      ._  „ 

Futuna/-"     95     181 

Samoa-Tonga-Niue- j    ^  (and  Nukuoro) 

Samoa-Tonga-Futunal  , 

Uvea/62 
Tonga-Niue-Futuna-\  , 

Uvea/62 
Tonga-Niue-Futuna- .  \ 

Uvea/51 
Samoa-Tonga-Niue- 1 
Futuna-Uvea/ 


255 
■49     91     178 


Combining  these  two  tables,  we  have  noted  69  cases  of  identi- 
fications of  words  common  to  Efate  and  Nuclear  Polynesia  and 
which  extend  no  farther  along  the  track  of  the  migration  eastward. 
As  I  have  been  at  pains  to  indicate*  that  there  is  a  possibility  of 
segregating  the  residua  of  the  former,  or  Proto-Samoan,  migration 
and  the  latter,  or  Tongafiti,  migration  in  Nuclear  Polynesia,  it  is 
of  the  highest  interest  to  note  that  all  but  seven  of  these  identi- 
fications involve  the  Samoan,  and  that  no  less  than  eighteen  reach 
Samoa  and  go  no  farther. 

We  shall  next  take  up  the  tale  of  Efate"  and  all  Polynesia,  distal 
as  well  as  nuclear,  with,  however,  certain  very  important  data 
reserved  for  yet  more  particular  note. 

Efatt-Viti-Polynesia. 


64 

67 

68 

72 

123 

125 

126 

133 

134 

138 

139 

141 

142 

143 

146 

187 

190 

192 

193 

196 

201 

203 

204 

206 

207 

208 

210 

211 

212 

213 

214 

215 

216 

218 

222 

223 

226 

227 

228 

229 

230 

231 

233 

234 

235 

218 

272 

273 

274 

275 

276 

277 

278 

279 

281 

282 

283 

284 

285 

286 

288 

290 

291 

292 

293 

294 

295 

296 

297 

298 

300 

301 

302 

304 

305 

y>6 

307 

308 

310 

312 

313 

314 

315 

317 

318 

319 

320 

321 

322 

323 

324 

325 

326 

327 

330 

331 

332 

335 

336 

338 

339 

340 

342 

343 

344 

.145 

346 

347 

349 

35° 

35i 

352 

353 

354 

355 

358 

359 

360 

36i 

362 

363 

364 

EjaU-Polynesia . 

48 

58 

61 

63 

73 

74 

75 

76 

78 

80 

81 

87 

89 

90 

92 

94 

101 

106 

107 

118 

120 

148 

149 

150 

151 

152 

153 

154 

158 

159 

161 

162 

163 

164 

166 

167 

168 

171 

172 

175 

177 

179 

183 

184 

185 

240 

241 

243 

244 

245 

248 

249 

253 

256 

257 

258 

260 

261 

263 

264 

266 

267 

268 

269 

271 

♦17  Journal  of  the  Polynesian  Society,  214. 


44  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

From  the  188  items  of  the  identification  of  Eate"  material  with 
Polynesia,  including  the  Nuclear  Polynesian  and  the  most  remote 
terminus  of  migration,  we  have  withheld  for  particular  note  the 
following  interesting  items,  which,  with  others  of  similar  import  yet 
to  be  developed,  call  for  special  comment. 

These  items  are  identifications  made  in  Nuclear  Polynesia  and 
thence  traced,  not  to  distal  Polynesia  in  general,  but  to  particular 
termini  with  at  least  one  intervening  or  intermediary  point.  We 
group  them  as  they  fall  into  three  classes  as  southern,  eastern  and 
northern  swarms. 

c     .,         [Maori-Mangareva 72     120     272(nefu) 

Swarm ■"    Maori-Tahiti 137     155     309     3^8     180     250 

'     [Maori-Tahiti-Mangareva.  .106c  239      74     116     165     147     194     197     219 

(Other  intermediate  points  in  several  items  are  Mangaia,  Rarotonga,  Tongarewa,  the 
Paumotu.) 

Eastern     fTahiti-Mangareva 106     232 

Swarm:    \Paumotu-Mangareva 242 

«,     .,         (Hawaii-Mangaia 332c 

i\ormern  J  Hawaii-Tahiti 98     140     160     252 

zworm.     (Hawaii-Tahiti-Paumotu..3i6 

We  have  next  to  consider  a  small  but  well-marked  group  of 
identifications  where  there  is  a  leap  from  Efate  to  distal  Polynesia 
without  having  left  a  trace  in  Nuclear  Polynesia  except  in  so  far 
as  that  may  be  held  to  exist  in  the  instances  linked  to  Viti,  these 
being  distinguished  by  V  in  the  list. 

General 99  176  V237 

Southern  swarm 96  97  V1366    V124 

Eastern  swarm 106a 

Northern  swarm 59  88  104         1 10 

Finally  we  come  to  a  group  where  identification  has  been  estab- 
lished in  Nuclear  Polynesia  and  in  one,  and  only  one,  of  the  per- 
ipheral languages.  In  the  same  classification  and  with  the  same 
notation  they  are  listed  in  the  following  table : 

Swarm: 

Southern ..  1066  V122  V130  V144     182   V199  V236  262  V287    V329  V3436 

Eastern ...  100  108  113  Vi39<i  170       173  V299  V334 

Northern..  55  V  69  83  86     114   V128  V189  V224  V3430 

In  arithmetical  summation  we  find  that  324  identifications  in 
this  material  may  be  considered  quite  satisfactorily  established  as 
between  Efate  and  Polynesia.  Of  these  there  are  69  words  in  which 
the  Efat£  word  is  found  in  Nuclear  Polynesia  alone,  191  in  which 
it  is  general  to  Polynesia,  19  in  which  it  is  associated  to  the  northern 
swarm  which  has  found  its  ultimate  seat  in  Hawaii,  12  to  the 
eastern  swarm,  33  to  the  southern  swarm  and  a  Maori  home. 

Now  what  are  the  deductions  which  may  justly  be  drawn  from 
these  data? 


EFATE   AND  VITI  AND  POLYNESIA.  45 

A. 

We  know  from  our  study  of  the  Samoan  record  of  historical 
tradition  and  equally  from  our  comparison  of  the  elements  and 
methods  of  that  language  with  its  congeners  in  eastward  Polynesia 
that  this  group  of  islands,  so  centrally  situated  in  its  relation  to  the 
outward  islands  as  is  the  palm  to  its  outstretching  fingers,  has  been 
the  scene  of  at  least  two  settlements  of  Sawaiori  stock.  To  these 
two  periods,  culminating  in  the  victory  of  the  earlier  colonists  in 
the  Matamatame  epoch*  I  have  assigned  the  designations  of  Proto- 
Samoan  and  Tongafiti,  the  one  carrying  to  us  its  own  explanation, 
the  other  equally  clear  to  the  Samoan  as  his  own  name  of  the  enemy 
who  drove  him  into  the  mountains,  harried  him  with  exactions,  and 
was  at  last  expelled  by  the  semidivine  might  of  his  great  national 
hero,  Savea,  in  whom  the  Malietoa  name  began. 

Our  initial  problem,  therefore,  is  to  deal  with  the  incidence  of  the 
now  established  Polynesian  content  of  Efate\  Is  it  Proto-Samoan, 
is  it  Tongafiti,  is  it  a  mixture  of  both?  That  is  to  say,  in  another 
form  of  statement,  was  it  the  former  swarm  out  at  the  gates  of  the 
Malay  seas,  or  was  it  the  latter,  or  was  it  both  which  bivouacked 
in  Eiate"  of  the  New  Hebrides  on  its  way  to  Samoa?  Or,  this  is 
a  possibility  as  well,  did  wind-driven  estrays  from  Samoa  obtain  a 
foothold  in  Ef ate  in  sufficient  numbers  to  fix  and  clinch  these  several 
items  upon  the  Melanesian  speech  there  existing?  Was  it  during 
the  earlier  Proto-Samoan  period,  during  the  succeeding  Tongafiti 
period,  or  during  the  modern  Samoan  era  after  Matamatame,  when 
the  language  is  a  mixture  of  these  two  in  proportions  by  us  as  yet 
undetermined,  that  such  reverse  migrations  took  place? 

B. 

The  last  hypothesis,  the  counter  migration  westward  from  Samoa 
considered  as  an  eddy  current  of  the  great  eastward  sweep  of  the 
race,  we  shall  take  up  first.  The  drift  of  such  castaways  has  been 
known  within  the  historic  period.  I  cite  Codrington'sf  excellent 
authority  upon  this  point : 

From  the  limits  of  the  Melanesian  languages  as  defined  above,  the  lan- 
guage of  the  Polynesian  settlements  in  Melanesia  has  to  be  withdrawn. 
The  distinction  between  this  and  the  Melanesian  is  everywhere  plain,  and 
there  is  very  little  distinction  apparently  to  be  made  of  dialect  in  the 
speech  of  one  settlement  and  another.  These  Polynesian  outliers  are  to 
be  found  in  Uea,  one  of  the  Loyalty  Islands;  in  Fate,  Sandwich  Island; 
in  some  islets  of  the  Sheppard  Group,  and  notably  in  the  settlement  of 
Mae  in  Three  Hills ;  in  Tikopia,  north  of  the  Banks  Islands,  and  in  several 
of  the  Swallow  Group  near  Santa  Cruz ;  in  Rennel  and  Bellona,  south  of 
the  Solomon  Islands,  and  in  Ongtong  Java,  near  Ysabel.  The  language 
of  these  is  said,  on  good  authority,  to  be  substantially  that  of  Tonga,  and 

*  27  American  Journal  of  Philology,  37 1 ;  30  American  Journal  of  Philology,  171.' 
t  Melanesian  Languages,  page  7  et  seq. 


46  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

the  same  throughout;  speakers  of  the  Maori  of  New  Zealand  can  under- 
stand it  and  make  themselves  understood;  it  has  nothing  to  do  directly 
with  the  Melanesian  languages.*  The  existence  of  these  Polynesian  settle- 
ments, however,  in  the  midst  of  Melanesia  can  not  fail  to  suggest  questions 
of  interest  and  importance  which  it  is  impossible  to  dismiss  without  con- 
sideration. As  to  their  origin,  it  is  not  difficult  to  conjecture  what  it  has 
been.  Canoes  accidentally  drifting  or  blown  away,  or  expeditions  pur- 
posely directed  to  known  islands,  have  landed  small  parties  of  Polynesian 
people  either  on  uninhabited  places  or  on  islands  occupied  by  Melanesians. 
Some  at  least  of  such  settlements  may  be  supposed  comparatively  modern. 
If  such  islands  as  Rennel,  Bellona,  or  Tikopia  have  been  reached,  remote 
from  any  large  Melanesian  island,  the  colonists  naturally  remain  purely 
Polynesian  in  language,  habits,  and  physical  characteristics,  for  there  is 
no  admixture.  If  a  single  canoe,  or  a  small  male  party,  has  found  its 
way  to  an  inhabited  Melanesian  island,  the  Polynesian  element  has  been 
absorbed,  leaving  perhaps  only  some  fairer  and  more  straight-haired 
children  as  an  evidence  of  mixed  blood. f  In  the  case  of  such  a  settle- 
ment as  Mae  the  case  is  different.  The  middle  part  of  that  island,  one 
only  about  six  miles  long,  is  occupied  by  people  whose  speech  is  that 
common  to  all  these  Polynesian  settlers,  but  who  physically  are  not  dis- 
tinguishable from  their  neighbors  who  are  Melanesian  both  in  language  and 
physical  character.  The  same  is  the  case  in  the  Swallow  Islands:  the 
inhabitants  of  islands  close  together  speak  either  a  language  like  that  of 
Santa  Cruz  or  the  Polynesian ;  but  they  are  all  alike  Melanesian  in  appear- 
ance. The  Tikopians,  an  isolated  Polynesian  settlement,  are  wholly  unlike 
Melanesians — tall,  heavy,  light-colored  men,  with  straight  hair.  The 
reason  why  the  Polynesian-speaking  people  of  Mae,  for  example,  are  Mel- 
anesian in  appearance  clearly  is  that  the  Melanesian  blood  in  them  has 
overborne  the  Polynesian  element;  that  is  to  say,  the  Polynesian  settlers 
have,  generation  after  generation,  taken  Melanesian  wives  into  their  villages 
in  which  the  speech  was  Polynesian.  The  speech,  the  descent  of  chiefs, 
certain  religious  practices,  have  remained  Polynesian,  the  physical  aspect 
has  gradually  lost  its  original  character.  Under  such  circumstances  the 
speech  which  will  be  permanent  is  the  speech  of  the  settlement ;  the  phys- 
ical character  that  will  prevail  will  be  that  of  the  blood.  Hence  the 
Tikopian  is  physically  and  in  language  purely  Polynesian,  the  Fileni  man 
of  the  Swallow  Group  is  in  speech  Polynesian  but  physically  Melanesian. 
The  phenomena  of  the  case  are  thus  explained.! 

♦Some  few  years  ago  a  whaler  picked  up  in  the  Solomon  Islands  and  brought  down  to 
Norfolk  Island  some  natives  of  Mae  and  Fate,  survivors  of  a  crew  massacred  in  Ongtong 
Java.  They  belonged  to  the  Polynesian  settlements,  and  they  told  me  that  they,  the 
Mae  and  Fate  men,  spoke  the  same  language,  and  also  understood  that  of  the  Ongtong 
Java  people. — Dr.  Codrington's  note. 

fl  have  seen  myself  in  Ureparapara  a  man  and  woman  with  a  son,  drifted  thither  from 
some  Polynesian  island;  and  I  have  noticed  straight-haired  children  in  Saddle  Island 
who  were  known  to  be  descendants  of  Polynesian  castaways. — Dr.  Codrington's  note. 

JSome  fifty  years  ago  the  Banks  Islands  were  visited  in  two  successive  years  by  double 
canoes.  The  people  in  those  canoes  said  they  came  from  Tonga.  They  settled  the  first 
year  for  a  time  on  the  islet  of  Qakea,  close  to  Vanua  Lava,  quarrelled  after  a  time  with 
their  neighbors,  and  went  off.  When  they  returned  next  year  they  were  attacked  by 
the  natives  and  driven  off.  There  were  women  with  them.  If  they  had  settled  on 
Qakea  there  would  be  there  now  a  Polynesian-speaking  people,  but  Melanesian  wives 
from  Vanua  Lava  would  be  continually  bringing  in  Melanesian  physical  characteristics. 
If  Qakea  had  been  an  isolated  place  like  Tikopia,  there  would  have  been  then  a  small 
purely  Polynesian  colony. — Dr.  Codrington's  note. 


EFATE   AND  VITI  AND   POLYNESIA.  47 

It  remains  to  state  another  remarkable  fact.  In  Three  Hills  Island, 
Mae,  the  Polynesian  settlement  above  mentioned  is  about  two  miles 
distant  from  Sesake,  at  one  end  of  the  island,  occupied  by  those  who 
may  be  called  the  aborigines.  The  Mae  language  is  Polynesian,  if  not 
purely, at  least  decidedly  so;  the  Sesake  language  is  Melanesian  decidedly, 
and  at  any  rate  has  nothing  that  makes  it  appear  more  influenced  by  its 
Polynesian  neighbor  than  if  Sesake  and  Mae  were  in  different  and  distant 
islands.  This  can  not  be  too  positively  stated,  and  the  importance  of  the 
fact  is  very  great.  It  is  an  exemplification,  in  a  very  narrow  field,  of  what 
is  also  found  to  be  the  case  with  regard  to  Fiji.  The  Fijian  group  is  only 
some  200  miles  west  of  the  Friendly  Islands,  which  are  decidedly  part 
of  Polynesia.  There  has  been  a  considerable  intercourse  between  the  two 
groups,  and  no  doubt  a  great  infusion  of  Tongan,  Friendly  Islands,  blood 
among  the  higher  classes  of  Fijians.  There  has  been  also,  according  to 
native  legends,  a  considerable  intercourse  between  Fiji  and  the  purely 
Polynesian  Samoa.  Yet  the  Fiji  language  is  most  decidedly  Melanesian; 
it  has  no  doubt  something  directly  derived  from  Tonga,  but  it  is  no  more 
Polynesian  than  the  languages  of  the  Banks  Islands,  which  lie  far  away 
to  the  west,  out  of  reach  of  any  but  the  most  casual  and  insignificant 
intercourse  with  Tongans  or  other  Polynesians.  Intercourse,  therefore,  and 
close  neighborhood  with  Polynesians  do  not,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  materially 
affect  the  language  of  Melanesians. 

Yet  Efate"  has  had  its  Polynesian  content  sufficiently  long  to 
subject  it  to  a  course  of  modification,*  and  this  is  not  the  work  of 
a  day  or  of  a  generation.  We  are,  therefore,  to  lay  aside  the  pos- 
sibility that  this  accretion  is  due  to  westward  drift  in  the  modern 
epoch;  furthermore  we  are  yet  without  information  on  the  extent 
to  which  modern  Samoan  is  the  result  of  the  admixture  of  the 
speech  of  the  earlier  and  of  the  later  migrants. 

It  is  equally  impossible  that  the  Polynesian  accretion  came  to 
Efate"  during  the  Tongafiti  domination  of  the  littoral  of  western 
Samoa.  We  have  segregated  in  this  Polynesian  content  a  consid- 
erable proportion  of  words  which,  qua  Polynesian,  are  the  exclusive 
possession  of  Nuclear  Polynesia.  It  is  absurd  to  hold  it  possible 
that  Tongafiti  migrants  should  have  acquired  these  words  from  the 
Proto-Samoans  with  sufficient  grip  to  carry  them  on  a  voyage  against 
the  current  of  their  race  and  to  impress  them  on  an  alien  and 
resistant  people,  yet  with  entirely  too  feeble  a  hold  to  carry  them 
along  the  current  of  their  further  and  easy  migration  eastward. 

The  data  here  collected  must  stand  as  proof  positive  that  if  the 
Polynesian  content  of  Efate"  is  due  to  a  westward  drift  from  Nuclear 
Polynesia  that  acquisition  must  have  been  in  the  Proto-Samoan 
period,  a  period  which  we  must  consider  to  have  ended  with  the 
Tongafiti  swarming,  the  epoch  of  the  great  voyages,  and  that  was 
somewhere  about  1 ,200  of  our  era.     Against  this  possibility  of  west- 

*This  is  shown  in  examination  of  the  data  passim  in  this  collection,  and  particularly 
as  regards  a  specific  detail  of  such  modification  in  my  paper  on  Duplication  by  Dissim- 
ilation, 30  American  Journal  of  Philology,  171. 


48  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

ward  drift  our  comparison  of  the  Polynesian  of  Efate  with  that  of 
Nuclear  Polynesia  gives  us  warrant  to  say  that  it  is  highly  improb- 
able that  Efate"  received  its  Polynesian  from  the  east;  it  gives  us 
no  warrant  to  say  that  it  is  impossible. 

C. 

It  may  be  difficult  and  it  may  remain  difficult  to  prove  that  the 
Polynesian  in  Melanesia  did  not  come  there  from  Sawaiori  settle- 
ments in  the  central  and  eastern  Pacific;  the  proof  of  a  negative  by 
no  means  loses  any  of  its  logical  difficulties  when  stated  in  terms 
of  an  unlettered  people.  But  there  is  all  the  proof  that  consistent 
tradition  can  give  to  the  migration  theory  which  introduces  the 
Melanesian  chain  as  the  line  along  which  the  migrant  fleets  passed 
from  the  known  sojourn  in  Indonesia  to  the  known  occupation  of 
Polynesia.  The  presence  of  so  large  a  share  of  Sawaiori  vocables 
in  Efate"  does  not  in  itself  prove  that  this  island  lay  on  the  fairway 
from  Indonesia  to  Savai'i,  but  it  is  hugely  confirmatory  of  all  other 
evidence  upon  which  this  theory  is  based.  We  are  here  really  not 
so  much  concerned  with  the  proof  of  this  migration  theory  as  we 
are  with  the  determination  of  which  swarm  it  was  that  included 
Efate"  in  its  voyaging. 

In  the  Proto-Samoan  we  have  a  distinct,  and  surely  an  early, 
phase  of  Sawaiori  speech  which  differs  from  the  Tongafiti  in  the 
possession  of  certain  vocables  which  the  latter  has  not — in  the 
absence  of  certain  vocables  which  the  latter  has  preserved  or  has 
acquired  since  the  separation  of  the  two  stems.  Above  all  else  the 
Proto-Samoan  is  distinguished  from  the  Tongafiti  by  its  maintain- 
ing superficially,  or  recoverable  under  the  surface  by  the  merest 
scratching,  the  remnants  of  the  original  speech  in  which  closed 
syllables  were  possible. 

Everywhere  in  this  Polynesian  of  Efate"  we  find  the  closed  syllables, 
of  the  Proto-Samoan,  not  the  Tongafiti  softening  away  of  the  final 
consonant.  This  is  so  common  that  it  has  not  seemed  necessary 
to  collate  for  this  feature,  it  has  been  sufficient  to  insert  the  Proto- 
Samoan  radical  in  each  item  of  the  collected  data  where  it  has  been 
possible  to  recover  it.  On  this  score  we  have  no  hesitation  in  asso- 
ciating the  Polynesian  content  of  Efate"  with  the  Proto-Samoan. 

In  consideration  of  the  vocabulary  we  are  dealing  with  324  items. 
Of  these  there  are  but  1 2  which  are  not  identified  in  Nuclear  Poly- 
nesia; if  we  include  Viti  in  Nuclear  Polynesia,  as  seems  quite 
justifiable,  we  shall  reduce  the  reckoning  to  9.  Now  9  in  324  is. 
readily  explicable  by  the  known  habit  of  Polynesians  to  cast  out. 
certain  words  under  the  manifold  working  of  their  tabu.*  Against 
these  9  is  to  be  set  the  fact  that  of  our  324  identifications  20  per 

♦See  note  255. 


EFATE  AND  VITI  AND  POLYNESIA.  49 

cent,  i  in  every  5,  69  words  in  all,  are  common  to  Efate"  and  Nuclear 
Polynesia  and  are  not  to  be  found  in  the  languages  deriving  from 
the  Tongafiti  or  cadet  branch  of  the  family;  that  in  the  close  sub- 
division of  the  Nuclear  Polynesian  18  words  of  these  69  are  to  be 
found  in  Samoa  alone,  and  that  only  7  in  all  fail  of  Samoan  identi- 
fication, and  even  of  these  7  there  are  2  which  might  readily  be 
identified  in  Samoan.  The  conclusion  is  irresistible  that  the  Poly- 
nesian content  of  Efate  is  Proto-Samoan. 

Assuming  the  validity  of  the  migration  down  along  the  Melanesian 
chain  from  Indonesia  to  the  Pacific  we  have  no  hesitation  in  declar- 
ing as  proved  that  the  Proto-Samoan  swarm  had  to  do  with  Efate* 
and  that  the  Tongafiti  swarm  did  not  touch  there.  I  have  used 
discretely  the  term  "had  to  do"  in  reference  to  this  transaction, 
for  we  are  without  data  upon  which  to  base  a  more  definite  determi- 
nation. The  main  body  of  the  Proto-Samoans  may  have  rested 
upon  Efate"  through  such  a  lapse  of  time  as  to  impress  their  better 
speech  upon  the  ruder  autochthons,  or  a  considerable  unit  of  the 
swarm  may  have  deviated  from  the  voyage  and  have  colonized  the 
island.  In  either  case  the  physical  results  of  such  commingling  are 
not  apparent. 

D. 

We  now  come  to  the  last  items  in  the  tabular  grouping  of  the 
data,  the  eastward  extension  of  this  material  which  we  now  know 
to  be  Proto-Samoan  and  its  discovery  in  territory  now  occupied  by 
Tongafiti  descendants.  We  shall  here  touch  upon  it  very  lightly, 
for  it  does  not  bear  upon  the  proof  as  relating  to  Efate.  We  are 
not  to  assume  that  the  swarming  impulse  which  set  the  Proto- 
Samoans  in  motion  from  ancestral  Hawaiki  (whether  that  be  in  the 
Hindu-Kush  or  in  the  Hadramaut), which  drove  them  into  and  out 
of  Indonesia,  which  pushed  them  through  Efate"  and  into  Nuclear 
Polynesia — we  have  no  reason  to  assume  that  this  quest  of  the 
sunrise  deserted  them  when  they  reached  the  green  hills  and  the 
gray  sands  of  Samoa.  We  read  their  stories  but  blindly  if  we  miss 
the  departure  of  hardy  voyagers  in  search  of  sea  and  sea  and  haply 
land  beyond.  Until  the  Tongafiti  came  and  drove  them  from  the 
coasts  the  sea  was  theirs  for  voyaging.  In  these  memoranda  we 
think  we  find  record  of  the  ports  some  of  them  made. 

There  is  confirmation  peripheral  as  well.  Hawaii  has  record*  of 
voyages  from  Samoa  direct,  and  in  New  Zealandf  there  is  a  similar 
tale.  The  Samoans  say  that  their  ancestors  started  on  voyages 
from  Samoa,  the  Hawaiians  and  the  Maori  record  that  voyagers  from 
Samoa  arrived.     Here  in  the  philological  record  we  seem  to  have  the 

*2  Fornander  "Polynesian  Race,"  33.  fS.  Percy  Smith  in  litt. 


50  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

proof  as  convincing  as  in  our  civilized  estate  would  be  the  production 
of  clearance  and  entry  duly  attested  by  tidewaiter  and  collector  of 
the  port. 

We  are  now  brought  to  a  point  at  which  it  will  be  advantageous 
to  offer  a  check-list  of  the  mutations  in  the  Polynesian  material 
contained  in  the  fundamental  data  of  this  work.  The  standard 
upon  which  the  comparison  is  based  is  the  Proto-Samoan,  the  earlier 
phase  which  with  as  much  certainty  as  ease  we  may  recover  from 
the  current  Samoan.  The  figures  refer  to  the  data  items  as  pre- 
sented in  the  appendix.pp.  185-43 1.  The  figures  included  within  par- 
entheses indicate  that  in  the  vocables  thus  designated  the  mutation 
appears  to  run  concurrently  through  two  or  more  languages.  The 
point  is  important  and  worthy  of  some  note,  for  it  is  quite  possible 
that  the  word  stem  may  of  its  own  constitution  carry  the  mutation 
into  a  speech  whereto  the  mutation  itself  is  not  normal.  To  find 
an  excellent  instance  of  this  we  need  look  no  further  than  the  first 
subdivision  hereunder,  the  a-e  mutation  in  fanua  (292)  land,  which 
we  find  to  persist  through  no  less  than  ten  of  the  eighteen  languages 
involved,  yet  which  is  the  only  instance  of  this  mutation  in  Maori 
which  our  material  affords.  To  the  identifying  numerals  the  dia- 
critical mark  of  the  acute  accent  has  been  added  when  the  mutant 
vowel  bears  the  accent  in  Samoan  or  in  the  speech  under  examina- 
tion. This  distinction  will  be  found  of  value  in  all  the  languages 
which  retain  the  penult  accent  (except  where  otherwise  indicated 
in  the  text)  normal  to  Polynesian  speech.  The  Maori,  it  will  be 
recalled  by  those  familiar  with  these  tongues,  has  broken  away  from 
the  Polynesian  rule  and  has  devised  an  accent  system  of  its  own. 
Similarly  the  degree  mark  is  used  to  denote  the  cases  in  which  the 
mutation  occurs  in  an  unaccented  final  syllable. 

a-e  (170,  216, 253,  290,  292,  350) 

Bukabuka .  .216,  292  Moriori 73 

Fakaafo 292  Niue 147,  397',  350 

Futuna 170'  Nukuoro .  .  .  290 

Hawaii 166,  253'  Rarotonga.  .216 

Manahiki . .  .  292  Rotuma. .  .  . 3600 

Mangareva. .  154,  253',  292,  350  Sikayana.  .  .292 

Maori 292  Tahiti 183°,  216,  292 

Marquesas  .  .So,  89,  193,  258,  274,  Tonga 170',  290,  350 

2750,290,292,322  Uvea 148',  292 

Moiki 292  Viti 164'0,  188' 

a-i 

Moriori 350  Tahiti 2 16 

Niue 290  Viti 1396° 

a-o  (216,  271,  292) 

Hawaii 193,292  Tonga 92,107,167,216,271°, 

Marquesas.  .75,  163,  216  277,292 

Moriori 214'0  Uvea 271° 

Niue 93',  216,  292 

Rotuma. .  .  .239',  290,  291',  294',  328' 
351,352' 


EFATE  AND  VITI  AND   POLYNESIA. 


51 


a-M  (144, 167, 185) 

Fotuna 144',  281' 

Futuna 167 

Hawaii 167 

Mangareva. .  167 

Maori 167, 185° 

a-au 

Fotuna 45° 

e-o  (47) 

Bukabuka.  .327 

Futuna 47' 

Hawaii 210' 

e-i 

Aniwa 2490 

Fotuna 315°,  247°,  3630 

e-o  (126) 

Hawaii 126 

Morion 126 

Rotuma. . .  .  122',  272' 
e-it 

Rarotonga.  .257' 
i-a 

Fotuna 2860 


Marquesas.  .185° 

Niue 167,  248 

Tahiti 167,  1850 

Uvea 167 

Viti 144,  202'° 


Niue 127° 

Rotuma. . .  .290° 

Viti 47',  126,  272' 

Rotuma. ...  153' 
Viti 640,  173 


gareva. .126 
Marquesas.  .126 


i- 


Maori 332'/. 

Nukuoro 304' 

Aniwa 300' 


Rotuma. 


•352" 


Fotuna 298',  300',  32 1',  362' 


(This  occurs  in  but  these  two  islands  of  the  verge  and  appears  to  be  only  initial.) 

KX305) 

Nukuoro. . . .  166'  Uvea 286' 

Sikayana ...  32 1'                                                Rotuma. .  .  .  305' 
Tonga 53'  Viti 305' 

o-a 


Morion 287 

Rarotonga.  .257° 
o-e 

Rarotonga.  .205' 

o-i 

Viti 2480 

o-M  (92,314) 

Futuna 92 

Hawaii 314' 

Mangareva.  .314' 

Maori 314' 

Niue 92 

o-ui 

Hawaii 1396' 

u-a 

Fotuna 76',  343°c 

Hawaii 277' 

u-i 

Mangaia. .  .  .168° 
Niue 271 

11-0  (129) 

Fotuna 129',  3280 

Maori 361 

Nukuoro 1390 

a-au 

Fotuna 151 

11 -to 

Tahiti 347 


Tonga 52' 

Tongarewa. .  147° 


Paumotu.  .  .314 
Sikayana. .  .192' 

Tonga 92 

Uvea 92 


Viti 1550 

Tahiti 139,  2i6',285' 


Sikayana.  .  .261' 

Viti 129',  1380,  194,: 


52  THE  POLYNESIAN 

u-ow 

Aniwa 151 

ae-e 

Niu€ 261',  315',  347' 

td-ei 

Maori 268 

au-a 

Mangareva.  .61' 
au-ou  (6 1,  200, 335) 

Aniwa 200',  267',  301' 

Mangareva. .  161',  162',  226',  335' 

Maori 283' 

Marquesas .  .  335' 
el-» 

Tonga 78' 

ou-au 

Fotuna 282' 

ng-n  (note  125) 

Hawaii 

Marquesas  (western  dialect) 
ng-& 

Marquesas  (eastern  dialect) 
ag-ngg 

Viti 248' 

ng-n 

Viti 154° 

ng— 

Maori 3100 

Marquesas.  .151' 

Niue 93' 

kg 

Paumotu .  . .  306' 

k-«g 

Mangareva.  .67,  214 
Uvea 178 

k-»gg 

Viti 188,  191,  202,  224 

k-< 

Niue 250 

k— 

Hawaii 

Marquesas .  .204,  261 

Niue   57 

Nukuoro 300 

Paumotu .  . .  248 
\-n 

Hawaii 154 

Nukuoro 100,  200,  297, 309,  310,  350 

Tahiti 100, 154 

1-ng 

Moiki 

1-/ 

Rotuma 354 

U 

Mangareva.  .257 

\-nd 

Viti 287 

l-ndr 

Viti 272, 307, 314. 334. 335 


WANDERINGS. 


Niue 61',  200' 

Nukuoro .  .  .  200' 

Tonga 6i'F  200',  335' 

Uvea 61' 

Rotuma 2850 

Sikayana 

Viti 332'6 

Tahiti 

Uvea 690 

Viti 135 

Rotuma. . .  .300,  305 
Tahiti 

Tonga 181 

Samoa 

Tonga 312,313 

Uvea 312,313 


EFATE  AND  VITI   AND   POLYNESIA. 


53 


n-l 


Hawaii 257 

Marquesas 

Niue 200,  230, 244,  301,  322, 

327, 336 

Nukuoro 296 


n-r 


a-ng 
h-h 


Rotuma ....  328 

% 
Morion 

Niue 47,81,206,278 

Tonga 


h-w 


h-s 

Rotuma ....  206,  278, 340 
h-tk 

Viti 47,  72,  215,  274,  278,  352 

Hawaii 295 

-f    » 

Futuna 239 

s-h 

Hawaii 

Mangareva 

Maori 

Marquesas 

Niue 91,98 

s-(s,  h) 

Manahiki 

Nukuoro 
s-sh 

Moiki 
s-ndr 

Viti 232 

s-th 

Viti 65, 91, 143,  198,  233,  298, 

337.  338.  340, 341.  344 

Hawaii 245 

Mangaia. . .  .  204,  205 
Mangareva 
Maori 239 

t-j  (ch,  tsh) 

Aniwa 166, 329 

Fila 166, 329 

t-f 

Rotuma. . .  .294,  324,  350 

t-k 

Hawaii 

Mangareva.  .1416 
Paumotu.  .  .216,237 

t-s 

Futuna 3326 

Rotuma 352 

t-nd 

Viti 141a,  208, 329, 350,  353 

Uh 

Rotuma 294 

t— 

Marquesas . .  350 


Tahiti 281 

Nukuoro . . .  349 

Tonga 244,327,356 

Uvea 301 

Samoa 296 

Tahiti 328 

Viti 342 

Uvea 47.295.331 

Viti 206,331,339 


Paumotu 
Tahiti 
Tonga 
Tongarewa 


Tonga 
Uvea 


Marquesas.  .239 

Rarotonga 

Tahiti 90, 140,  239 


£°tuna 133,  165,  219,  329,  355 

Tonga 


Tonga 355 

Liueniua. . . .  350 


Uvea 165, 196,  219,  325 

Viti 238 


Viti 1416 


54 


THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


m-ng 


Maori 

•313 

v-h 

Niue 

.281 

Nukuoro . . . 

.296 

v-w 

Hawaii 

Maori 

i-h 

Aniwa 

•259,329,360 

Hawaii 

Manahiki .  . 

.201,  259,  290,  292 

Mangareva 

Maori 

i-p 

Futuna. . .  . 

.86 

t-v 

Bukabuka . 

.290 

Fotuna .... 

. 166, 329 

Manahiki . . 

.290 

Mangareva. 

.290,293 

Marquesas . 

.290 

t-w 

Hawaii.  .  .  . 

.290 

i-hw 

Bukabuka . 

.292 

Maori 

.122,130,133,147, 

f-6 


Tonga. 


170, 213, 214,  223,  243, 273, 
283,292,293,294 

.86 


i-mb 


f-tck 


f— 


Viti 273a 

i 
Sikayana.  .  .259 


p-4 


Bukabuka 
Mangaia 

Nukuoro 290 

Mangareva.  .92,  147,  148,  213,  214,  272, 
290, 292,  294 


Rotuma ....  285 
Fotuna 192,  286 


p-mb 


Viti. 


p-h 


•64,  125,  128,  173,  190,  192 


Rotuma . 


p-v 


Viti 103,  284,  286 


Viti 313 

Rotuma. . . .  122 


Viti 

Fotuna. . . .281 

Marquesas. .  i3o,"i33,ri66,  292,  293,  296 

Moiki 201,  206, .2 15,  2736,  329 

Moriori 214,^272 

Niue 137  ' 

Tongarewa 

Uvea 86 

Paumotu. .  .290 

Tahiti 290 

Uvea 314 

Viti 


Maori 290 

Moriori 287,  293 


Fila. 


•329 


Rarotonga 

Rotuma. .  .  .206,  214,  290 

Tubuai 290 


Sikayana. .  .285 
Tonga 52,  12S 


CHAPTER  VII. 

POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA. 

Check-list  of  the  material  for  this  section  of  the  work — Tables  of  the 
phonetic  relations  of  81  languages  of  the  Melanesian  archipelagoes — 
The  several  mutations  of  vowels  and  consonants  and  the  languages 
which  employ  them — Analysis  of  these  mutations,  those  which  are 
found  in  Polynesian  and  those  confined  to  Melanesia — The  ground- 
work of  Polynesian  mutation  and  the  Melanesian  system  compared 
therewith — Two  Melanesian  foci  of  Polynesian  influence  brought  to 
light — The  sieve  theory  disproved  by  this  material — Proof  of  the 
general  migration  theory — Crop  colonies  and  the  important  part  they 
play — Two  tracks  of  Proto-Samoan  migration  through  Melanesia — 
Proof  that  a  Melanesian  sojourn  preceded  the  settlement  of  Samoa. 

In  an  earlier  chapter  I  have  written  that  in  accordance  with  Dr. 
Macdonald's  theory  of  his  Oceanic  language  equal  weight  should 
attach  to  the  identification  of  Efat£-Polynesia  and  Efat£-Melanesia. 
The  former  we  have  just  had  under  rigorous  review  and  we  have 
been  led  to  certain  conclusions.  We  are  now  to  examine  the 
Melanesian  material  in  its  turn. 

This  is  distributed  irregularly  through  the  collected  data,  the 
distribution  being  based  upon  the  tabulation  of  the  Efate"  words  in 
several  series.  To  facilitate  reference  to  the  material  of  each  of 
these  languages  the  following  catalogue  will  be  found  of  service. 

Alite 217  239  250  251  259  265  275  278  285  291  300  301  306  309 

313  3i7  330  337  35o  35i  352  356  360  361 

Alo  Teqel  122  123  147  190  193  214  217  239  250  251  272  275  278 

294  300  301  306  307  309  316  317  318  324  328  333  335  337 

343  35o  360  361 

Ambrym  46  147  194  212  215  239  242  252  258  265  266  274  278  284 

287  290  291  297  298  300  305  312  318  324  329  336  350  352 

356  357  360  361 

Aneityum  124  126  147  149  154  168  173  188  191  194  198  204  205 

206  207  214  216  217  228  229  240  241  256  258  260  262  264 

265  266  268  269  270  271  273  274  278  279  282  283  285  288 

291  293  294  298  301  306  307  309  310  312  313  315  316  317 

318  319  320  321  322  323  324  326  328  329  335  337  339  340 

342  344  347  349  350  360  361 

Arag 122  149  152  153  160  IQ°  J93  209  212  214  215  217  239  250 

258  259  265  272  275  278  284  285  290  291  292  294  300  301 

306  307  309  312  313  317  318  324  328  329  330  333  335  336 

352  356  357  360  361 

Baki....i47  149  156  182  190  194  199  208  210  211  217  228  237  240 

247  254  258  263  273  278  282  285  290  291  292  297  298  305 

308  309  312  313  315  317  320  321  324  336  340  344  346  347 

35o  352  356  358  359  361  362  364 

Baravon.  74  122  147  149  156  190  207  214  215  217  257  270  273  280 

284  285  290  291  294  300  313  319  320  323  324  327  329  336 

346  358  360  361 
Bauro ...  47 

55 


56  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Belaga..  46  147  152  203  207  211  258  284  285  290  300  317  338  339 

342  343  346  352 

Bierian..i48  156  199  207  210  216  217  240     252     256     258     259     260     263 

270  278  282  285  290  291  292  293     294     297     298     300     301     302 

305  308  309  311  312  313  315  317     318     320     321     322     323     324 

329  336  340  344  35o  352  356  358     361     364 

Bougainville  149  192  259  265  278  350 

Brierly  Island  190  294  317  324  340  347  361 

Brumer  Island  298  324  344 

Bugotu..i22  147  213  214  217  239  251  257     272     275     278     284     285     290 

291  298  301  305  306  309  312  313  316  317  322  328  329  330 

338  339  343  346  35i  352  361 

Buka 46  149  158  190  207  217  239  247  257  259  265  278  280  285 

298  300  306  308  313  318  324  328  330  343  344  350  352  355 

360  361  363 

Bululaha  190  217  239  250  251  259  265  291  298  300  301  306  309  317 

329  33°  35°  35i  352  356  360  361 

Deni 194  212  214  265  266  278  285  306  307  324  335  339  358  360 

i  361 

Duf aure  Island  1 6  7  340 

Duke  of  York  46  74  122  147  149  164  169  207  214  217  265  269  272 

275  285  290  292  294  300  301  309  312  313  314  316  318  319 

320  321  324  325  327  328  329  332  335  336  343  350  3526  358 

360  361 

Epi 39  44  47  75  77  186  200  202  212  265  286  330  343  -363 

Eromanga  194  206  217  218  240  265  270  273  274  278  282  285  290 

291  294  305  312  317  324  329  333  337  338  349  350  352  360 
361 

Fagani..i22  147  149  190  214  217  239  250  251  257  258  259  265  272 

273  278  285  290  292  294  298  300  307  309  312  313  316  317 

318  324  328  329  330  342  350  351  352  356  357  358  360  361 

Gog 46  122  123  147  149  151  154  190  203  206  214  217  239  251 

268  272  275  278  284  285  298  300  301  306  307  309  312  313 

317  318  322  324  328  333  335  336  338  339  342  343  356  357 

358  360  361 

Guadalcanar  149  272  278  285  298  309  328  335 

Iai 194  259  265  294  318  324 

Kabadi..  46  74  265  266  292  330  361 

Kabakada  122  147  214  285  320  327 

Kalil...  .294  296  312  322  329  352 

King 47  74  147  151  196  213  217  247  258  264  266  280  294  296 

309  312  313  318  319  320  321  323  324  329  336  342  343  344 

349  350  352  358  361  363 

Lakon...i22  123  147  149  190  193  206  214  217  239  251  265  272  275 

278  284  285  292  301  306  309  312  313  317  318  324  328  333 

335  337  343  35o  351  356  360  361 

Lamassa.  47  74  151  190  213  216  247  265  266  280  285  292  294  296 

309  312  313  316  317  318  319  324  329  342  343  344  350  358 

361  363 

Lambell.  47  74  '47  149  x5i  '9°  x96  213  216  247  264  265  266  280 

292  294  296  309  312  316  317  318  319  320  324  329  336  342 

343  344  346  35o  352  358  361 

Laur 47  *5i  '56  190  216  217  247  257  265  266  277  292  294  295 

296  309  312  313  315  316  317  318  319  324  329  333  343  344 

350  352  361  363 
Lemaroro  258  274 

Leon 46  122  147  149  187  193  203  214  265  292  307  318  337 

Lifu 214  259  265  318  324  326  330  333  361 

Lo 46  122  147  149  152  169  190  193  195  212  214  217  239  251 

265  266  272  275  278  285  290  291  300  301  305  306  307  309 

312  313  316  317  318  321  324  328  333  335  336  339  343  350 

35i  356  357  358  360  361 

Maewo.  .  46  122  147  149  152  153  190  193  203  206  212  214  215  239 

259  264  266  272  275  278  284  285  291  292  298  301  306  309 

312  313  316  317  318  324  328  329  333  335  336  337  346  352 

357  358  360  361 

Mai 281 


POLYNESIAN  KEUCS  IN  MELANESIA.  57 

Makura..  74  165  265  273  290  297  302  306  309  312  317  321  333  335 
352 

Malanta.312  324 

Malekula.43  47  74  77  121  147  148  156  157  161  193  194  199  208 

210  211  217  227  228  239  242  246  247  251  252  254  258  259 

270  274  276  278  282  285  287  289  291  292  294  297  300  301 

302  306  309  312  315  316  317  318  319  320  321  323  324  328 

329  335  339  340  344  345  346  347  350  351  352  356  358  359 

360  362  363  364 

Malo. ...  44  47  121  124  147  148  190  193  194  199  203  206  207  208 

217  218  228  239  247  252  254  258  266  270  282  285  289  290 

292  293  297  301  302  305  306  308  309  311  312  313  316  318 

319  320  321  324  328  333  335  336  337  338  339  340  343  344 

346  347  35i  352  353  354  356  358  359  361  362 

Manna..  39  46  147  193  212  214  250  272  275  278  284  285  291  292 

301  306  309  311  312  313  317  318  321  324  328  333  335  336 

343  350  352  356  357  358  360  361 

Matupit.  74  147  214  244  280  285  287  300  320  346  347  352  358 

Meli 147 

Merlav.  .  46  122  123  147  149  151  154  190  193  197  206  207  210  214 

217  239  251  265  268  275  278  284  289  291  300  301  306  307 

309  312  313  316  317  318  322  324  328  333  335  337  338  339 

342  357  358  360  361 

Moanus. .  74  126  190  215  239  265  284  285  290  291  294  305  308  312 

317  324  328  329  330  335  345  350  352  360  361 

Mosin...i22  123  147  154  193  214  217  239  251  265  272  275  278  284 

300  301  306  307  309  312  316  317  318  324  328  333  335  336 

339  343  356  357  360  361 

Mota 46  47  75  122  123  147  151  152  153  154  156  160  163  167 

169  189  190  192  193  196  197  198  199  203  205  206  207  209 

212  213  214  215  216  217  223  227  228  230  237  239  240  241 

243  247  248  250  251  252  253  254  257  258  259  262  263  265 

266  267  268  269  272  274  275  276  278  279  280  283  284  285 

286  287  289  290  291  292  294  295  297  298  300  301  302  306 

307  309  310  312  313  316  317  318  319  320  321  322  323  324 

325  326  328  331  332  333  335  336  337  338  339  340  341  342 

343  344  346  347  348  351  352  353  355  356  357  358  359  360 

361  362  363  364 

Motlav..i22  123  147  149  151  154  169  190  193  214  217  239  251  258 

259  265  272  275  284  285  290  291  292  300  301  306  307  309 

312  316  317  318  321  322  324  328  333  335  336  337  339  346 
350  35i  356  360  361 

Motu 42  44  47  76  125  158  168  182  190  201  205  208  214  217 

241  243  248  249  265  268  271  272  273  282  285  288  292  293 

298  299  301  304  306  309  310  312  313  317  318  319  321  326 

327  328  330  33i  332  333  334  335  539  342  343  346  347  349 

350  351  352  354  358  359  360  361  362  363  364  365 

Murray  Island  275  301  305  309  361 

Natalava  335  350  361 

Nengone  122  214  245  265  274  291  300  306  309  322  330  333  335  361 

New  Britain  46  76  125  149  152  154  167  190  200  207  214  217  267 

275  289  290  297  306  309  313  318  319  320  322  323  324  326 

327  336  343  345  352  360 

New  Caledonia  273  330  333 

New  Georgia  149  190  192  217  285  298  300  301  305  312  313  324  350 

35i  361 

New  Guinea  217  265  273  276  290  324  330  334  346  350  365 

New  Ireland  247  273  278  290  296  300  312  313  317  318  324  329  344 

35o  351  361  363  365 

Nggao...2oi  214  215  217  239  251  272  278  285  298  301  305  309  312 

313  324  336  346  35i  352  361 

Nggela..  45  46  122  147  149  152  155  190  197  198  203  207  208  213 

214  216  217  239  251  258  259  272  273  278  284  285  290  291 

292  294  296  297  298  300  301  305  306  309  312  313  315  316 

317  318  321  322  323  324  327  328  329  330  332  335  338  339 

342  344  346  35°  35i  352  357  358  360  361 


58  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Nguna...  46  74  75  159  206  214  240  261  266  294  301  317  318  321 

336  338  346  35o 

Nifilole.  .149  212  214  217  239  284  290  291  294  313  328  330  357  360 
361 

Norbarbar  75  122  147  149  190  193  212  214  217  239  251  265  272 

278  285  289  291  292  300  301  306  307  309  312  316  317  318 

324  328  331  333  335  336  337  338  344  350  356  357  358  360 
36i 

Omba...  42  74  122  147  149  152  153  169  190  206  207  212  214  217 

239  254  275  278  284  285  290  291  292  295  300  301  306  307 

309  312  313  317  318  324  333  335  336  338  346  352  356  358 

360  361 

Paama.  .252  274  312  329 

Pak 122  123  147  149  190  193  203  214  217  239  250  251  265  270 

272  275  278  292  300  301  306  307  309  312  316  317  318  324 

328  333  335  337  339  35°  356  357  360  361 

Raluana.214  294  314  336  358 

Retan...  46  122  123  149  193  292  312  317  318  331  336  344  357  358 

Ruavatu.313  317  361 

Saa 122  187  190  200  214  217  250  251  259  265  266  273  291  292 

294  298  300  307  309  313  317  318  329  330  338  339  350  351 

352  356  358  360  361 

Santo...  47  153  199  206  216  217  228  239  253  255  278  285  292  300 

302  305  312  313  316  318  324  336  343  346  352  355  356 

Sasar....  46  123  147  190  193  217  239  250  251  272  275  278  292  301 

306  307  309  316  317  318  328  333  335  337  343  350  356  360 

361 

Savo 190  214  239  250  251  272  275  285  305  316  328  337  361 

Sesake.  .  39  40  45  46  147  149  151  153  158  162  169  194  200  203 

206  209  212  214  215  217  239  246  251  257  258  260  270  272 

274  278  285  291  292  294  296  298  300  301  305  307  310  312 

317  318  322  329  330  333  335  336  337  338  339  342  350  352 

356  357  358  360  361 

Solomon  Islands  190  243  276  290  291  294  297  301  304  309  312  318 

324  330  361  363 

Tangoan  Santo  41  147  148  193  194  206  209  217  239  247  265  278  301 

302  313  316  328  333  338  340  346  358 

Tanna...i47  150  168  173  190  194  200  207  216  217  218  238  240  247 

256  251  258  266  273  274  285  290  291  293  306  308  312  313 

317  319  321  322  324  328  333  334  337  340  350  352  358  360 

361  363 
Treasury  Island  265 
Uea 265  274  290 

Ugi 214  250  259  265  292  300  317  318  357  361 

Ulawa...i22  190  200  214  217  239  250  251  259  265  291  294  298  300 

301  309  312  313  317  318  324  329  330  343  350  351  352  356 

360  361 

Vanikoro  273  292 

Vanua  Lava  291  292  317 

Vaturanga  122  123  147  190  200  201  206  214  215  217  251  257  258 

259  272  278  284  285  294  298  301  305  306  309  313  316  317 

318  324  328  329  330  335  336  338  346  352  358  360 
V0I0W...122  147  149  151  154  190  212  214  217  239  251  265  268  275 

278  284  285  290  291  294  300  301  306  307  309  312  316  317 

318  322  324  328  333  335  336  337  338  339  350  351  357  358 

360  361 

Vuras...  46  122  123  147  149  214  217  239  251  278  284  285  292  301 

306  307  309  312  316  317  318  324  328  333  335  336  339  343 

346  356  357  358  360  361 

Wango..i22  149  190  214  215  217  239  250  251  257  259  265  273  278 

284  298  300  305  307  309  312  313  317  318  328  329  330  335 

337  339  342  344  348  350  351  352  356  357  358  360  361 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA.  59 

We  shall  next  take  up  in  a  series  of  tables  the  relations  of  Melane- 
sian  tongues  with  the  Proto-Samoan  (uniformly  exhibited  in  bold- 
face type),  the  data  upon  which  each  of  these  mutations  rests,  and 
certain  other  results  which  have  a  bearing  on  our  study.  These 
tables  are  prepared  for  all  the  Melanesian  languages  for  which  a 
sufficiency  of  data  is  available.  Several  of  the  groups  in  the  pre- 
ceding catalogue,  while  seeming  to  be  well  enough  equipped  with 
examples,  have  not  been  included  in  this  tabular  review  for  the 
reason  that  earlier  compilers,  to  whose  efforts  we  owe  these  data, 
have  not  been  precise  in  identifying  the  language.  Such  omitted 
collections  are  to  be  seen  under  the  headings  of  New  Guinea,  New 
Britain,  New  Ireland,  large  lands  in  which  are  many  distinct 
languages. 

Prefixed  to  each  of  these  tables  will  be  found  two  particular  notes. 
The  figure  following  the  note  Polynesia  expresses  the  number  of 
words  in  the  available  material  in  each  language  which  are  identi- 
fied as  of  Polynesian  stock.  The  note  of  Quality  is  a  valuable  index 
which  will  be  explained  and  discussed  at  length  after  the  prelimi- 
nary matter  has  been  arranged. 

The  final  notes  in  each  table  call  for  slight  explanation.  Under 
the  note  Identical  are  assembled  those  words  in  which  the  Melane- 
sian is  the  same  in  consonant  and  vowel  structure  as  either  the 
Proto-Samoan  or  the  modern  Samoan,  or  where  the  vowel  change 
is  so  slight  as  to  be  explained  by  the  difference  in  the  system  of 
reducing  the  language  to  our  alphabet  by  those  missionary  collec- 
tors whose  zeal  must  serve  as  the  excuse  for  their  lack  of  skill. 
The  second  note  refers  to  those  words,  otherwise  identical,  which 
have  lost  their  ending  by  abrasion.  Under  Consonant  Identity  are 
listed  those  words  of  identical  consonant  skeleton  where  the  vowels 
have  undergone  change,  and  the  converse  is  the  case  under  Vowel 
Identity.  In  the  next  pair  of  notes  we  record  those  cases  where 
the  consonant  skeleton  has  undergone  a  mutation,  but  where  the 
vowels  remain  constant  or  terminal  abrasion  has  taken  place. 


60 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


ALITE. 


Polynesian    2 1 
Quality         57 


a  a 

e  00 

i   t  u    w 

1    2 

ng   ng  n   I  mm 

h   s,    t 

s   s,    t,  — 

v   Am 
f   v 
k— ,    ng  t   m,  —  p    6 

a-a       217,  239,  250,  278,  291,  300,  h-s  352 

309,  3i3,  3i7,  337,  35o,  360  h-t  278 

i-i         259,  285,  291,  300,  313,  330,  s-.r  239 

35o  s-t  337 

0-0       259,  285,  309  s—  251 

u-«      239,  278,  306,  317,  330,  360  t-m  217 

1-J         309,  3i3,  35o  t—  306,  350,  352 

ng-ng  285,  309,  350  m-w  217,  313,  317 

k —      300,  301,  306  v-ku  291 

k-ng     251  f-t;  259,  360 

n-l       259,  317,  330  p-b  250,  285 

Identical 300,  309,  313 

Vowel  identity 217,  300,  317,  330 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 259,  278,  285,  350,  360 

Terminal  abrasion 306 

Frontal  abrasion 250,  301,  306,  350,  352 

Frontal  accretion 239,  291 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA. 


61 


ALO  TEQEL. 

Polynesian    26 
Quality  19 

a  a,  e,    o,    u 
e  e,    u    o  e 
i  e  u  u,    e,    i 

1  /,  t,    ng 
ng  ng,    n  n  n,    t  mm,    ng 

h 
s  s 

V  10 
f  V,     w 

k   g,    w  t   t,    m,  —  p  p 

a-o  123,  147,  214,  217,  250,  309,   ng-w  350 

318  kg  250,  251,  300,  301 

a-e  294,  324,  337,  350  k-w  306 

a-o  239,  307,  317,  328  n-w  147,  317,  343,  350 

a-u  250,  307,  316  n-t  328 

e-e  122,  190  s-^  239,  251,  272,  337 

e-w  272  t—  294, 306, 318, 324 

i-e  300  t-f  350 

O-e  123  t-m  217 

u-m  272,  306,  316  mm  217,  316,  317,  318,  324,  328 

u-e  294  m-ng  316 

u*  343  v-w  307 

\-l  123,  307,  309,  350  f-V  122,   147,  214,  294 

\-ng      123  f-w       272,  360 

It         335  p-/>       190,  250 

ng-wa  309 

Identical    (terminally- 
abraded)  190,  309 

Consonant  identity. . .  .317,  337 

Consonant  mutation: 
Vowel  identity 147 

Terminal  abrasion 147,  190,  214,  217,  239,  300,  306,  317,  318,  328 

Frontal  accretion 301 

Terminal  accretion 122,  324,  335,  350,  360 


62 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


AMBRYM. 


Polynesian    27 
Quality  44 


a  a,    e,    t,    u 
e  a        o  0,    u 
it        u  u,    a,    i,    0 
1  I,    r 
nz   na  n  n  mm 

h  A,  - 
s  fe 

V  /,  w 
f  w,  b,    h 
k  ft,  9,  h,—     t    t,    s,    dr      p  — 

a-a  147,  215,  258,  284,  300,  318,   k-ft  194,  300 

324  k-g  297 

a-e  239,  258,  324,  352  k-h  258 

a-i  290,  350  k —  305 

a-w  252  n-n  242,  290 

e-a  297  h-fe  215 

i-t  194,  215,  242,  290,  297,  300,   h —  352 

305>  312.  350,  352  s-h  239,  252,  298 

0-0  252,  336,  356,  357  t-*  258,  324,  352,  356 

o-u  287,  357  t-s  329 

u-u  194,  212,  298  t-dr  357 

U-a  258  m-m  258,  312,  318,  324 

u-«"  212,  239  v-/  242 

u-o  2i2,  284,  329  v-w  291 

\-l  194,   212,   252,   284,   287,    297,  f-V  147,   215,    29O 

305,  312  f-h        290,  329 

\r         336,  350  f-b         287 

ng-ng  274,  336,  350  p—       284 

Identical 194,  300,  305 

Identical    (terminally 

abraded) 312,  356 

Consonant  identity.  .  .  .212,  274,  284,  318,  324,  352 
Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 215 

Terminal  abrasion 147,  242,  2S7,  290,  312,  318,  329 

Frontal  abrasion 284,  305,  350 

Frontal  accretion 212,  242,  274,  298 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .  258,  336 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA. 


63 


Polynesian  67 

Quality        46 

a    a,    £ 

•,    i,    0,    u 

e  e,  a, 

i        0 

0,    i,    u 

i    i,    a,    e, 

0 
1    I,    r, 

u    u,    e,    i,    0,   v,   p 

ng  ng, 

k,  g,  nj 

n    n,    ny        m    m 

h    h,    ) 

s  / 

S    s,    h 

v    v,    p,    w 

f    /,    p,    u,    k,    w,    h 

k    k, 

9,    ng 

t    t,    s, 

th      p    p,    I 

a-a 

147,  188,  198,  207, 

214,  217, 

ng-ng 

285,  350 

229,  256,  258,  260, 

262,  279, 

ng-fe 

309 

282,  291,  293,  294, 

307,  309, 

ng-g 

342,  309 

3!2,  313,  317,  318, 

320,  323, 

ng-nj 

274 

324.  337,  339,  340, 

35o 

k-k 

126,  194,  269,  301,  328 

&-e 

198,  216,  217,  256, 

268,  278, 

kg 

188,  258,  306,  361 

294 

k-ng 

191,  204 

a.-i 

271,  274,  350 

n-M 

147,  271,  294,  317 

3.-0 

124,  294 

n-ny 

328 

a-M 

168,  307,  316,  328 

h-h 

278 

e-e 

173,  240 

h-j 

34o 

e-a 

126 

h-/ 

339                                     [344 

e-i 

191 

s-.? 

188,  198,  206,  323,  337,  342, 

\-i 

154,  194,  204,  241, 

268,  288, 

s-h 

204,  205 

291,  319,  323 

U 

126,  207,  216,  217,  256,  258, 

i-a 

154 

268,  269,  274,  282,  293,  294, 

i-e 

342 

306,  324,  347,  349,  350 

i-o 

269 

t-s 

3!8,  327,  337 

o-o 

126,  205 

t-th 

168 

o-i 

285 

xa-m 

124,  191,  198,  216,  217,  256, 

o-u 

205 

258,  274,  282,  294,  312,  316, 

U-M 

168,  194,  269,  273, 
320,  326,  344 

288,  294, 

317,  318,  319,  320,  323,  324, 
326,  328,  340 

u-e 

278,  306 

t-f 

293,  294 

u-i 

271 

f-p 

147 

U-0 

329,  360 

t-k 

206 

u-v 

206 

i-u 

214                                    [360 

u-p 

262 

f-h 

147,  271,  273,  288,  294,  329, 

\-l 

191,  228,  241,  307, 

309,  3io, 

i-w 

283 

316,  320,  339,  349 

v-v 

294,  310 

l-r 

126,  194,  205,  260, 

268,  288, 

v-p 

307 

335 

V-W 

291                                    [361 

l-k 

312,  350 

p-p 

124,  173,  207,  241,  279,  285, 

H 

154,  312 

p-l 

279 

Identical 126,  173, 

194,241,293 

Terminal  abrasion.147,  154,  188,  193,  214, 

294, 319, 

323,335 

270,273,285,306,309, 

Identical  (ter.  abra) .  198,  207, 

256,282,317 

316,318,328 

349 

Frontal  accretion.  .147,  154,  204,  206,  217, 

Consonant  identity. .  124,  285, 

301,316,324 

228, 229, 256, 268, 269, 

Vowel  identity 318 

270,273,274,285,288, 

Consonant  mutation: 

319,328,342,344 

Vowel  identity.  .  .262,  283, 

288, 291,342 

Terminal  accretion  206,  274,  307,  310,  319, 

Vowel  identity  (ter. 

324,  326,  339,  340,  347 

273, 309 

64  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


ARAG. 

Polynesian    41 
Quality         75 

a  a,    e,    o 

e   e,     a,  i      00 
it  u    u,    i,    o 

1  I,    r 

ng   ng  n  n,    I  mm 

h  h 

s  h 

V    w,  

f     V,     10 

kg  t    t,    d,    h  p  p,  v,  kpw 

a-o       152,  160,  193,  209,  214,  215,  n-w  285,  290,  292,  309,  317,  328, 

217,  250,  258,  284,  290,  291,  330 

292,  294,  309,  312,  313,  317,  n-l  259 

318,  324,  328,  352,  356  h-h  215,  278,  352 

a-e       278,  300  s-h  239 

a-o       357  t-i  160,  209,  217,  258,  294,  306, 

e-e        122,  153,  190,  290,  318  318,  324,  352,  356 

e-a       272  t-d  357 

e-i        152  t-h  329 

i-t        149,193,215,259,290,291  m-m  217,258,312,313,317,318, 

300,  312,  313,  329,  330,  352,  324,  328 

0-0       153,  160,  259,  285,  309,  326,  v-w  291 

356,  357  v—  152 

u-m      212,  258,  272,  278,  284,  292,  i-v  122,  193,  214,  215,  272,  290, 

294.  306,  317,  328,  330  292,  294 

u-i       212,  329  f-w  259 

u-o       239  p-p  190,  250 

\-l         152,  153,  212,  284,  312,  313  p-v  284 

\-r         149,  160,  335,  336  p-kpw  285 
ng-ng  209,  309,  336 
kg       149,  193,  250,  258,  300,  301, 

306,  357 

Identical 153,  160,  190,  209,  217,  309,  312,  313,  317,  318, 

324,  328,  330,  335,  336,  352,  356 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .152,  212 
Consonant  mutation : 
Vowel  identity 193,  214,  215,  258,  259,  284,  285,  290,  291,  292, 

294,  306 

Frontal  abrasion 329 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .250,  272 
Inner  abrasion 152 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA. 


65 


BAKI. 

Polynesian    46 
Quality  26 

a    a,    e,    i,    0,    u 
e  e,  a,  i,  o     o   0,   i 
i    *',    0,    u  u    w,    i 

I    I,    j,    mj 
ng    ng,    n,    g  n    w  mm 

h— 
s   y,    k 

v   v,    u 
f    v,    b,    mb 
k    k,    mk  t    t,    j,    dr  p    b,    mb 

a-o      147,  240,  263,  292,  308,  309,      \-j       309,  312,  313 

313.  340  \-mj  336 

a-e        156,  254,  315,  317,  320,  340,  ng-ng  285,  336,  346 

346,  35o,  3520  ng-w  308,  350 

a-*       35o  ng-9  309 

a-o       156,  228,  278,  292,  312,  364  k-k  149,  156,  194,  2ii,  305 

a-«      290  k-rafe  297 

e-e        190  n-«.  147,  156,  254,  290,  292,  317, 

e-o       240  32 1 

e-i       210,  297  h —  278,  340 

e-o       247,  290  s-y  182 

i-t        149,  194,  211,  254,  273,  290,  s-fe  263 

297.  308,  321,  346,  350,  352,  t-t  247,  346,  350,  352 

362  t-j"  2IO,   211,  346,  358 

i-o        285  t-dr  359 

>-M        305.  313  m-m  156,  254,  312,  313,  315,  317, 

0-0        147,  263,  282,  285,  309,  336,  320,  321,  340 

362  \-v  210 

O-i        336  v-w  291 

U-M         156,    182,   194,  211,  228,  240,  f-V  254,  290,  292 

272,  278,  282,  292,  317,  320,       i-b        273,  282,  290 

321,  358,  359  f-w&     H7 

u-i       247,  359,  364  p-6       190,  285 

\-l         149,  182,  194,  228,  297,  305,        p-mb     190,  247 

308,  315,  320,  350,  359,  362, 

364 

Identical 194,  254,  362 

Consonant  identity.  .  .  .  156,  340,  352 

Vowel  identity 182,  273 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 147,  190,  211,  282 

Frontal  accretion 149,  228,  247,  320 

Terminal  accretion ....  305,  358 
Metathesis 298,  321 


66 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


BAR AVON. 

Polynesian    30 
Quality  66 

a    a,    e 
e    e,    a  o    0,    a,    e,    u 

i    i,    u  U    u 

\    I,    r,  — 
ng   ng  n    n  mm 

h— 
s 

V    V,     w 
f    v,    p,    w 
k    k,  —  t    t,    nd,    k  p    p,    b,    mb 

a-a         74,  147,  156,  207,  214,  215,  k-k  149 

217,  279,  284,  290,  291,  294,  k—  156,  300,  323 

313.  320,  323.  324>  346  n-n  74,  147,  156,  290 

a-e       360  h —  215 

e-e        190,  257  t-t  74,  207,  217,  294,  324.  346, 

e-a       122  358 

i-i         149,  215,  290,  313,  319,  323,  t-nd  329 

346  t-k  2  jo 

i-u         74  m-OT  156,  217,  257,  3J3,  3*9.  32o, 

0-0       336  323,  324.  327 

0-0       147,  257  \-v  291 

o-e       257  v-w  122,  147 

o-m      285  f-v  215,  329,  360 

u-m      156,  207,  270,  273,  284,  320,  i-p  273 

358,  360  i-w  122,  147,  214,  290,  294 

l-l        313,  320,  336  p-p  284 

\-r         257,  327,  358  p-&  190,  285 

1 —        284  p-mb  207 

ng-ng  285,  336,  346 

Identical 217,  313,  324,  336,  346,  358 

Consonant  identity.  ...    74,  149,  257,  327 

Vowel  identity 156,  284,  320 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 190,  207,  214,  215 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .273,  290,  294 

Terminal  abrasion 149,  270,  273,  285,  290,  294,  300 

Frontal  accretion 74,  215,  291,  336 

Terminal  accretion 285,  300,  323,  336 

BAURO. 

e-a       47  h-s       47 

i-i        47  t—       47 


POLYNESIAN  RBUCS  IN  MELANESIA. 


67 


BELAGA. 

Polynesian    17 
Quauty        100 

a  a,    i,    ai 

e    e,    i  00 
i    i                                  u    w 

1  I,    r 

ng    ng                             n  n                            mm 

h  h,   th 

S  s,    th 

V     V 
f     V 

kg,  —  t    t  p    v,    mb 

&-a       147,  152,  203,  207,  258,  284,  k-g  258,  300,  338 

300,  317,  338,  339,  342,  346,  k—  211 

352  n-n  290,  317,  342,  343 

a-t       203  h-h  338 

a-ai     290  h-th  352a    339 

e-e       290,  338  s-j  203 

e-i       152  s-ife  342 

i-»        211,  285,  290,  300,  342,  346,  t-f  207,  2n,  258,  343,  346,  352a 

352  m-ra  258,  317 

0-0       285  v-v  152 

u-m      207,  2ii,  258,  284,  317,  343  f-v  147,  290 

1-/         152,  284,  339  p-v  284 

\-r        203  p-mb  207,  285 

ng-wd?  285,  346 

Identical 317,  346 

Terminal  abrasion 343 

Consonant  identity.  .  .  .152,  203 

Vowel  identity 211 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 207,  258,  284,  285,  290,  300,  338,  339,  342,  352 

Terminal  abrasion. . .  147 

Terminal  abrasion 147,  343 

Terminal  accretion  ....  339 


68  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

BIERIAN. 

Polynesian    52 
Quality         48 

a  a,    e,    0,    u 

e    e,    a,  i      00 
i    i,    u  u    u,  i 

1  I,    m,  — 

ng    ng,    m  n  n,    I  mm 

h  h 

s  h,    s  v   u 

f   /,    v,    b 

k    k  t  t,    d,    s,    h  p   b,    m 

a-a       156,  199,  207,  216,  217,  240,  1—  364 

256,  258,  260,  263,  270,  278,  ng-ng  285,  309,  336,  350 

290,  291,  292,  293,  294,  300,  ng-ra  199 

302,  309,  312,  313,  315,  317,  k-k  156,  258,  297,  300,  302,  305, 

318,  322,  323,  324,  340,  352,  323 

364  n-w  156,  292,  317,  321 

a-e       320,  350  n-l  259 

a.-o        148,  350  h-h  278,  340,  352 

a-w      252  s-s  323 

e-e        210,  290,  311,  318  s-h  252,  263,  298,  344 

e-a       240  t-t  148,  199,  216,  217,  256, 258, 

e-i        297  270,  293,  294,  302,  318,  324, 

\-i         259,  270,  290,  291,  297,  298,  358 

300,  302,  312,  321,  323,  329,  t-d  210 

35°,  352  t-s  350,  352,  356 

\-u        365  t-h  329 

0-0       252,  259,  263,  285,  309,  311,  m-OT  156,  216,  217,  258,  312,  313, 

336  315,  317,  318.  320,  321,  322, 

u-w       148,  216,  258,  270,  278,  292,  323,  324,  340 

294,  298,  317,  320,  321,  344,  \-u  291 

358,  364  i-f  282,  290,  292 

U-i        156,  329  f-v  210,  259,  293,  294,  329 

\-l         252,  260,  297,  305,  309,  311,  i-b  148 

312,  315,  320,  336,  350  p-b  285 

\-m       322  p-w  207 

Identical 216,  217,  256,  258,  260,  270,  290,  292,  302,  312, 

317,  318,  323,  324,  336,  340,  358 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .  156,  297,  320 

Vowel  identity 263 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 199,  210,  294 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .285 

Terminal  abrasion 207,  305,  356 

Frontal  abrasion 313 

Frontal  accretion 210,  256,  263,  278,  293,  297,  298,  302,  309,  311, 

312,  315,  320,  336,  344,  358 
Terminal  accretion ....  344 
Metathesis 321 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA. 


69 


BOUGAINVILLE. 


BRIERLY  ISLAND. 


a-a 

192, 

350 

i-i 

259. 

350 

i-e 

149 

0-0 

259 

\-l 

192, 

350 

\-r 

149 

ng-ng 

350 

k-k 

149 

n-l 

259 

t-t 

192 

t-nd 

35o 

f-h 

259 

v-P 

192 

a-a 

294,  3i7,  324 

340,  347 

e-e 

190 

e-i 

190,  347 

h-s 

340 

t-t 

324.  347 

t-k 

294 

n-w 

317 

m-m 

317,  324,  34° 

t-p 

294 

p-b 

190 

BUGOTU. 

RUME 

>R  ISLAND. 

a-a 

324 

i-i 

298 

u-u 

298,  344 

s-s 

344 

s-sh 

298 

t-t 

324 

Polynesian    33 

Quality          79 

a    a,    ai,    0 

e   e, 

a            0    0,    a 

i 

i 

u 

1    I,    r,    t,    th 

u,    0 

ng   ng 

n    n,    ng,    gn 
h   h 
s    h 

m   m,    r 

v   mb 

f     V 

k    k, 

9 

t    t,    nd,    th 

p    p,    mb 

a-a 

H7, 

213.  214. 

217, 

239,  275, 

ng-ng  213,  285, 

309.  346 

284, 

309,  312, 

313, 

3!6,  317, 

k-fe       251 

322, 

328,  338, 

339> 

346,  35i. 

k-a       275,  301, 

305,  3o6,  338 

352 

n-w      147,  290, 

317,  330 

a-ai 

290 

11-ng     351 

Sl-0 

275 

n-gn     328 

e-e 

122, 

257,  290, 

338 

h-h       278,  298, 

338,  339,  352 

e-a 

272 

s-h       239,  251 

i-i 

285, 

290,  298, 

305, 

3I2>  3*3, 

t-t        217,  306, 

343  ,346,  352 

329» 

330,  346, 

352 

t-nd      329 

0-0 

147, 

285,  309 

t-th       343 

o-a 

257 

m-m     217,  257, 

312,  313,  316,  317, 

u-u 

239, 

272,  278, 

284, 

298,  306, 

322,  328 

316, 

317,  328, 

329, 

330,  35i 

m-r      322 

U-0 

343 

v-mb     291 

\l 

257, 

305,  312, 

313, 

316 

f-v        122,  147, 

213.  214,  272,  290, 

\-r 

272, 

284,  322 

329 

U 

339 

p-p       284 

l-th 

309 

p-mb    285 

1,278,312, 

313,316,317,330,346, 

352 

Consoi 

aant  identity 301,  305 

Consoi 

nant  mutation: 

Vowel  identity 147.  21- 

3,214,239, 

284,  285,  290,  298,  306, 

309,329,338.339,351 

72,275,305,328 

Termi: 

nal  accretion 339.  35 

1 

70 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


BUKA. 

Polynesian    24 
Quality         70 

a    a,    e,    u 
e    e,    a,    o     0    o,    a,    u 
i    i,    a,    e  U    u,    a,    0 

1    I,    r,  nd 
ng    ng,    n  n    n,    gn,     I  mm 

h   s 
s   s,    h 

v 

f   h 
k  t    <,    d,    s  p  b,   wife,  v>  w 

a-a  207,  217,  313,  318,  324,  328,       ng-ng  285,  308,  350 

35o,  352,  360  ng-n  285 

a-e  158,  300,  308  k—  300,  306 

aw  239  n-w  259,  330,  343 

e-e  190,  318,  363  n-^M  328 

e-o  190,  257  n-Z  259 

e-o  247  h -.y  352,  362 

i-i  259,  285,  300,  308,  343,  350,       s-s  298,  343,  344 

352  s-h  239 

i-a  355  t-<  207,  217,  306,  318,  324,  350, 

i-e  298,  313,  330  352,  355 

0-0  259,  285,  263  t-d  350 

0-a  355  t-s  247 

o-u  285  mm  158,  217,  258,  313,  318,  324, 

u-w  158,  207,  237,  247,  298,  306,  328 

328,  330,  344  f-fe  259,  360,  363 

u-a  343  p-b  190,  285 

u-o  298,  360  p-mb  207 

1-*  313,  350  p-v  247 

1>"  257,  355  p-w  190 

l-w<2  308 

Identical 217,  318,  324,  328,  350,  352 

Terminal  abrasion . . .  344 
Consonant  identity ....  330 
Vowel  identity 207,  285,  306 

Terminal  abrasion 285 

Frontal  accretion 158,  239,  285,  298,  306,  308 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .257,  308 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA. 


71 


BULULAHA. 


e    e 


ng    ng 


a    a 


1  I 
n    n 

h    s 

s  j- 


Polynesian     19 
Quality  74 


o   0 


u   u,   1 


m    m 


V 

w 

f 

h 

k— 

t  t,  - 

P 

P 

217, 

239,  250, 

291, 

300, 

301, 

k— 

250, 

300, 

301, 

306 

309, 

317,  350, 

351, 

352, 

360 

n-n 

259, 

3i7, 

330 

190 

h-s 

352 

259, 

291,  300, 

329, 

330, 

350, 

s-s 

239, 

298, 

35i 

352 

t-t 

329 

259, 

309 

t— 

217, 

306, 

350, 

352 

239, 

298,  306, 

317, 

329, 

330, 

m-m 

217, 

317 

351, 

360 

V-w 

291 

301 

f-h 

259, 

329, 

360 

309, 

350 

v-P 

190 

a-a 

e-e 
i-i 

0-0 

VL-U 

u-i 
l-l 

ng-ng  309,  350 

Identical 190,  300,  309,  317,  330 

Consonant  identity  .217 

Vowel  identity.  .  .  .250,  306,  350,  352 


Consonant  mutation: 

Vowel  identity.. 259,  291,  329,  360 
Frontal  abrasion.  .351 
Frontal  accretion.  .239,  298 


DENI. 

Polynesian 

11 

Quality 

63 

a    a, 

e,     u 

e 

0     0 

i    i 

1    / 

u    u 

ng 

n 

h    h,  - 

m    m 

k    k 

s 

t    t,    k 

v    b 

f     V 

p    mb 

a-a       214, 
a-e       307, 
a-w      307, 
i-i        194 
0-0       285 
n-u       194, 
l-l         194, 
k-k      194, 

278,  324, 

335 

324 

212,  278, 
212,  307, 
306 

339,  360 

306,  335, 
335,  339 

358 

h-h 
h— 

t-t 
t-k 
m-m 

v-6 
f-v 
p-mb 

339 

278 

306, 
324 
324 
307 
214, 
285 

358 
360 

358 

212,278,306,339, 

Consonant  mutation: 
Vowel  identity. .  285 

72  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

DUFAURE  ISLAND. 

a-o       167  1-w        167 

a-w       167  ng —    167 

u-m      167 

duke  of  york. 

Polynesian    38 
Quality         79 
a   a 
e    e,    a  o    0,    u 

i    i,    u  u    m,    a,    0 

I    J,    r 
ng   ng,    n  n    «  m   w 

h— 
s 

V 

f  b,    w,  — 

KB,  —  t  2,  Wd  p  6 

a-o    74,  147,  164,  169,  207,  214,  ng-w  74 

217,  275,  290,  292,  294,  300,  k-fe  149,  269,  275 

309.  313,  316,  318,  320,  324,  k—  300 

328,  350,  352  n-M  147,  169,  290,  292,  321,  328, 

e-e   122  343 

e-a   272,  290  h —  352 

\-i         149,  169,  269,  290,  300,  312,  t-t  74,  164,  207,  217,  269,  294, 

313,  319,  321,  327,  350,  352  318,  324,  325,  343,  350,  352, 

i-w   321,  329  358 

0-0   269,  336  t-nd  329 

o-w   285,  325  mm  217,  312,  313,  314,  316,  318, 

u-m   207,  272,  292,  316,  320,  327,  319,  320,  321,  324,  325,  327, 

328,  329,  332,  343,  358  328 

u-a       325  f-w  122,  147,  169,  214,  290, 292, 

u-o       314  294,  329 

\-l         149,  164,  309,  312,  313,  314,  f-b  272 

3J6,  336,  35o  f—  360 

\-r        320,  332  p-b  207,  285 
ng-ng  169,  285,  309,  336,  350 

Identical 217,  269,  275,  313,  316,  320,  324,  327,  328,  336, 

350,  352,  358 

Terminal  abrasion.  . .   74,  149,  309,  312,  318,  343 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .321,  325 
Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 122,  147,  169,  207,  214,  272,  292,  300 

Terminal  abrasion ...  294 

Terminal  abrasion 74,  147,  164,  169,  207,  217,  231,  275,  290,  292, 

294,  300,  309,  313,  316,  318,  320,  324,  328,  350, 
352 

Frontal  accretion 272,  332 

Terminal  accretion 164,  169,  300,  314,  320,  336,  358 


POLYNESIAN  REWCS  IN  MELANESIA. 


73 


EPI. 


ng 


k   k 

a-a  200 

a-u  202 

e-a  47,  186 

e-o  363 

i-i  47,  200,  330 

0-0  75.  363 

O-a  186 

u-w  75,  200,  212,  330,  343 

u-i  212,  286,  330 

1-Z  200,  212 

Identical 75,  200,  330, 

Consonant  identity.  .  .  .202,  212 

Terminal  abrasion 286 

Frontal  abrasion 75 

Frontal  accretion 186,  202,  343 


Polynesian 

H 

Quality 

43 

a   a,    u 

e  a, 

0           0    0, 
1  I,    r 

a 

u  u,    i 

n  n 

m  m 

h  h 

S  J 

V 

f  V 

* 

P  v, 

mb 

\-r 

75 

k-k 

202 

n-n 

286,  330, 

343 

h-h 

47,  363 

s-s 

343 

t-t 

47,  75 

m-ra 

200,  202 

f-v 

363 

p-v 

186 

p-mb 

286 

343 


74 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


eromanga. 

Polynesian    26 
Quality  58 

a    a,    e,    i,    o,    u 
e   e  00 

i    i,    e,    0  U    u,    e,    o 

1    /,    r,    h 
ng    ng,    g  n   n  mm 

h    h,    s 
s   .? 

v   w 

f   v,    p,    b,   s 
k    k,    h  t    t,    d,    s  p    p,    mp 

a-a       218,  270,  274,  294,  337,  338,       n%-g  350 

349.  360  k-fe  194,  305,  361 

a-e       217,  278,  317,  350  k-h  338 

a-i        217,  290  n-n  290,  317 

a-o       350  h-h  278 

a-w       324  h-^  206,  338 

e-e        240  s-j  337 

\-i         194,  270,  274,  290,  305,  312,       t-t  217,  270,  274,  294,  324,  349, 

35o  35o 

i-e        206  t-d  352a 

i-o        305  t-,?  329 

0-0        282,  285  m-ra  217,  274,  312,  317,  324 

u-w       194,  240,  270,  273,  282,  360        v-w  291 

U-e       278  i-v  282,  290,  294 

u-o       317,  329  i-p  206,  2736 

\l        312,  349,  350  f-6  329,  360 

\-r         194,  312  \-s  290 

1-*        305  p-/>  285 

ng-ng  274  p-w/5  218,  361 

Identical 194,  218,  270,  274,  285,  337 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .312,  349 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .217,  317 
Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 282,  350,  360 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .273,  294 

Terminal  abrasion 206,  273,  290,  294,  312,  329,  338,  349 

Frontal  accretion 270,  273,  282,  291,  312 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .218,  305,  317,  337 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA.  75 


FAGANI. 

Polynesian    39 
Quality  82 

a  a,    e,    i,    0 

e    e,    a  o    o,    a 

i    i,    e,    u  u    u 

1  r 

nS    n9  n  n,    ng,    I  m    m 

h  s 

s  J 

v    / 

f     /,     V 

k    k>    9  t    t,    k,  — ,    w  p   p,    b,   } 


a-a 

147,  214,  217, 

239, 

250, 

258, 

k-k 

149,  250 

278,  292,  294, 

300, 

307, 

309, 

k-g 

214,  251, 

258, 

300, 

357 

312,  313,  316, 

318, 

324, 

328, 

n-n 

147,  290, 

292, 

3i7, 

328, 

330, 

342,  350,  352, 

357, 

360 

342 

a-e 

290 

n-ng 

35i 

a-i 

292 

n-l 

259 

a-o 

250 

h-s 

3526 

e-e 

190,  257,  290, 

3i8 

s-s 

239,  251, 

298, 

342, 

35i 

e-o 

122,  272 

t-t 

258 

1-i 

149,  259,  273, 

278, 

285, 

300, 

t-k 

329,  35o 

312,  329,  330, 

342, 

350, 

3526 

t— 

294,  318, 

352, 

357, 

358 

i-e 

290 

t-w 

217 

i-« 

298,  313 

m-m 

217,  257, 

258, 

312, 

3i3, 

316, 

0-0 

147,  259,  285, 

309, 

357 

3i7,  318, 

324, 

328 

O-a 

257 

v-/ 

307 

u-w 

239,  258,  272, 

273, 

292, 

294, 

f-/ 

122,  147, 

214, 

259, 

290, 

292, 

298,  3l6,  317, 

328, 

329, 

33o, 

294,  329, 

360 

351,  358,  360 

f-v 

272,  273 

I-r 

257,  272,  278, 
313,  316,  350, 

307, 
358 

309, 

312, 

p-p 

p-b 

190 
285 

ng-w^ 

278,  285,  309, 

350 

v-t 

250 

Identical 147,  190,  239,  294,  309,  312,  316,  317,  328,  330, 

342,  360 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .  122,  257,  272,  290,  292,  298,  313 

Vowel  identity 217 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 214,  258,  259,  273,  278,  285,  300,  307,  318,  329, 

35o,  352 

Terminal  abrasion 324 

Frontal  abrasion 351,  352 

Frontal  accretion 298,  351 

Terminal  accretion ....  257 


76  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

GOG. 

Polynesian    38 
Quality  76 

a  a,    e 
e    e,    o  00 

i    i,    e,    u  u    w,    a,    i,    0 

1  I,    r,    ng,    nd 

ng    ng,    n  n  n,    ng  mm 

h  ^ 

s    .f 

V    V,    w 
f    V,     w 

k    g,    w  t    t,    m  pb,  v,  mb,  kpw 

a-a       123,  147,  203,  214,  217,  239,  ng-w  285 

268,  301,  307,  309,  313,  3i7,  k-0  i5i,  251,  300,  301,  338,  357 

318,  322,  324,  328,  339,  356  k-w  306 

a-e       324  n-n  147,  317,  328,  343 

e-e        122,  190  n-ng  342 

e-o       272  h-.y  206,  338,  339 

i-i        154,  312,  313,  342  S'S  203,  239,  251,  278,  342 

i-e        300  t-t  268,  306,  318,  324,  343,  356, 

i-M        206  357,  358 

0-0        147,  285,  309,  336,  356,  357  t-m  217 

u-u      239,  284,  298,  306,  343,  358  mm  217,  312,  313,  317,  318,  322, 

U-a       151  324,  328 

u-i       301  y-v  307 

u-o       272  V-W  206 

1-/         123,  154,  203,  284,  307,  309,  f-z;  122,  147,  214 

312,  313,  339  f-w  272,  360 

1-r         268,  272,  322,  336,  358  p-v  284 

l-ng      123  p-6  190 

l-nd      335  p-mfe  151 

ng-ng  154,  298,  309,  336  p-kpw  285 

Identical 239,  309,  313,  356,  358 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .  154,  203,  268,  307,  312,  317,  318,  328,  336,  343 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .301,  324 

Vowel  identity 217,  306 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 147,  214 

Terminal  abrasion. . .  190,  206,  284,  285,  338,  339,  342,  357 

Terminal  abrasion 151,  154,  190,  206,  268,  284,  285,  300,  306,  307, 

312,  317,  318,  324,  328,  338,  342,  343 

Frontal  accretion 203,  272,  298,  301,  312,  339 

Terminal  accretion .  .  .  .122,  336 


POLYNESIAN  KEUCS  IN  MELANESIA. 


77 


GUADALCANAL 

Polynesian    6 

Quality        66 

a    a 

e 

a 

0    0 

i    i 

u    w,    i 

1    r,  - 

ng    ng 

n    n 
h    th 

s  j- 

m   m 

k 

t 

V 

f     T> 

P    b 

a-a 
e-o 
i-i 

0-0 

u-u 
u-i 
\-r 

278,  309.  328 

272 

285 

285,  309 

272,  278,  298,  328 

298 

272 

ng-wgf 

n-n 

h-th 

s-s 

m-m 

f-v 

p-b 

285, 
328 
278 
298 
328 
272 
285 

298,  309 

I— 

309 

Identical 278,  328 

Consonant  identity ....  296 
Consonant  mutation : 
Vowel  identity 285 


a-a 

a-e 

a-o 

i-i 

0-0 

u-u 

U-0 

k-k 


324 
294 

318 
194, 
259 
194 
294 
194 


1  1 


ng 


k  k 


259 


IAI. 


Polynesian    5 

Quality        40 

a    a, 

e,    0 
0    0 

U      M, 

0 

1    r 

n    n 

m   w 

h 

s 

V 

f   v,  — 

t   t, 

ft 

P 

\-r 

194 

n-n 

259 

t-t 

294 

t-fe 

3i8, 

324 

m-m     318, 

324 

f-T 

294 

f— 

259 

Identical *94 

Vowel  identity 324 


78 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


KABADI. 


a-a 

74, 

292 

i-i 

33o 

i-w 

74 

u-w 

292, 

330 

Identical.  . 

■  330 


Polynesian    3 
Quality        33 


ng-n  74 

n-n  292, 

t-k  74 

f-v  292 


330 


kabakada. 


Polynesian  6 

Quality   50 

a-a   147,  214,  320 
e-a   122 
i-i        327 
0-0   147 

O-W    285 

u-w   320,  327 

1-/     327 

1-r 

ng-ng 

n-n 

m-m 

i-w 
p-6 

320 
285 
147 

320,  327 
i47,  214 
285 

Identical 

•  214, 

320, 

327 

KALIL. 


Polynesian    6 
Quality        17 


a-a 
i-i 

294, 
312 

322, 

352 

l-w 
O-w 
u-w 
\-l 

329 
296 

329 
312, 

322 

Identical.  . 

n-n 

296 

h-s 

352 

t-t 

294, 

352 

t-dd 

329 

m-m 

312, 

322 

i-h 

294, 

296,  329 

312 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA.  79 


KING. 

Polynesian    32 
Quality  53 

a  a,    e,    i,    0,    u 
e  e^a,  i,  0   o  o,    a,   i,   u 
i  i,    e,    u  u  u,    i 

1  /,  r 
ng  ng,    n  n  n,    ng  mm 

h  s 
s  s 

V 

f  v,   w,    p 
k  k  t   t,    d,    k,    n  p  b,    mb 

a-a  147,  213,  217,  258,  294,  309,  U  309,  312,  313,  336,  349,  350 

313,  318,  324,  329,  350,  352    l-r  320,  358 

a-e  151,  323  ng-ng  213,  264,  309,  336,  350 

a-*  320,  323  ng-»   74,  151 

a-o  213  k-fe  196 

a-w    74,  266  n-rc  147,  151,  296,  321 

e-e  151  n-n<7  266,  342,  343 

e"a  3i3  h-*    47,  352,  363 

e"»    47  s-.r  264,  323,  342,  343,  344 

?-°  247,  363  t-t           74,  196,  217,  247,  258,  266, 

\-i          47,  196,  312,  319,  321,  323,  294,  318,  324,  350,  352,  358 

352  t-d         47 

i-e  342  t-k  349 

i-M    74  t-w  329 

0-0  196,  336,  363  m-w  217,  258,  312,  313,  318,  319, 

o-a  264  320,  321,  323,  324 

o-i  349  i-v  147,  213,  363 

o-m  296  i-w  294,  329 

"-«•  258,  320,  321,  329,  343,  344,   i-p  296 

358  P-b  247 

U-i  247,  296  p-w6  151 

Identical 196,  217,  321,  324,  336,  358 

Terminal  abrasion. .  .309,  318,  344 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .264,  312,  313,  320,  350 
Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 343,  352 

Terminal  abrasion. .  .294 

Terminal  abrasion 266,  294,  309,  318,  329 

Frontal  abrasion 151 

Frontal  accretion 213,  266,  312,  318,  358 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .  147,  213,  264,  336,  343 
Metathesis 196 


80 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


LAKON. 


Polynesian    32 
Quality         75 

a  a,    e,    i 
e    a,    e  o    0,    a 

i    i,    e  u   u,    au 

I  /,    ng,    dr 

ng   ng,    n  n  w  mm 

h  ft 

S  s,    h 

V 

f    XI,     w 

k   g,    w  t   t,    m  P   P,    v,  kpw 

a-a       123,  147,  193,  214,  217,  239,  ng-ng  309,  350 

292.  301,  309,  313,  3J7.  3X8,  ng-w  285 

324,  328,  335,  337,  350,  351  k-g  193,  275,  301 

a-e       275,  324,  350  k-w  251,  306 

a-*       275  n-n  147,  292,  328,  351 

e-e        190  h/j  206,  278 

e-a       122  s-fe  239,  351 

>-*        193.  313  s-.j  337 

i-e        206,  312  t-t  306,  318,  343,  350,  356 

0-0        147,  285,  356  t-ra  217 

o-a       123  mm  217,  312,  313,  317,  318,  328 

u-tt      278,  284,  292,  306,  328,  335,  f-v  122,  147,  193,  214,  272,  292 

343.  35i  f-w  206,  360 

u-au    239  p-p  190 

\-l         123,  284,  309,  312,  313,  350  p-v  284 

l-ng      123  p-kpw  285 

I-*-      335 

Identical 214,  313,  328,  337,  351 

Terminal  abrasion. . .  190,  278,  309,  318,  343,  356 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .312,  317,  324,  350 

Vowel  identity 217 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 147,  285 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .  193,  206,  284,  292,  306,  351 

Terminal  abrasion 190,  193,  206,  217,  278,  284,  292,  301,  306,  309, 

312,  317,  318,  343,  351,  356 

Frontal  accretion 272,  301,  312 

Terminal  accretion ....  328,  335,  350 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA.  81 


LAMASSA. 

Polynesian    29 
Quality  69 

a  a,    e,    u 

e    e,    a,  0      o    w 
'    i,    e,    u  u    u,    0,    i 

1  /,    r,    nl 

ng    ng,    n  n  n,    ng  mm 

h  j 

s  J 

V 

f  f,  v,  p,  —,w 
k    k  t    t,    k,    n  p  b,   mb,   m 

a-a      213,  216,  292,  294,  309,  313,  k-fe  196 

316,  317,  318,  324,  350  n-n  292,  296,  317,  343 

a'«        151.  350  n-ng  266,  342 

a-w         74,  266  h-s  47,  280,  363 

e-e        151,  190  s-.y  342,  344 

e-a         47  t-f  47,    74,  196,  247,  266,  294, 

f-?  247  318,  324.  342,  350,  358 

i-i  47,  196,  312,  313,  319,  342         t-k  216 

i-e  342  t-w  329 

i-M         74  m-ra  216,  312,  313,  316,  317,  318, 

o-m  196,  285,  296,  363  319,  324 

u-w  247,  292,  316,  329,  343,  344,       i-f  292,  294 

358  f-v  280,  363 

u-o  216  f-p  296 

«*'  317,  343  f-w  329 

'-*  309.  312,  313,  35o  f—  213 

l-nl  316  p-b  190,  247 

\-r  358  p-m&  151,  285 

ng-ng  213,  285,  309,  350  p-m  190 

ng-rc  74,  151 

Identical 313,  319,  324,  344,  358 

Terminal  abrasion. .  .292,  294,  309,  312,  318 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .  196,  213,  317,  343,  350 

Vowel  identity 316 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 47,  247 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .151,  363 

Terminal  abrasion 190,  266,  280,  285,  292,  294,  296,  309,  312,  318,  329, 

342,  363 

Frontal  abrasion 151,  213,  216 

Frontal  accretion 216,  289,  344,  358 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .213 


82  THE   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 


LAMBELL. 

Polynesian    32 
Quality  81 

a      a,    e,    o,    u 

e    e,    a,  0      00,    u 
«    i,    «  u    u,    a,    i,    0 

1  I,    r 

ng    ng,    n  n  n,    ng  mm 

h  s 

s  .r 

V 

f  p,  h 

k    k  t    t,    k,    n  p    b,    mb 

a-°         74,  347,  213,  216,  292,  294,  \r  320,  358 

309,  312,  316,  317,  318,  324,  ag-ng  213,  264,  309,  336,  346,  350 

346,  350,  352  ng-w  74 

a-e        151,  342  k-fe  149,  196 

a-o       321  n-n  147,  151,  292,  296,  317,  343 

a-w       266  n-w^  266,  342 

e-e        151,  190  h-s  47,  352 

e-a         47  s-j  264,  342,  344,  346 

e-o       247  t-<  47,    74,  196,  247,  266,  294, 

i-»         47,  149,  196,  312,  319,  342,  318,  324,  343,  346,  350,  352, 

346,  352  358 

i-w         74  t-k  216 

0-0        196,  264,  336  t-w  329 

o-u      296  m-OT  216,  312,  316,  317,  318,  319, 

u-w       247,  292,  329,  343,  344,  358  320,  324 

u-o       316  f-p  296 

"■»        317,  343  f-fe  147,  213,  292,  294,  329 

u-o       216,  320  p-o  190,  247 

\-l         149,  309,  312,  316,  336,  350  p-mb  151 

Identical 196,  312,  319,  324,  336,  346,  358 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .  149,  264,  309,  318,  344 
Consonant  identity.  ...    74,  247,  316,  317,  343,  350 
Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 47,  213,  292,  342,  352 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .  147,  151,  294 

Terminal  abrasion 147,  149,  264,  266,  294,  296,  318,  329 

Frontal  abrasion 151 

Frontal  accretion 190,  264,  318,  344,  358 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .213,  336 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA.  83 


LAUR. 

Polynesian    28 
Quality  75 

a    a,    e,    u 
e  e,  a,  i,  000,   i,    u 
i    »  U    u,   i,    0,    h 

1    I,    r 
ng    ng,    n  n    n,    ng  mm 

h   s 
s    s 

v 

f    v,    h 
kg  t    t,    n  p    b,    mb 

a-a       156,  216,  217,  292,  294,  309,  \-r  257 

3i3.  3i5,  316,  317,  318,  324,  ng-ng  309,  350 

350,  352  ng-w  151 

a-e       295  kg  156 

a-i*      266  n-w  151,  156,  292,  296,  317 

e-e        151,  190  n-ng  266,  342 

e-a         47  h-j         47,  352,  363 

e-*        257  s-j  343.  344 

e-o       247  t-i  47,  216,  217,  292,  294,  309, 

«-*  47,  295,  312,  313,  319,  350  313,  315,  316,  317,  318,  324, 

00       363  350,  352 

o-i       257  t-w  329 

O-m       296  m-ra  156,  216,  217,  257,  312,  313, 

u-m       156,  216,  292,  316,  329,  344  315,  316,  317,  318,  319,  324 

tt-i        247  f-v  363 

u-o       343  i-h  292,  294,  296,  329 

n-h       295  p-b  190,  247 

1-*         295,  309,  312,  313,  315,  316,  p-mb  151 

350 

Identical 217,  313,  334,  344,  350 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .309,  312,  317,  318,  319 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .257,  315,  316 
Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 47,  190,  292 

Terminal  abrasion. .  .151,  156,  294,  352,  363 

Terminal  abrasion 151,  156,  266,  294,  296,  309,  312,  315,  317,  318, 

3i9.  329.  343,  352,  363 

Frontal  abrasion 151 

Frontal  accretion 216,  352 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .216,  257,  316 


84 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


LEMARORO. 

a-a 

258,  274 

ng-wa  274 

\-i 

274 

k— 

258 

u-u 

258 

t-l 

258 

\-l 

274 

LEON. 

POIvYNESIAN      10 

Quality         90 

, 

a    a,    e, 

0 

e    e, 

i            0 

0 

i    i 

1    /,    r 

u    c 

> 

ng 

n   n 
h 

s   s 

m   m 

v   w 
i  v 

k  g 

t— 

V 

a-a       147,  214 

0-0 

187 

s-s 

203,  337 

a-e       193,  318,  337 

XX-0 

292 

t— 

3i8 

a-o       292,  307 

VI 

307 

m-m 

3i8 

e-e        122 

\-r 

203 

v-w 

307 

e-i       203 

k-g 

193 

f-v 

122,  147,  193, 

i-i        193 

n-w 

147,  ' 

87,  292 

214,  292 

Identical 

. . .214 

Terminal  abrasion  . . .  147,  187,  193, 

Terminal  abrasion , 

187 

203,  292,  318 

Consonant  identity .  . 

•  203, 

318,  337 

Consonant  mutation : 

Terminal  accretion. .  .  122 

Vowel  identity 

122, 

214 
193 

Metathesis 

139 

Terminal  abrasion 

■  •  •  147, 

LIFU. 


Polynesian    7 
Quality       42 


a    a, 


e   i 


e 
o 


1    1 


u    u 


ng 


n 
h 


m   m 


k   k 

a-a  214,  361 

a-e  318,  324 

e-i  318 

I-»  259,  330 

Identical 259,  330,  361 

Terminal  abrasion .  . .  324 
Frontal  abrasion 214 


t   k 

V 

f 

P  P 

0-0 

k   k 
n-« 

259 

326,  330,  361 

361 

259.  33o 

t-k 

m-m 

P-P 

318,  324 
318,  324,  326 
361 

POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA. 


85 


LO. 

Polynesian    37 
Quality  84 

a    a,    e,    i,    0 
e   e,    a,    i      00 
i    i,    u  u    u,    i 

I    I,    r,    h 
ng    ng,    n,    g  n  n,    ng  m   m,   mw,   ng 

h  j 
s    h 

v   v,    p,    w 
f   v,    w,    h 
kg  t    t,    nd  p    p,    kw 

a-a       152,  169,  193,  195,  214,  217,  kg  i49l  169,  193,  195,  251,  300, 

290,  300,  301,  312,  324,  328,  301,  305,  306,  357 

339,  35o  n-n  147,  169,  290,  317,  321,  328, 

a-e       147,  169,  309,  313,  316,  318,  343 

35i  n-ng  351 

a-*       307  h-j  339 

a-o       317  s-h  169,  239,  251,  351 

e"e        I22  t-t  195,  306,  318,  324,  343,  356, 

e-t        190,  193  357,  358 

e-a       290  t-nd  350 

i-i        149,  169,  290,  300,  305,  312,  m-w  217,  312,  316,  317,  318,  324, 

313,  35o  328 

i-M        321  m-mw  313 

0-0        285,  307,  336,  356,  357  m-ng  316 

U-tt       212,  306,  316,  343,  351,  358  v-tj  152 

U-i        239  \-p  291 

\-l         212,  305,  307,  309,  312.  313,  v-w  307 

316,  350  f-v  122,  147,  193,  214,  290 

\-r         149,  152,  336  i-w  290 

\-h        335  i-h  169 

ng-ng  309,  336,  350  p-p  190 

ng-w    285  p-kw  285 

ng-g     169 

Identical 214,  312,  324,  358 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .  152,  212,  328,  336,  343,  356 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .  152,  190,  217,  309,  316,  317,  318,  321 
Consonant  mutation  : 

Vowel  identity 169,  193,  195,  214,  285,  300,  305,  313,  350,  351 

Terminal  abrasion . .  .  149,  306,  357 

Terminal  abrasion 122,  147,  149,  152,  190,  195,  212,  306,  309,  317, 

318,  321,  328,  339,  343,  356 

Frontal  abrasion 217,  239 

Frontal  accretion 290,  301,  312,  339,  351 

Terminal  accretion ....  305,  336 


86  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

MAEWO. 

Polynesian    39 
Quauty         87 

a    a,    e,    0 
e   e,    i  00 

\    i,    u  u    u,    i 

1    I,    r,    nd 
ng   ng,    n  n    n,    I  mm 

h  5 
s  j- 

v    mb,  — 
f    v,    w,  — 
k    k,    g,    w  t    t,    nd  p    b,    w,    kmbw 

&-a       147,  152,  193,  214,  215,  239,  ng-n  285 

278,  284,  292,  309,  312,  313,  k-fe  149 

316,  317,  318,  324,  328,  346,  kg  193,  214,  301,  357 

352  k-w  306 

&-e       272,  291,  301,  337  n-M  147,  292,  317,  328 

a-o   335  n-Z  259 

e-e   153,  190,  318  h-.?  206,  215,  278,  352 

e-i   152,  303  s-^  203,  239,  298,  337,  346 

\-i        149,  i93>  215,  259,  291,  298,  t-t  306,  318,  324,  346,  352,357, 

312,  313,  329,  346  358 
i-M   206  t-nd  329 

0-0   147,  153,  206,  259,  285,  309,  mm  312,  313,  316,  317,  318,  324, 

336,  357  328 

U-u       212,  239,  272,  278,  284,  292,  v-mb  291 

298,  306,  316,  317,  328,  329,  v—  152 

335.  358  f-v  H7,  193.  214,  215,  272,  292 

u-i       301  f-w  206,  259 

\-l         152,  153,  212,  284,  309,  312,  f—  329,  360 

313,  316  p-b  190 
\-r  149,  203,  336,  358  p-w  284 
i-nd  335  p-kmbw28s 
ng-ng   309,  336,  346 

Identical 149,  153.  212,  239,  298,  309,  312,  313,  316,  317, 

318,  324,  328,  329,  336,  346,  358 
Consonant  identity.  .    .203,  337 
Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 147.  190,  193.  214,  215,  259,  272,  278,  284,  285, 

291,  292,  306 
Terminal  abrasion .  . .  352,  357 

Frontal  accretion 272,  298,  312 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .212,  259,  298,  301,324,  335,  346,  358 

MAI. 

a-a  281  s-s  281 
u-m  281  v-6  281 
\-r        281 


POLYNESIAN   RELICS   IN   MELANESIA.  87 

MAKURA. 

Polynesian  13 

Quality  92 


a  a,    e 

e  e 

0 

i    i,    u 

1  I,    r 

u  u,    i 

ng  n,    g 

n  n 
h  h 

s 

m  m 

V 

f  v,  - 

k  ngg,    k 

t  t 

P 

a-a 

74,  290,  302,  309,  312,  3*7, 

ng-n 

74 

335.  352 

ng-g 

309 

a-e 

165 

k-k 

306 

e-e 

290,  297 

\i-ngg 

297, 

302 

\-i 

74,  165,  290,  297,  302,  312 

n-w 

290, 

317,  321 

i-M 

321 

h-h 

352 

u-u 

273.  321,  335 

U 

74, 

165,  302,  306,  352 

u-i 

306 

m-m 

312, 

317,  321 

\l 

297,  309.  312,  335 

i-v 

290 

\r 

165 

f— 

273 

Identical 312  Consonant  mutation: 

Terminal  abrasion. 317,  352  Vowel  identity.    .    74,  290,  297,  302 

Consonant  identity.  .  165,  306,  321      Terminal  abrasion .  309 

Vowel  identity 273  Terminal  abrasion. .  .273,  306,  309,  317, 

352 
Frontal  accretion. .  .  .321 

MALANTA. 

a-e       312,  324  \-l        312 

i-i        312  m-m     312,  324 

MALEKULA. 

Polynesian    68 
Quality  5 1 

a    a,    e,    i,    0,    u 
e    e,    i,   ou     o    0,    i,    u 
i    i,    e,    u  u,    u,    e,    i 

1    I,    r 
ng    ng,    n,    g,    m         n,    n,    r  m    m 

h    s,    j 
s    s 

V   V,  w,  11,  pw 
f  v,  p,  b,  — ,  /,  mbw 
k    k,    kh,    g,    h,  —     t    t,    j,    r  p    p,    b,    mb 


88 


THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


MALEKULA— Continued. 

a-a         74,  147.  157,  161,  193,  199,  k-fe  194,  217,  297,  323 

217,  239,  252,  302,  309,  312,  k-kh  251 

316,  324,  339,  340,  345,  350,  k-g  air,  301,  306 

360  k-h  193,  258,  300,  302 

a-e         74-  121,  156,  254,  258,  274,  k—  156,  251,  301 

292,  318,  323,  324,  346,  239  n-w  147,  156,  157,  217,  242,  254, 

a-i       157,  208,  252,  294,  315,  317,  292,  317,  321,  328 

352  n-r  259 

a-o       258,  320  hs         47,  278,  339,  352,  363 

a-w       148,  328,  364  h-/  340 

e-e         47,  210  s-j  239,  252,  323,  344 

e-i        121,  297  t-t  47,    74,  148,  161,  199,  208, 

e-ou     247  210,  211,  217,  247,  258,  270, 

l-i  47,    74,  193,  194,  217,  242,  294,  306,  324,  345,  346,  347, 

254,  259.  289,  297,  300,  302,  352,  356,  358,  359 

312,  321,  350  t-j  208,  227,  289,  302,  318,  329 

i-e         2ii,  254,  319  t-r  276,  294,  350 

i-u        362  m-m  156,  161,  254,  258,  312,  315, 

0-0   252,  259,  287,  356,  363  316,  317,  318,  319,  320,  323, 

0-*   252  324,  328,  340 

o-w   285,  362  v-pw  242 

u-m    77,  156,  194,  228,  239,  246,  v-w  242 

270,  278,  289,  292,  306,  316,  v-w  291 

344,  358,  359.  360,  364  v-v  121 

u-i       211,  247,  329,  359  i-f  287,  292 

U-e       239  f-v  147,  161,  193,  210,  294,  329 

1-/   252,  316  i-p  246 

\-r         121,  194,  228,  252,  287,  289,  i-b  148,  259,  363 

297,  309,  312,  315,  320,  335,  i-mbw  157 

339.  35o,  362,  364  f—  360 

n%-ng  246,  285,  346,  350  p-p  121 

ng-n       74.  274  P-b  247,  289 

ng-#     3°9  p-mb  285 
ng-w    199 

Identical 74,    77,  194,  239,  312,  316,  324,  358,  345 

Terminal  abrasion .  .  .  344,  356 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .  156,  194,  239,  252,  254,  270,  317,  323,  328,  346,  359 

Vowel  identity 210,  285,  335 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 47,  242,  246,  289 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .  147,  306,  363,  292,  300,  309 

Terminal  abrasion 121,  147,  156,  161,  193,  199,  208,  217,  228,  242, 

246,  258,  274,  278,  292,  294,  300,  306,  315,  317, 
318,  320,  321,  323,  328,  329,  340,  344,  346,  352, 
356,  363 

Frontal  abrasion 251,  350 

Frontal  accretion 72,  148,  239,  252,  274,  285,  301,  321,  360 

Terminal  accretion 77,  148,  239,  321,  325,  335,  347)  360 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS   IN  MELANESIA. 


89 


MALO. 


Polynesian    61 

Quality          65 

a    a,    ■ 

i,    0 

e  e, 

a,  i,  0 

0    0, 

i 

i    i,    i 

,',     u 

I    /,    r 

u 

m,    a 

,    e,    i,    0 

ng    w<?,    w,    mc 

1 

it    n 

m    m,    t 

h    s 

S     J 

V 

f 

u 

v,    b,    u 

k    k,    g,    v,  — 

t    t,    d 

,     •*■ 

P 

•    b,    v,    bu 

a-a 

121,  124,  H7,  H8,  193, 

199, 

\-r 

121, 

194, 

203, 

305,  308,  335, 

203,  207,  217,  218,  228, 

239, 

336, 

354, 

358, 

359 

252,  254,  258,  266,  270, 

290, 

ng-ng 

285, 

309, 

336, 

346 

292,  293,  300,  301,  302, 

308, 

ng-w 

308 

309,  312,  313,  316,  318, 

320, 

ng-wo 

199 

324,  335,  337,  338,  339, 

340, 

k-k 

258, 

297, 

3°T, 

302,  338,  353 

346,  347,  352,  356 

k-g 

193 

a-* 

208 

k-v 

194 

a-o 

121,  203 

k— 

193, 

305, 

306 

Q-e 

124,  190,  297,  311,  318, 

338, 

n-n 

147, 

266, 

290, 

292,  321 

354 

h-s 

47,  206 

e-a 

47,  121 

s-s 

203, 

239, 

252, 

337,  338,  339, 

e-i 

208,  290,  347 

340, 

344, 

346, 

352 

e-o 

247 

t-t 

47, 

148, 

199, 

217,  247,  258, 

\-i 

47,  193,  194,  206,  254, 

266, 

266, 

270, 

302, 

306,  318,  324, 

270,  290,  305,  312,  313, 

321, 

346, 

347, 

352, 

356,  358,  359 

346 

t-d 

208 

i-e 

297,  302,  308,  319 

t-s 

207, 

293 

\-u 

305,  362 

m-m 

124, 

217, 

258, 

266,  312,  313, 

0-0 

147,  206,  252,  285,  309, 
336,  353,  356,  362 

3ii, 

rat 

3i6, 

254 

318, 

3i9, 

320,  324,  340 

0-i 

353 

v-u 

121 

u-u 

148,  194,  228,  239,  258, 
289,  292,  306,  316,  321, 
343,  344,  358,  359 

270, 
335, 

f-v 
i-b 

147, 
293 
148 

193, 

208, 

254,  290,  292, 

u-a 

320 

f-u 

206 

u-e 

359 

p-b 

121, 

190, 

207, 

218,  247,  285, 

u-i 

247,  3ot 

289 

U-0 

266 

p-bti 

124 

\-l 

228,  252,  289,  297,  309, 
312,  3i3,  3i6,  320,  339, 

3ii. 
362 

p-v 

190 

Consonant  mutation: 

270,302,306,321,337, 
309,311,312,313,316. 
318,324,336,343,344, 

346,  347,  356 
Consonant  identity.203,  266,  302,  320,  353, 

358,  359 
Vowel  identity 190 


Vowel  identity. .  147,  193,  199,  292,  218, 

254,  335,  354 
Terminal  abr  . .  .285 
Terminal  abrasion  .207,  352 
Frontal  abrasion.  .193,  306 
Frontal  accretion. .  148,  203,  208,  293,  340 
Terminal  accretion.  194,  337,  316,  319, 335, 
337 


90  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


MARINA. 

Polynesian    31 
Quality  89 

a    a,    e 
e    e,    a  00 

\    i  xx    u 

I    /,    r 
ng    ng  n    n,    I,  —  m    m,    n 

h   j 
s 

V     p,     t 

f   v 

k    g  t    t,    s  p    p,    v 

&-a       147,  193.  214,  250,  278,  284,  kg  193,  214,  250,  301,  306,  357 

292,  301,  309,  312,  317,  318,  n-n  147,  292,  317,  328,  343 

324.  328,  335,  35o,  352,  356  n-l  321 

a-e       291  n —  321 

e-e        311,  318  hs  278,  352 

e-a       272  t-t  306,  318,  324,  343,  352,  356, 

\-i         193,  285,  291,  312,  313,  350,  357,  358 

352  t-s  350 

o-o       285,  309,  311,  336,  356,  357  v-t  318,  321,  328 

u-u       212,  272,  278,  284,  292,  301,  mm  312,  313,  317,  324 

306,  317,  321,  328,  335,  343,  m-w  291 

358  v-p  291 

\-l         212,  284,  309,  311,  312,  313,  f-v  147,  193,  212,  214,  272,  292, 

35o  360 

l-r         335,  336,  358  p -p  285 

ng-ng  285,  309,  336,  350  p-v  250,  284 

Identical 285,  309,  311,  318,  328,  335,  336,  343,  356,  358 

Consonant  identity.  .  .  .272 
Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 193,  214,  278,  284,  292,  301,  306,  312,  313,  317, 

324,  35o,  352 
Terminal  abrasion.  .  .  147,  212,  357 

Terminal  abrasion 147,  212,  306,  357 

Terminal  accretion 328,  336,  358 


POLYNESIAN   REWCS   IN   MELANESIA. 


91 


MATUPIT. 

Polynesian    i  i 
Quality         63 

a    a,    e 
e  o    0,    a,    u 

i    «  u    u 

1    r 
ng    ng  n    n  mm 

h 
s 

v 

f   iv,    p 
k—  t   I  p   b 

a-o  147,  214,  287,  320,  346,  352  ng-ng  284,  346 

a-e  300  k —  300 

i-i  300,  346  n-w  147 

O-o  244  U  74,  346,  352,  358 

o-a  147,  287  m-m  320 

0-M         285  f-W  147,  214 

u-m      287,  320,  358  i-p       287 

\-r        244,  287,  320  p-6        244,  285 

Identical 320,  348 

Vowel  identity 300 

Consonant  mutation: 

Vowel  identity 147,  214 

Terminal  abrasion .  .  .  244,  285 

Terminal  abrasion 147,  244,  285,  352 

Frontal  abrasion 74 

Terminal  accretion ....  300,  320 


MELE. 


a-a 
0-0 


147 
H7 


n-w 


H7 
i47 


92 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


MERLAV. 

Polynesian   40 
Quality         77 

a    a,    e,    o 
e    e,    a         00 
i    i,    u  u    u,    a,    i 

1    I,    r,    t,    nd,    ng 
ng    ng  a    n,    ng  m    m,    raw 

h   s 
s   j- 

v    v,    mb 
i   v,    w 
k    k,    g,    w  t    t,    m  p    b,    mb,    v 

a-o       123,  147,  193,  197,  207,  214,  ng-ng  154,  197,  309 

217,  239,  268,  307,  309,  313,  k-ft  301 

316,  317,  318,  322,  324,  328,  kg  149,  151,  193,  25i,  300,  338, 

337,  338,  339  357 

a-e       291,  301,  324  k-w  306 

a-o       335  n-rc  147,  317,  328 

e-e        151,  190,  210,  318,  338  n-wg  342 

e-a       122  h-5  206,  338,  339 

\-i         149,  154,  193,  291,  300,  312,  s-s  239,  251,  337,  342 

313,  342  t-t  207,  210,  268,  289,  306,  318, 

i-«        206  324,  357,  358 

0-0        147,  206,  357  t-m  217 

u-w      207,  239,  284,  289,  306,  316,  mm  217,  313,  316,  317,  318,  322, 

328,  358  324,  328 

u-a       151  ta-m-w  312 

u-i  301,  335  v-^  307 

VI  123,  154,  197,  284,  289,  307,       \-mb  291 

309,  312,  316,  313,  329  f-v  122,  147,  193,  210,  214 

\-r  149,  268,  322,  358  i-w  206,  360 

1-i  335  p-6  190 

\-nd  335  p-m6  151,  207,  289 

l-ng  123  p-T  284 

Identical 239,  313,  316,  318,  324,  337,  358 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .154,  197,  307,  309,  312,  317,  328 

Consonant  identity.  .  .  .268,  301 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 147,  193,  207,  214,  289,  338 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .149,  190,  210,  284,  300,  306,  339,  342,  357 

Terminal  abrasion 123,  149,  151,  154,  190,  193,  197,  210,  217,  268, 

284,  300,  306,  307,  312,  317,  328,  339,  342 

Frontal  accretion 149,  197,  301,  339 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .122,  149,  312,  324,  337 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA.  93 


MOAN  US. 

Polynesian    23 
Quality         83 

a    a,    e,    i 

e   i  00 

i    i,    u  u    u 

1    / 

ng   ng,    n  n   n,    nj  mm 

h   s 

s   s 

V    u 

f    p,    mb,    t,  — 
k    k,  —  t    t,    r,    ndr  p    p,    mb,    v 

a-a        74,  126,  239,  291,  294,  308,  n-M  290,  317,  330 

312,  317,  324,  328,  335,  345,  n-nj  328 

35o,  352,  360  h--f  352 

a-e       215,  290  s-s  239 

a-*       350  t-<  74,  126,  294,  305,  324,  345 

e-i        190  t-r  329 

\-i         215,  290,  291,  305,  312,  330,  t-ndr  350,  352 

350  m-w  312,  317,  324,  328 

i-w       305  v-m  291 

0-0       126,  285  i-p  290,  294 

u-m      126,  239,  284,  317,  329,  330,  f-mb  329,  360 

335.  360  \-t  215 

ng-ng  285,  308,  350  f—  290 

ng-n       74  P"^  I9°>  285 

k-k      305  P-w&  284 

k—     143  P-t  285,  290 
I-;      126, 284,  305,  308,  312,  335, 

350 

Identical 126,  239,  285,  312,  317,  324,  330,  335,  345 

Terminal  abrasion ...   74,  308 
Consonant  identity.  ...  190 
Consonant  mutation: 

Vowel  identity 291,  350,  352,  360 

Terminal  abrasion .  . .  284,  294,  352 

Terminal  abrasion 74,  284,  285,  290,  294,  308,  328,  352 

Frontal  accretion 190,  239 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .305,  317,  335 


94 


THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


MOSIN. 


Polynesian    27 
Quality  62 


a    a,    e,    1,    0,    u 
e    e  o    o,   e 

i    i,    e  u    u,    0 

1    /,    r,    n,    ng 
ng    ng  n    n  mm,    mw 

h    .r 
s    -f 

v    w 
f   v,    w 
k    g,    ng,    w  t    t,    m  p    w 

a-a  123,  147,  214,  217,  239,  309,       \-n  335 

3x7,  318,  328,  339,  357  "g-»9  154,  309,  336 

a-e  193,  324  kg  193,  251,  300,  357 

a-i  307  k-w^  301 

a-o  316  k-w  306 

a-u  272  n-w  147,  317,  328 

e-e  122  h-^  339 

v-i  193,  312  s-j  239,  251 

i-e  154,  300  t-t  306,  318,  324,  343,  356,  357 

0-0  307,  336,  356,  357  t-m  217 

o-e  123  m-TO  217,  316,  317,  318,  324,  328 

u-w  272,  306,  316,  343  m-mw  312 

u-o  284  v-w  307 

1-/  123,  154,  284,  307,  309,  312,       f-v  122,  147,  193,  214 

316,  339  i-w  272 

\-r  336  p-w  284 

l-«g  123 

Identical : 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .239,  309,  312,  317,  318,  328,  336,  356 
Consonant  identity .  .  .  .154,  316,  324 
Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 214,  339 

Terminal  abrasion .  .  .  147,  193,  306,  343 

Terminal  abrasion 147,  193,  214,  217,  239,  284,  300,  306,  309,  312, 

317,  318,  328,  336,  339,  343,  356 

Frontal  accretion 272,  339 

Terminal  accretion 122,  154,  272,  301,  336,  339 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA. 


95 


MOTLAV. 


Polynesian    42 
Quality  50 

a    a,    e,    i,    0,    u 
e    e,    a  o    0,    e 

•    i,    e  u    u,    i,    o 

1    /,    r,     ng 
ng    ng,    n  n    n,    ng,    I  m    m,    mw 

h    h 
s    h 

v    mb,    w 
f    v,    w 
k    g,    ng  t    t,    nd-:    m  p  b,    w,  kmbw 

a-a        123,147,169,214,217,239,        kg  169,193,251,258,300,306 

3l8>  324,  339  k-ng  301 

a-e       258,  309,  317,  322,  328,  337,       n-n  147,  169,  290,  292,  317,  321, 

346,  350  328,  351 

a-*'        307  n-ng  151 

a-o       290,  307  n-l  259 

a-w       316  h-h  339 

e-e        151,  190  s-/j  169,  239,  251,  337,  351 

e-a       122  t-t  258,  306,  318,  324,  346,  356 

\-i         154,  169,  290,  321  t-ra  217 

i-e         193,  259,  300,  312  t-nd  350 

0-0        147,  259,  285,  336,  356  m-ra  217,  258,  316,  317,  318,  322, 

o-e        123  324,  328 

u-w       316  m-mw  312 

u-i        306,  351  v-m6  291 

u-0       239,  284,  292  v-w  307 

M         123,  154,  284,  307,  309,  312,        f--y  122,  147,  193.  214,  290,  292 

3l6>  339.  35o  i-w  259,  360 

1-r         322,  335,  336  p-6  190 

I-M^         123  p-W  284 

ng-ȣ   154,  309,  336,  346,  35o  p-kmbw  151,  285 

ng-w    285 

Identical 214,  324 

Terminal  abrasion.      154,  318,  321,  336,  339,  356 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .316,  317,  328,  346 
Consonant  mutation: 

Vowel  identity 122,  147,  169,  259,  285 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .  190,  217,  258,  272 

Terminal  abrasion 151,  154,  190,  217,  258,  272,  300,  306,  309,  312, 

3i7,  3!8,  328,  339,  346,  351 

Frontal  abrasion 151,  351 

Frontal  accretion 147,  193,  290,  301,  312,  339 

Terminal  accretion 122,  147,  336,  350 


96 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


MOTA. 

Polynesian    123 
Quality  92 

a    a,    e,    i,    u 
e  e,  a,  i,  oi   0  0,  a,  i,  ai 
1    i,    a,    e,    0,    u  u    u,    a,    e,    i,    o,    v 

1    I,    r,    ng,    n 
ng    ng,    g,    n,    m         n    n,    ng,    I  mm,    mw 

h    s       ' 
s   s 

V    v,    p,    w,    u 
f    V,    w,    t 
k    g,    ng,    w  t    t,    s,    r  p    p,    v,    kpv> 


a-a 

75, 

123, 

147, 

152, 

156, 

160, 

a-u 

167,  207, 

212, 

216, 

228, 

239, 

169, 

189, 

192, 

193, 

197, 

198, 

240,  247, 

258, 

262, 

270, 

283, 

199, 

203, 

207, 

209, 

213, 

214, 

284,  286, 

287, 

289, 

292, 

294, 

215. 

216, 

217, 

228, 

230, 

239, 

298,  306, 

316, 

317, 

320, 

325, 

240, 

250, 

252, 

253, 

254, 

258, 

326,  328, 

335, 

343. 

35i, 

358, 

262, 

263, 

267, 

268, 

270, 

274, 

368 

276, 

279, 

283, 

284, 

287, 

290, 

\xa 

151 

292, 

294, 

295, 

300, 

301, 

302, 

u-e 

301 

307, 

309, 

310, 

312, 

313, 

316, 

u-i 

156,  359 

317, 

318, 

320, 

322, 

323, 

324, 

u-o 

360 

328, 

335. 

337, 

338, 

339, 

34o, 

u-v 

295 

342, 

344, 

346, 

347, 

348, 

35i, 

U 

75,  123, 

153, 

154, 

161, 

189,, 

352, 

356, 

357, 

360, 

364 

197,  203, 

212, 

228, 

252, 

2  74," 

a-e 

291 

284,  289, 

295, 

297, 

307, 

309, 

a-i 

167 

310,  312, 

313, 

316, 

339, 

348, 

a-u 

167 

362 

e-e 

151. 

152, 

153, 

189, 

190, 

257, 

\-r 

152,  160, 

192, 

205, 

241, 

243, 

276, 

290, 

318, 

338, 

347, 

363 

248,  257, 

262, 

3ro, 

322, 

33i, 

e-a 

47. 

122, 

240, 

272 

336,  34i, 

355, 

358, 

359, 

364 

e-i 

203, 

297 

\-n 

335 

e-oi 

247 

\-ng 

123 

\-i 

47. 

154, 

169, 

193, 

206, 

215, 

ng-ng 

167,  197, 

209, 

230, 

248, 

274,. 

223, 

227, 

241, 

243, 

254, 

259, 

298,  309, 

346 

270, 

290, 

291, 

295, 

300, 

312, 

ng-g 

154,  336 

3i3. 

342, 

346, 

348, 

355 

ng-m 

199 

\-a 

34i 

ng-M 

285,  343 

i-e 

319 

k-g 

151,  156, 

169, 

193, 

196, 

214, 

i-o 

34i 

227,  250, 

251, 

297. 

300, 

302, 

i-u 

362 

323,  353, 

357 

0-0 

75. 

147, 

153, 

160, 

192, 

196, 

k-ng 

301 

197, 

206, 

248, 

252, 

259, 

263, 

k-w 

306 

267, 

285, 

309, 

325, 

336, 

353, 

n-n 

147,  156, 

169, 

227, 

254, 

286, 

355, 

356, 

357, 

362, 

363 

290,  292, 

317, 

321, 

328, 

351 

o-a 

205, 

248, 

257, 

287, 

33i 

n-ng 

342 

o-i 

353 

n-l 

259 

o-ai      123 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA.  97 

MOTA— Continued. 

h-s         47,  206,  215,  331,  339,  340,  m-mw  312,  313 

363.  352  \-v       307 

s-j       169,  198,  203,  205,  239,  251,  X-p      291 

252,  263,  323,  338,  341,  342,  x-w      189,  206,  310 

344,  35i,  205  v-u       310 

t-<  47,    75,  160,  196,  199,  208,  f-v        122,  147,  152,  193,  213,  214, 

209,  217,  227,  247,  258,  267,  215,  223,  243,  254,  272,  283, 

268,  270,  286,  289,  294,  302,  290,  292,  294 

306,  318,  324,  325,  343,  346,  f-w       360,  363,  259,  286,  287 

347,  348,  353,  355,  356,  357,  U         290 

358,  359,  207  p-p       151,  190,  192,  207,  247,  279, 
t-s        298  289 

t-r        276  p-v       250,  284 

m-w      75,  156,  198,  217,  230,  253,  p-kpw  241,  285 

254,  257,  258,  316,  317,  318, 

319,  322,  323,  324,  325,  326, 

328,  340 

Identical 152,  153,  154,  160,  167,  190,  192,  197,  198,  207, 

209,  212,  216,  217,  228,  230,  239,  240,  252,  253, 
258,  262,  263,  267,  268,  270,  279,  289,  307,  309, 
316,  317,  318,  320,  324,  325,  328,  336,  337,  344, 

346,  347,  348,  35i,  355,  356,  358,  364 
Terminal  abrasion.  .  .   75,  163,  203,  274,  327,  343 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .205,  247,  248,  257,  272,  319,  321,  331,  341,  362 

Vowel  identity 259,  276,  298 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 47,  147,  156,  169,  189,  193,  199,  206,  208,  213, 

214,  215,  227,  241,  243,  250,  283,  284,  285,  286, 
287,  290,  292,  294,  295,  300,  306,  312,  313,  336, 

338,  339,  340,  342,  363 
Terminal  abrasion.  .  .  154,  196,  223,  254,  294,  302,  306,  310,  323,  343, 

352,  358 
Terminal  abrasion 75,  151,  154,  196,  203,  223,  241,  243,  254,  272, 

294,  297,  321,  323,  343,  346,  352,  358,  359 
Frontal  accretion 189,  190,  27^301,  310,  312,  331 


Terminal  accretion 189,  190,  279^01,  310,  312,  331 


,  27.^301, 
,  279^01, 


98'  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


MOTU. 

Polynesian    56 
Quality  85 

a    a 
e  e,  a,  i,  00    0,   u,   ia 
i    i,    e,    o,    u,    ei  u    u,    a,    o 

1    /,    r,  - 
ng   n,  —  n    w  mm 

h    d 
s    h,    d 

v  v 
f  v,    h 
k  k,    g.,   — ,  m     t  t  p  p,    b 

a-a   125,  208,  214,  217,  268,  271,  \l  243,  268,  309,  310,  335,  339, 

292.  293.  301,  309,  3io,  312,  354,  362 

313,  317,  318,  328,  334,  335,  \-r  182,205,241,248,272,288,304, 

339,  342,  346,  349,  35o,  35i,  327,331,332,334,359,364 

352,  360,  364  1—  312,  313,  350 

e-e   190,  208,  318,  354,  363  ng—  285,  309,  332,  346,  350 

e-a    47,  272  ng-w  125 

e-i   190  k-k  249 

e-o   249  k-g  299 

i-i  47,  241,  243,  249,  268,  304,  k-m  304 

312,  313,  321,  327,  330,  342,  k—  301,  306 

346,  350,  352  n-w  271,  292,  317,  321,  328,  330, 

>-«   273  334,  342,  343,  351 

i-o   288  h-d        47,  339,  352,  363 

i-w   362  s-h  182,  205 

i-ei       319  s-d  298,  342,  351 

0-0   201,  285,  309,  331,  349,  362,  t-t  47,  125,  168,  208,  217,  249, 

363  268,  293,  306,  318,  343,  346, 

°-»   205  349,  352,  358,  359 

o-ia     331  ta-m      76,  217,  312,  313,  317,  318, 

u-w   76,  125,  168,  182,  271,  272,  319,  326,  327,  328 

273,  288,  292,  298,  299,  301,  v-v  310 

306,  317,  321,  326,  327,  330,  i-h  201,  208,  243,  271,  272,  273, 

332,  334,  335,  343,  35 1,  358,  288,  292,  360,  363 

359,  360,  364  f-v  214,  293 

U-a       76  p-b  125,  190,  241,  285 

u-o       248,  328  p-p  279 

Identical 168,  214,  217,  268,  271,  279,  301,  306,  309,  317, 

318,  321,  326,  327,  330,  334,  335,  343,  346,  349, 
354,  359,  364 

Consonant  identity.  ...    76,  249,  328,  331,  362 

Vowel  identity 304,  346 

Consonant  mutation: 

Vowel  identity 47,  125,  182,  201,  208,  241,  243,  272,  273,  285, 

292,  293,  298,  299,  339,  342,  352,  360,  363 

Frontal  abrasion 248,  301,  306,  310,  312,  313,  332 

Frontal  accretion 190,  208,  241,  243,  339,  351 

Terminal  accretion 208,  299,  321,  343,  359 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS   IN  MELANESIA. 


99 


MURRAY  ISLAND. 


a-o 

au-ai 

u-u 

275 
301 

305 

l-r 

k-k 

kg 

NATALAVA. 

305 
275 
301, 

305 

a-a 
a-M 
i-i 

U-U 

335, 
350 
350 
335 

350                  \-l 
l-r 

ng-nd 
t-k 

NENGONE. 

350 
335 
35o 
35o 

Polynesian    i  i 
Quality  45 


a    a,    e 
e    e  00 

i    i,    e  U    «,    e,    0 


1    /,    r, 

n 

ng    ng 

n    n 
h 

s   s 

m 

v   w 
f   w, 

k  k,— 

t   t 

p  p 

a-a       214,  274,  361 

l-n 

309 

a-e       300,  309,  322 

ng-ng 

274, 

309 

e-e        122 

k-k 

361 

i-i        300 

k— 

300, 

306 

i-e        245 

n-n 

330 

0-0       309 

s-s 

245 

U-M         330,  36 1 

t-t 

306 

u-e       306 

v-w 

291 

u-o       245,  306 

f-w 

245 

H         274 

f— 

122, 

214 

l-r        335 

o-p 

361 

Identical 

■361 

Consonant  identity .  .  . 

•  306. 

335 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 

•309. 

330 

Terminal  abrasion 

•  274 

Frontal  abrasion 

122, 

214, 

306 

•  274 

100 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


NEW  GEORGIA. 

Polynesian    16 
Quality  63 

a   a,    0,    u 
e    e  00 

i    i,    e,    0  u    u,    o 

I    I,    r 
ng   ng  n    m  mm 

h 
s   s 

V 

f 

k    k,    h  t    t,    s,    m  p    p,    b 

a-a       217,  300,  312,  313,  324,  350,       \-r  192,  305 

35i,  361  ng-ng  285,  298,  350 

ao       36i  k-k  305,  361 

a-«      x92  k-fe  300, 301 

e-e        190  n-m  351 

i-i         149,  285,  300,  312,  313,  350,       s-.y  351 

351  t-*  324,  35o 

;-«      305  t-f      298 

i-o  305  t-ra  217 

0-0  192,  285  m_m  217,  312,  313,  324 

u-w  298,  351  p_p  j90>  I92>  36l 

«-o  36i  p-6  285 

1-*  312,  3*3,  35o 

Identical. 190,  312,  313,  324 

Consonant  identity.  .  .  .  192,  305,  350 
Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 217,  285,  300 

Frontal  accretion 351 

Terminal  accretion 149,  190,  300,  351 


POLYNESIAN  REWCS  IN  MELANESIA.  101 


NGGAO. 

Polynesian    18 
Quality  77 

a  a 

e   a  o    0,    i 

i    i,    e,    u  u    u 

\  I,    r,    k 

ng   ng                           n  n,    m                    mm 

h  h 

S  s,    h 

V 

f   /,    ng,    kr 
K    k,    g  t     t  p    mb 

a-a       214,  215,  217,  239,  309,  312,       k-fe  251 

313,  324,  346.  352  kg  305 

e-o       272  n-»  201 

i-i        215,  285,  305,  313,  346,  351,       n-w  351 

352  h-h  215 

i-e        298,  313  s-j  251,  351 

i-w        305  s-h  239,  298 

0-0       201,  285,  309,  336  t-<  324 

0-i       336  m-m  217,  312,  313,  324 

u-u      239,  272,  298,  351  i-f  214,  272 

1-*         305,  309,  312  f-ng  215 

1-r         272  f-fer  201 

l-k        313  p-ra&  285 
ng-ng  285,  309 

Identical 214,  251,  312,  324,  346,  351 

Consonant  identity.  .  .  .272,  309,  336 

Vowel  identity 201,  239,  309 

Consonant  mutation : 
Vowel  identity 215,  285 

Frontal  abrasion 217 

Frontal  accretion 239,  272,  298,  309 

Terminal  accretion  ....  324 


102  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

NGGELA. 

Polynesian    6i 
Quality  80 

a    a,    ai,    o,    u 
e    e,    i  oo 

i    t  u    u 

I    I,    r 
ng   ng,    g  n    n,    ng,    I  m   m,    v,    r 

h    h 
S    s,    h 

V    v 

f   v,    mb 
k    k,    g  t    t,    nd,    k  p    b,    mb,    v 

a-o        45,  147,  152,  197,  198,  203,  k-fe  149,  251 

207,  208,  213,  214,  217,  239,  kg  258,  297,  300,  301,  305,  306, 

258,  272,  278,  284,  300,  309,  323,  338 

312,  313.  3*5,  316,  317,  318,  n-w  290,  292,  296,  317,  321,  328, 

322,  323,  324,  328,  332,  338,  330,  342 

339.  342,  346,  352,  360  n-ng  351 

a-ai     290  n-l  259 

a-o         45  h-h  278,  323,  338,  339,  352 

a-w       350  s-.r  45,  203,  351 

e-e        122,  208,  290,  297,  318,  338  s-h  198,  239,  251,  298,  342,  346 

e-i        152,  203  t-t  207,  208,  217,  258,  294, 306, 

\-i         149,  155,  259,  273,  285,  290,  318,  324,  346,  352,  358 

297.  298,  300,  305,  312,  313,  t-nd  329 

321,  323.  327,  329.  330,  332,  t-k  350 

342,  346,  350,  352  m-m  198,  217,  258,  312,  313,  315, 

0-0        197,  259,  285,  296,  309,  357  316,  317,  318,  322,  324,  327, 

u-m       155,  207,  239,  258,  272,  273,  328 

278,  284,  296,  298,  306,  316,  m-v  323 

317,  321,  327,  328,  329,  330,  m-r  322 

332,  35i.  358,  360  x-v  152 

\l         152,  155,  197,  284,  297,  305,  f-v  122,  147,  208,  213,  214,  259, 

309,  312,  313,  315,  316,  322,  272,  273,  290,  294,  296,  329, 

339.  35o  360 

\-r        203,  272,  327,  332,  358  f-mb  292 

ng-ng  213,  285,  309,  332,  346  p-6  45,  190 

ng-<7     197  p-mb  207,  285 

p-i;  284 

Identical 152,  155,  214,  217,  309,  312,  313,  317,  318,  321, 

324,  327,  328,  330,  332,  335,  339,  346,  352 

Consonant  identity.  .  .  .203,  272,  315 

Vowel  identity 259,  273,  316 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 122,  197,  198,  207,  208,  213,  239,  251,  258,  259, 

273.  278,  284,  285,  290,  294,  296,  297,  298,  300, 
306,  329,  338,  342,  351,  360 

Terminal  abrasion 1 47,  350 

Frontal  abrasion 332 

Frontal  accretion 190,  197,  273,  305 

Terminal  accretion 339 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA.  103 


NGUNA. 

Polynesian     16 
Quality  93 

a   a 
e    e  o    0,    u 

i    i,    a,    u  u    u 

1    /,    r 
ng    ng,    n  n    to  m    m 

h    * 
s 

V 

f    f,     V,    w 

k   k  t   t  p 

a-a         74,    75,  214,  261,  294,  301,       ng-iig  336,  346,  350 

317,  318,  338,  346,  35o  ng-n       74 

e-e  261,  318,  338,  k-fe  214,  301,  338 

\-i  206,  346,  350  n-M  317,  321 

i-o  321  h-j-  206,  338 

uu  74  t-J  74,    75,  294,  308,  346,  350 

0-0  206,  336  m-m       75,  317,  318 

0-u         75   *  W  294 

u-u  159,  294,  301,  317,  321  \-v  214 

\-l  75,  35o  f"w  2o6 

1-r  159,  261,  336 

Identical 159,  261,  294,  301,  317,  318,  336,  346,  350 

Consonant  identity.  ...   74,    75,  321 
Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 206,  214,  338 

Frontal  accretion 301,  321 


104 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


NIFILOLE. 


Polynesian    13 
Quality  66 


a    a,    e,    o,    u 
e  00 

i    i,    a  u    u,    i,    0 

1    I,    n 
ng  n   n  mm 

s    J 

V 

f   v,    p,    w,    n 
k   k  t   t  p 

a-a  214,  217,  239,  284,  360  1-n  313 

a-o  291,  357  k-k  149 

a-e  313  n-w  328,  330 

a-w  217  s-j-  239 

«-*  i49,  291,  313  t-*  217 

i-a  149  m-w  217,  313,  328 

0-0  357  f-B  294 

U-tt  212,  330,  360  i-p  284 

u-i       239  f-w       214,  291 

u-o       284  f-n        360 

1-Z         149,  212,  284 

Identical 328 

Consonant  identity.  .  .  .149,  212,  217,  239,  330 

Vowel  identity 360 

Consonant  mutation : 
Vowel  identity 214 

Terminal  abrasion 294 

Frontal  abrasion 212 

Frontal  accretion 239 

Terminal  accretion 217,  284 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA.  JQ5 

norbarbar. 

Polynesian    37 
Quality  54 

a    a,    e,    i,    o,    u 
«    e  o    o,    o,    e,    «.' 

1     *,      «  U     W,      Z,      0 

\    I,    r,    nd 
ng   ng,    n  n   m  mm 

h    A 
s    s,    h 

v    p,    w 
f    V,    w 
K    <7,  — »    w  t    t,    nd,    m  p  />,  6,  mfc,  fcm&w 

a-o  147,  217,  239,  309,  317,  318,       kg  193,  251,  301,  338 

338  k —  300 

a-e  193.  300,  312,  328,  337,  350       k-w  306 

a*  350  n-M  147,  292,  317,  328,  350 

a-o         75,  292,  307,  316  h-h  331,  338 

a-«  307  s-j  239,  251,  337 

e-e  122,  190  s-h  239 

;-*  300,  312  t-t          75,  306,  318,  324,  356,  358 

«-«  193  t-nd  350 

O-o          75,  285,  336,  356,  357  t-m  217 

0-0  147  mm       75,  217,  312,  316,  317,  318, 

o-e  331  324,  328 

0-*  331  v-p  291 

U-M         212,  239,  289,  306,  316  V-W         307 

U-0  272  f-v  122,   147,   193,  214,  292 

u-i  292,  358  i-w       212,  360 

\-l  75,  289,  307,  309,  312,  316  p-p       190 

1-r  331,  336  p-6        190 

1-wd  335  p-mb    289 

ng-«#  309,  336,  350  p-kmbw  285 

ng-ra  285 

Identical 324 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .309,  317,  318,  336,  356 

Consonant  identity 75,  316,  328,  331,  337,  358 

Vowel  identity 217 

Consonant  mutation  : 

Vowel  identity 122,  212 

Terminal  abrasion .  .  .  147,  190,  289,  306,  338 

Terminal  abrasion 147,  190,  193,  214,  217,  239,  289,  306,  309,  317, 

318,  328,  336,  338,  356,  357 

Frontal  abrasion 239 

Frontal  accretion 301,  312 

Terminal  accretion 122,  212,  307,  331,  336,  350 


106  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


OMBA. 

Polynesian    40 
Quality  75 

a  a,    e,    u 
e    e  00 

\   i  u    u,    e,    v 

1  I,    r 

ng    ng,    n  n  n  mm 

h  h 

S  h 

V    V,    w 

i  v,   w 
k    g,    w  t    t,    m  p    b,    mb 

a-a         74,  147,  152.  169,  207,  214,  ng-ng  285,  309,  336,  346 

217,  239,  254,  290,  291,  292,  ng-ra       74 

307,  309.  3i7.  3i8,  324,  33^,  k -g  169,  214,  300,  301,  338 

346,  35i,  356  k-w  306 

a-e       278,  284,  292,  295,  300,  312,  n-ra         74,  147,  169,  254,  290,  292, 

3J3  317 

a-«       307  h-h  169,  206,  278,  338,  352 

e-e        122,  152,  153,  190,  290,  318,  s-h  239 

338  t-t  74.  207,  306,  318,  346,  352, 

\-i  74,  169,  206,  254,  285,  290,  356,  358 

291,  295,  300,  312,  313,  346,  t-ra  217 

352  m-ra  217,  254,  312,  313,  317,  318 

O-o        153,  206,  285,  336,  356  v-v  152 

u-m       212,  239,  278,  284,  292,  306,  v-w  291,  307 

3i7,  358  i-v  122,  147,  206,  212,  214,  254, 

u-e       207  284,  290,  292 

u-v       295  f-w  360 

\-l  153,  212,   284,  295,  307,   309,  p-b  190 

312,  313  p-mb    207,  285 

1-*-         152,  335,  336 

Identical 74,  152,  153,  309,  317,  318,  335,  336,  346,  352, 

356,  358 
Terminal  abrasion .  .  .  324 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .278,  312,  313 

Vowel  identity 217 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 169,  190,  206,  214,  239,  254,  285,  290,  291,  306, 

338 
Terminal  abrasion .  .  .  147 

Terminal  abrasion 147,  324,  336 

Terminal  accretion 212,  313,  335,  336 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA.  107 

PAAMA. 


252 
329 
329 


a-a 

252,  274 

u-i       329 

S-S 

a-e 

312 

1-/    274,  312 

t-s 

it 

312,  329 

I—   252 

t-h 

o-t 

252 

ng-ng   274 

PAK. 

Polynesian    31 

Quality  45 

a    a,    e,    o,    u 
e    e,    i,    u      o    o,    e 
i    *»    e  u    u,    o 

1    /,    »',  ng,    t 
ng    ng,    n  n    w  mm 

h   s 
s    J 

V  W 

f  „ 

K  9,  ng,    w  it,   — ,  m  p  p 

a-a  123,  147,  217,  250,  309,  318,  U  335 

339.  357  ng-ng  309 

a-e  214,  3i7.  324,  328,  337,  350  ng-«  350 

a-o  239,  292,  307  k-#  251,  300,  301,  357 

a-w  250,  316  k-ng  301 

e-e  122,  190  k-w  306 

*-»  2°3  n-w  292,  317,  328 

e-M  272  h-i-  339 

■"*'  3oo  s-j  203,  239,  251,  337 

le  312  t-*  350,  356 

0-0  356,  357  t—  270,  318,  324,  357 

o-e  123  t-m  217 

u-m  270,  272,  306,  316  mm  217,  312,  316,  317,  318,  324, 

a-o  292  328 

1-/  123,  307,  309,  312,  316,  339,  v-w  307 

35o  f-v  122,  147,  214,  292 

\-r  203  p-p  190 

l-ng  123 

Identical 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .  190,  309 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .203,  239,  312,  316,  317,  328,  337 

Vowel  identity 324 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 122,  214 

Terminal  abrasion .  .  .  300,  339 

Terminal  abrasion 147,  190,  203,  214,  217,  239,  292,  300,  306,  309, 

312,  317,  318,  328,  339,  356 

Frontal  abrasion 270 

Frontal  accretion 301,  312,  339 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .  122,  350,  324,  335,  350 


108  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

PALA. 

Polynesian    54 
Quality  80 

a  a,    e 
e  e,    a,    0      00,    a,    e,    u 
i  i,    e,    u  u  u,    i,    h 

1    I,    r,    n 
ng  ng,    n  n   it,    ng  mm 

h  .$■ 
s  ^ 

v  b,    u 
f  h,    u,    s 
k  k,    g,  —       t  t,    d  PU 

a-a    74,  147,  156,  214,  216,  217,  ng-w  151 

253,  290,  294,  307,  312,  313,  k-fe  !96,  211 

317,  318,  324,  350  k-g 

a-e       215,  295,  352  k—  151,  156  . 

e-e    47,  151,  203  n-w  147,  156,  201,  290,  317, 343 

e-o    47,  122,  363  n-ng  259 

e-o   247  h-s  47,  215,  352,  363 

i-i         215,  259,  290,  295,  312,  313,  s-s  203,  344 

350  t-t  47,  74,125,196,211,216, 

i-e        211  217,  247,  289,  294,  318,  324, 

i-u        329  343,  350,  352,  358 

0-0   201  t-d  329 

0-0   363  m-w  156,  216,  217,  253,  312,  313, 

O-e        259  317,  3i8<  324 

O-M  196,  285  V-&  307 

U-M         125,   151,   156,  211,  2l6,  273,  V-W 

289,  329,  343,  344  f-h  122,  147,  201,  215,  214,  273, 

u-i       247  290,  294,  329 

u-h      295  i-u  363 

\-l        203,  289,  295,  312,  313,  350       is  259 

\-r        358  V-b  125,  151,  247,  285,  289 

\-n        307  p-p 
ng-ng  285,  350 

(Note:  k-<7,  p-^,  and  v-m  do  not  appear  in  the  material  here  collated, 
but  each  has  been  observed  in  other  Polynesian  loan  words  in  Pala.) 

Identical 156,  216,  203,  313,  324,  358 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .289,  317,  318,  343,  344 
Consonant  identity .  .  .  .211 
Consonant  mutation : 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .  147,  273,  294 

Terminal  abrasion 47,    74,  147,  151,  196,  201,  289,  290,  294,  317, 

318,  343,  344,  352 

Frontal  accretion 74 

Terminal  accretion 312 

Metathesis afi-iah,  tina-etna. 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA. 


109 


RALUANA. 

a-a       214,  294 

0-0      3H.  336 
u-«      358 
l-J       3i4»  336 

\-r 

ng-ng 

t-t 

i-w 

358 
336 
294 

214, 

Terminal  abrasion . 
Terminal  accretion . . 

..294 
•314 

294,  314 


RETAN. 


Polynesian    14 
Quality  2 1 


a    a,    e,    0 
e    a  o    0,    a,    e 

i    e  u    e,    i 

1    /,    r,    ng 
ng   ng  n    n  mm,    mw 

h    h 
s 

v 

f    v 
kg  t   t  p 

a-a  123,  318  \-r  331,  336,  358 

a-e  193,  292  \-ng  123 

a-o  317  ng-wa  336 

e-o  122  k-a  193 

i-e  193,  312  n-»  292,  317 

0-0  336  h-h  331 

0-0  33i,  357  t-i  318,  357,  358 

o-e  123  m-w  317,  318 

u-e  292  m-mw  312 

U-*  358  f-V  122,   193,  292 

1-/  123,  312 

Identical: 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .318 
Consonant  mutation : 

Terminal  abrasion .  . .  336 

Terminal  abrasion 193,  292,  317,  318,  336 

Frontal  accretion 312 

Terminal  accretion 122,  331,  336,  357 

Metathesis 193 

RUAVATU. 

a-a  317  \-l  313 
a-e  313  n-ra  317 
i-i        313       m-m  313,  317 

U-M    317 


HO  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


SAA. 

Polynesian    30 
Quality  80 

a    a,    e 
e    e  00 

i    «  u    u 

1    I,    r,    n 
ng    ng  n    n,    ng  mm 

h    s,    t 
S    J 

V    vi,    h 
f   h 
k—  t— ,    t,   k  p  p 

a-a       200,  214,  217,  250,  291,  292,  n-n  187,  259,  292,  317,  330 

294,  307.  309,  3i7,  318,  338,  n-ng  351 

339,  350,  352,  360  Iw  352 

a-e       292,  300,  313,  350  h-t  338,  339 

e-e        122,  187,  190,  318,  338  s-.?  251,  298,  351 

\-i         200,  259,  273,  291,  300,  313,  t-t  329 

329,  330,  35o,  35i.  352  t—  217,  294,  318,  350,  352,  358 

0-0        187,  259,  309  t-k  356 

u-m      200,  273,  292,  294,  298,  317,  m-m  200,  217,  313,  317,  318 

329,  330,  35i.  358,  36o  v-w  291 

1-/        307,  309,  339,  350  v-h  307 

\-r        200,  358  i-h  122,  214,  259,  273,  292,  294, 

\-n        313  329,  360 

ng-ng  309,  350  p-p  190,  250 
k—      214,  250,  251,  300,  338 

Identical 187,  190,  200,  298,  309,  317,  330,  358 

Vowel  identity 214,  217,  250 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 259,  273,  291,  292,  294,  307,  318,  329,  350,  352, 

360 

Frontal  abrasion 217,  250,  351,  352,  358 

Frontal  accretion 298,  300 

Terminal  accretion 351,  358 

Metathesis 351 


POLYNESIAN  R^UCS  IN  MELANESIA.  Ill 


SANTO. 

Polynesian    27 
Quauty  81 

a  a,    e,    i,    o 
e    e,    i  o    o,    a 

i   i,    e,    u  u    u 

I  I,    r 

ng    n,    m  n  n,  mm 

h  s,    — 

s  s 

V 

f     V,     w 

k   k  t   t  p   p 

a-a  199,  216,  217,  228,  292,  300,  \-r  305,  336,  355 

312,  313,  318,  324.  356  ng-ra  285,  336,  346 

a-e  216,  253,  316,  324  ng-w  199 

a-i  217,  292  k-fe  300,  302,  305 

a-o  239,  302,  346,  352  n-»  292,  343 

e-e  47  h-s         47,  206,  278,  352 

e-i  153,  318  h—  255 

i-i  47,  206,  300,  305,  312,  346,  s-.y  239 

352,  355  t-*    47,  199,  216,  217,  302,  318, 

ie  313  324.  343,  346,  352,  355 

i-u  305  m-w  216,  217,  253,  255,  312,  313, 

0-0  153,  206,  285,  336,  355,  356  316,  318,  324 

0-0  255  t-v  292 

u-w  216,  228,  239,  278,  292,  316,  f-w  206 

343  P-P       285 

\-l         153,  228,  312,  313,  316 

Identical 153,  228,  300,  312,  343,  355,  356 

Consonant  identity.  .  .  .216,  217,  239,  253,  302,  316,  318,  324 

Vowel  identity 199 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 47,  206,  292,  336 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .278,  285 

Terminal  abrasion 278,  285 

Frontal  accretion 312 

Terminal  accretion 153,  239,  305,  313,  324,  336 


112 


THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


SASAR. 


e   e, 


ng    ng,    n 


Polynesian 

22 

Quality 

45 

a   a,    e,    o,    u 

%           o    o,    e 

u    u,    i,    o 

1    /,    ng,    t 

n   n                          ram 

k   g,    ng,    w 

a-a  123,  H7,  217,  250,  309,  318 

a-e  317,  337,  35o 

a-o  239,  292,  307,  328 

a-w  250,  316 

e-e  190 

e-w  272 

0-0  356 

o-e  123 

u-u  272,  306,  316 

u-o  292 

U*        343 

1  /         123,  307,  309,  316,  350 
\-ng      123 

1-*         335 
ng-wg  309 

Identical  : 

Terminal  abr 190,  309, 

Consonant  identity .  .316,317, 

Vowel  identity 217,  306 

Consonant  mutation: 

Terminal  abr 147 


356 
328,337 


s   s 


t    t,    m,  — 


v   w 
f   v,    w 
P   P 


ng-w  350 

kg  250,  251 

k-ng  301 

k-w  306 

n-M  147,  292,  317,  328 

$-s  239,  251,  337 

t-t  306,  350,  356 

t-m  217 

t—  318 

mm  217,  316,  317,  318,  328 

v-w  307 

f-v  147,  292 

f-w  272 

V-P  *90,  250 

Terminal  abrasion.  147,  190,  217,  239,  306^ 
309,317,318,328,356 
Frontal  accretion .  .  301 
Terminal  accretion.  250,  272,  335,  350 


SAVO. 


e  e, 


a, 


ng  ng 


a  a 

a 

1  I 

n 

h 

s 


o  o 


u  u 


n 


s, 


a-a 

e-e 

e-o 

\-o 

\-a 

0-0 

u-u 

\-l 

ng-ng 

k-k 


k  k,    g 

239,  250,  316,  328,  337 

190 

272 

305 

335 

285 

239,  272,  316,  328 

272,  316 

285 

305 


t 


k-g 
n-w 

S-2 

m-ra 

\-v 

v-P 

p-v 

p-b 


m  m 


v  v 
i 

P  P, 


250 

328 

337 

239 

316,  328 

272 

285 

250 

190 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA.  113 

SESAKE. 

Polynesian    57 
Ouauty  76 

a    a,    o,    u 
e    e  00 

i    i,    e  u    u,    a,    o 

1    /,    r,    nd 
ng    ng  n    n  mm 

h    s,    v 
s    J 

V   v,    u 
f   f,    v,    p,    w 
k   k,    g,    w  t   nd,    t  p   p,    b,   mb,   v 

a-a         45,  147,  151,  162,  169,  200,  ng-ng  151,  209,  246,  274,  285,  336, 

209,  214,  215,  217,  239,  246,  350 

258,  260,  270,  272,  274,  278,  k-fe  151,  194,  214,  251,  258,  300, 

291,  292,  294,  300,  301,  307,  301,  338,  361 

310,  312,  317,  318,  322,  324,  k-g  169 

335.  337,  338,  339,  342,  350,  k-w  305 

352,  356  n-w  169,  296,  317,  330,  342 

a-o       203  h-s  206,  215,  278,  338,  339,  352 

a-w      307  h-v  169 

e-e        151,  153,  318,  338  s-j  45,  203,  239,  251,  298, 337, 

i-i        149,  169,  194,  200,  206,  215,  342 

270,  285,  291,  298,  300,  305,  t-t  162,  217,  258,  270,  294,  318, 

312,  329,  330,  342,  350,  352  324,  352,  356,  357,  358 

i-e         305  t-nd  209,  329,  350 

0-0   153,  206,  285,  296,  336,  356,  mm  158,  200,  217,  257,  258,  312, 

357  3i7,  318,  322,  324,  343 
u-M   151,  162,  200,  212,  239,  246,  \-v  307 

258,  270,  272,  278,  292,  294,  v-u  310 

296,  298,  301,  317,  330,  335,  i-f  296 

358  f-v  147,  214,  246,  292,  294 
u-a       329  i-p  215 

u-o   194  i-w  206 

1-/    153,  212,  257,  305,  307,  310,  p-p  151 

312,  339,  350  p-6  361 

\-r         194,  200,  203,  260,  322,  335  p-mb  285 

l-nd     336  p-v  45 

Identical 151,  153,  194,  200,  212,  217,  239,  258,  270,  296, 

300,  301,  312,  317,  318,  322,  324,  330,  342,  356, 

358 
Terminal  abrasion.  .  .357 

Consonant  identity. .  .  .203,  239,  257,  307 

Vowel  identity 158,  162,  291,  336 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 169,  206,  209,  214,  215,  246,  278,  285,  292,  294, 

338,  339,  35o,  352 

Terminal  abrasion 147,  274,  310,  357 

Frontal  abrasion 329 

Frontal  accretion 158,  162,  260,  274,  291,  298,  310,  339 

Terminal  accretion 194,  239 


114 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


TANNA. 

Polynesian    37 
Quality  29 

a  a,    e,    i 
e  e,    i  0   e,    u 

i    i,    a,    e  u  u,    a,    e,    i 

1  r 

ng  ng,    n  n  w  mm 

h   t 

S  s,    r 

V  w 

f    f,     V,     k 

k    k,    g,    y  t    t,    s,    h  p    p,    b,    m 

a-o   150,  173,  216,  218,  238,  249,  ng-w  285 

256,  274,  293,  317,  322,  334,  k-fe  150,  194,  258,  361 

337,  352,  360  kg  306 

a-e   147,  340,  350  k-y  251 

a-i   217,  313,  340  n-ro  147,  317,  321 

e-e   173,  240,  290  h-t  340 

e-t   147  s-j  251 

\-i         150,  194,  200,  274,  312,  313,  S-r  337 

319.  321,  350,  352  t-t  150,  168,  274,  306 

i-e        290  t-s  207 

i-a    319  t-h  258 

o-e   285  m-w  200,  258,  274,  317,  321,  322, 

o-m   150  340 

u-m   168,  173,  194,  216,  238,  240,  v-m  291 

247,  273,  317,  321,  358  f-/  293 

U-a         168  f-i;  147,  290 

u-e       306  f-fe  273 

«-*        334  p-p       173,  361 

1-r         194,  200,  322  p-b       285 

ng-ng  274  p-w      207 

Identical 194,  274,  173,  293 

Consonant  identity 150,  168,  313,  319,  334,  350 

Consonant  mutation : 
Vowel  identity 352 

Terminal  abrasion 147,  273,  306 

Frontal  abrasion 321 

Frontal  accretion 147,  150,  273,  291,  306,  340,  350,  358 

Terminal  accretion.  .  .  .200,  317,  321,  340 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA.         115 


TANGOAN  SANTO. 

a  a 
e    e,    o  o    o 

\    i  u    u 

I  I,    r 

ng   ng  n  n  m    w 

h  s,    ts 

s  J 


k   k,    v  it  p    b 


v 

f    6,    />,  th 


a-a 

147.  148,  193,  209, 

217, 

239, 

k-v 

194 

278,  302,  312,  316, 

338, 

340, 

n-M 

H7 

346 

h-s 

206,  278, 

338 

e-e 

338 

h-ts 

340 

e-o 

247 

s-s 

239 

i-* 

193,  194,  206,  302, 

312, 

346 

t-t 

148,  209, 

217,  247,  302,  346, 

o-o 

147,  206 

358 

U-M 

148,  194,  239,  247, 
358 

278, 

3i6. 

f-b 

312,  316, 
193,  206 

340 

I-/ 

312,  316 

i-p 

148 

1-r 

194.  358 

Uh 

147 

ng-»a 

209,  346 

p-& 

247 

k-Jb 

193,  302,  338 

a-a 

214, 

250, 

e-e 

318 

it 

259. 

300 

0-0 

259, 

357 

U-M 

292, 

317 

k— 

214. 

250 

n-» 

292, 

317 

UEA. 
a-a       274  ng-wa  274 

UGI. 


292,  300,  317,  318 


Polynesian  8 

Quality   75 

n-l 

259 

t-t 

357 

t— 

3i8 

tn-ra 

3i7 

f-v 

292 

i-h 

214,  259,  292 

v-P 

250 

116 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


ULAWA. 

Polynesian    28 
Quality  77 

a   a 

e   e,    o  00 

it  u    u 

\    I,    r,    n 

ng   wa  n   n,    ng  mm 

h   j 

s   s 

V    w 
f   h 
k—  t   *,  —  p   /> 

a-a       200,  214,  217,  239,  250,  291,  ng-ng  309,  343,  350 

294>  300,  309,  312,  313,  317,  k—  214,  250,  251,  300,  301 

318,  324,  35o,  352,  360  n-w  259,  317,  330 

e-e        190,  318  n-ng  351 

e-a        122  h-s  352 

\-i        200,  259,  291,  300,  312,  313,  s-j-  239,  251,  298,  351 

329.  33o,  350,  35i,  352  t-t  329,  343 

0-0       259,  309  t—  217,  294,  318,  324,  350,  352 

u-w      200,  239,  294,  298,  317,  329,  mm  200,  217,  312,  313,  317,  318, 

330,  343,  35i,  360  324 
1-f        309,  312,  350  x-w  291 

\-r        200  i-h        122,  214,  259,  294,  329,  360 

1-ra        313  p-p       190,  250 

Identical 190,  200,  250,  309,  312,  317,  330,  343 

Vowel  identity 214,  217,  239,  294,  313,  318,  324,  350 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 259,  291,  300,  329,  360 

Frontal  abrasion 217,  250,  350,  351,  352 

Frontal  accretion 239,  294,  298 


VANIKORO. 


a-a   292       u-w   273,  292 
a-e   292       i-f        292 
\-i        273       i-p        273 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA.  117 


VATURANGA. 

Polynesian    39 
Quality  76 

a  a 

e    e,    a  o    0,    a 

1   h    a>    o  u    u,    0 

1  I,    r,    k,  — 

ng   ng  n  n,    I  m   m 

h  s,    h 

s  i- 

v 
...  f   v,    h,    ng 

k    k>    h>    n9  t  t,    nd  p    b>    mbi  \ 

a-a       123,  147,  200,  214,  215,  217,  ng-ng  285,  309,  336,  346 

258,  278,  284,  294,  309,  313,  k-fe  305,  338 

316,  317,  3i8.  324,  328,  338,  k-ng  251,  306 

346,  352,  360  k-h  258,  301 

e-e        122,  190,  257,  318,  338  n-w  147,  201,  317,  328,  330 

e-°       272  n-i  259 

i-*'        200,  206,  215,  259,  285,  298,  h-s  206,  215,  338,  352 

313,  329,  33o,  346,  352  h-h  278 

\-a       305  s-i-  251,  298 

I"0        3°5  ,  B  u        2I7,  258,  294,  306,  318,  324, 

0-0        123,  147,  201,  206,  259,  285,  346,  352,  358 

309,  336  t-nd     329 

°~a       257       Q  «,     .  mm    2°°>  2I7,  258,  313,  316, 317, 

u-u      200,  258,  272,  278,  284,  294,  318,  324,  328 

298,  306,  316,  317,  328,  329,  f-V  122,   147,  206,  214,  259,  272 

330,  358,  360  294,  329 

u-0  306  i-h  201 

1-/  123,  284,  309,  316  i-ng  215 

l-r  200,  272,  305,  335,  336  p-6  190 

1-fe  313  p-mb  285 

I —  123  p-v  284 

Identical 200,  214,  217,  278,  298,  309,  317,  318,  324,  328, 

33o,  346,  358 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .257 

Vowel  identity 123,  215,  258,  259,  313 

Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 147,  190,  201,  206,  284,  285,  294,  329,  338,  352, 

360 

Terminal  abrasion 214 

Terminal  accretion 258,  316,  336 


118 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


VOLOW. 


Polynesian    38 
Quality  37 


a   a,    e,    1,    o 
e    e  00 

i    i,    e  u    i,    e,    0 

I    I,    r,    g 
ng   ng,    n  n    n,    ng  mm,    mw 

h    h 
s    h 

v   mb,    w 
f   v 
k    g,    ng  t    t,    nd,    m  p  b,  w,  nggmbw 

a-a       147,  214,  217,  239,  294,  318,  k-g  251,  300,  301,  306 

309.  337,  338,  339,  357  k-ng  357 

a-e       268,  290,  316,  317,  322,  324,  n-w  147,  317,  328 

328,  350  n-ng  151,  351 

&-i       350  h-fe  338,  339,  351 

a-o       307  s-fe  239,  251,  337 

e-e        122,  151,  190  t-t  268,  294,  306,  324,  358 

»-*  i54,  35i  *-wd  35o 

i-e  290,  300,  312  t-ra  217 

0-0  285,  336,  357  m-m  217,  312,  316,  317,  322, 

u-e  316  324,  328 

u-i  212,  306,  358  m-mw  316 

u-o  239,  284  v-mb  291 

1-i  154,  212,  284,  307,  309,  312,       v-w  307 

3!6,  339,  350  f-v  122,  147,  214,  290,  294 

\-r  268,  322,  335,  336  p-&  190 

\-g       358  p-w  284 

ng-ng  154,  309,  336,  350  ^-nggmbw  151,  285 

ng-w    285 

Identical 214,  324 

Terminal  abrasion.     154,  309,  318,  336,  339 
Consonant  identity.  .  .  .212,  268,  317,  328 

Vowel  identity 357 

Consonant  mutation : 

Terminal  abrasion.  . .  190,  285 

Terminal  abrasion 151,  154,  190,  214,  268,  284,  285,  290,  294,  300, 

306,  309,  3i6,  317,  318,  328,  336,  338,  339,  351 

Frontal  abrasion 351 

Frontal  accretion 290,  301,  339 

Terminal  accretion 122,  212,  312,  350,  351 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA. 


119 


VURAS. 

Polynesian    28 
Quality  40 

a   a,    e,    0,    u 
e    e  0    o,    e 

•    e  u    u,    o 

1    /,    r,    nd,    ng 
ng   ng,    n  n   n  mm 

h   ^ 
s   j- 

v    w 
f    v 
k   g,    w  t   t,    m  p   w,    kpw 

a-a  123,  147,  214,  217,  309,  317,       ng-ng  309,  336,  346 

318,  328,  339  ng-n  285 

a-e  239,  316,  324,  346  k-g  251,  301 

&-o  292,  307  k-w  306 

a-«  307  n-w  147,  292,  317,  328,  343 

e-e  122  h-s  339 

i-e  312  s-5  239,  251 

0-0  147,  285,  336,  356,  357  t-t  306,  318,  324,  343,  346,  356, 

o-e  123  358 

ii-w  306,  316,  343,  358  t-m  217 

u-o  284,  292  mm  217,  312,  316,  317,  318,  324, 

1-/  123,  284,  307,  309,  312,  316,  328 

339  v-w  307 

\-r  336,  358  t-v  122,  147,  214,  292 

\-nd  335  p-w  284 

I-M^        123  p-kpW  285 

Identical 214,  285,  318,  358 

Terminal  abrasion.  .  .309,  317,  328,  356 
Consonant  identity.  .  .   239,  316 
Consonant  mutation : 

Vowel  identity 147 

Terminal  abrasion .  .  .  357 

Terminal  abrasion 214,  217,  239,  284,  306,  312,  316,  317,  318,  328, 

336,  339.  346,  356 

Frontal  accretion 123,  301,  312,  339 

Terminal  accretion 122,  324,  336 


120  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


WANGO. 

Polynesian    36 
Quality  75 

a    a 

e    e  o    o,    a 

i    i,    u  u    u,    o 

1    I,    r 

ng    ng  n   n,    ng  m    to 

h    ^,    f 

s   j,    t 

v   /» 
f   & 
kg,  —  t    t,    k,    g,  —  p    b,    h 

a-a   214,  215,  217,  239,  250,  284,  k—  214,  250,  300,  305 

300,  397,  309.  312,  313,  317,  k-£  251 

318.  335,  337,  339,  342,  348,  n-n  317,  328,  330,  342 

350,  352,  357,  360  n-ng  351 

e-e        122,  190,  257,  318  h-j  215,  352 

ii         215,  259,  273,  298,  300,  305,  h-t  339 

312,  313,  329,  330,  342,  348,    S-.T     239,  251,  298,  342,  351 

35o,  352  s-t  337 

i-M   305  t-t  348 

0-0   259,  309,  357  t-fe  350,  356 

0-0   257  t-g  329 

u-m   239,  273,  284,  298,  317,  329,  t—  217,  318,  352,  358 

330,  335,  35i,  358,  360  m-?w  217,  257,  312,  313,  317,  318, 

u-o   328  328 

1-*    309,  348  v-fc  307 

l-r         257,  259,  284,  305,  307,  312,  f-h  122,  214,  215,  259,  273,  329, 

313,  335,  339,  350,  358  360 
ng-ng   309,  350  p-b  190,  250 

p-fe   284 

Identical 239,  250,  298,  309,  312,  313,  317,  330,  342,  348 

Consonant  identity.  .  .  .257,  328 

Vowel  identity 214,  217,  250,  259,  300,  318,  339,  350,  352,  357 

Consonant  mutation : 
Vowel  identity 190,  215,  273,  284,  307,  360 

Frontal  abrasion 217,  250,  305,  351,  352,  358 

Frontal  accretion 298 

Terminal  accretion 335,  351 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA. 


121 


In  our  next  series  of  tables  we  present  the  various  observed  muta- 
tions reduced  to  the  Proto-Samoan  original.  The  collation  of  the 
liquid  semivowel  is  designedly  incomplete  for  the  reason  that  we 
lack  sufficient  and  sufficiently  positive  data  upon  the  occurrence  of 
the  r  grasseye  and  its  reproduction  in  terms  of  /  and  r.  Under  the 
l-r  head,  therefore,  we  note  only  anomalous  changes. 


AIoTeqel 

Eromanga 

Leon 

Moanus 

Pala 

Ambrym 

Fagani 

Lifu 

Mosin 

Retan 

Aneityum 

Gog 

Lo 

Mota 

Saa 

Arag 

Iai 

Maewo 

Motlav 

Santo 

Baki 

King 

Makura 

Nifilole 

Sasar 

Baravon 

Lakon 

Malekula 

Norbarbar 

Tanna 

Bierian 

Lamassa 

Marina 

Omba 

Vanikoro 

Buka 

Lambell 

Matupit 

Paama 

Volow 

Deni 

Laur 

Merlav 

Pak 

Vuras 

Ambrym 

Eromanga 

Lo 

Mosin 

Santo 

Aneityum 

Fagani 

Malekula 

Mota 

Tanna 

Baki 

King 

Malo 

Motlav 

Volow 

Belaga 

Lakon 

Moanus 

Norbarbar 

AIoTeqel 

Eromanga 

Lo 

Motlav 

Retan 

Aneityum 

Fagani 

Maewo 

New  Georgia 

Santo 

Arag 

Iai 

Malekula 

Nggela 

Sasar 

Baki 

King 

Malo 

Nifilole 

Sesake 

Bierian 

Lambell 

Merlav 

Norbarbar 

Volow 

Bugotu 

Leon 

Mosin 

Pak 

Vuras 

Alo  Teqel 

Buka 

King 

Mota 

Nifilole 

Ambrym 

Deni 

Lamassa 

Motlav 

Omba 

Aneityum 

Dufaure  Id 

Lambell 

Natalava 

Pak 

Baki 

Epi 

Laur 

New  Georgia 

Sasar 

Bierian 

Eromanga 

Mosin 

Nggela 

Sesake 

Belaga 

Bugotu 

Nggela 
E 

e-i 


e-o 


Ambrym 

Aneityum 

Arag 

Baki 

Baravon 

Bauro 

Bierian 

Aneityum 

Arag 

Baki 

Belaga 

Bierian 

Baki 
Buka 
Epi 


Bugotu  Lakon 

Buka  Lamassa 

Duke  of  York  Lambell 

Epi  Laur 

Fagani  Lo 

Kabakada  Malo 
King 


Brierly  Id 
King 
Laur 
Leon 


Gog 
King 
Lamassa 


Lifu 
Lo 

Maewo 
Malekula 


Lambell 

Laur 


Marina 

Merlav 

Mota 

Motlav 

Motu 

Nggao 


Malo 
Moanus 
Mota 
Motu 


Malo 
Motu 


Nifilole 

Pala 

Retan 

Savo 

Ulawa 

Vaturanga 


Nggela 
Pak 
Santo 
Tanna 


Pala 
Tangoan  Santo 


Alo  Teqel 


Pak 


Sasar 


122 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


Mota 


\-a 


i-e 


\-o 


\-u 


Aneityum 
Buka 

Mota 
Nguna 

I 

Savo 

Tanna 

Vaturanga 

Alo  Teqel 

Aneityum 

Bougainville 

Buka 

Eromanga 

Fagani 

Gog 

Kabakada 

King 

Lakon 

Lamassa 

Malekula 

Malo 

Mosin 

Mota 

Motlav 

Motu 

New  Georgia 

Nggao 

Norbarbar 

Pak 

Pala 

Retan 

Santo 

Sesake 

Tanna 

Volow 

Vuras 

Aneityum 
Baki 

Eromanga 
Mota 

Motu 

New  Georgia 

Savo 

Vaturanga 

Baki 
Baravon 
Bierian 
Duke  of  York 
Fagani 

Gog 

Kabadi 

Kalil 

King 

Lamassa 

Lambell 

Lo 

Maewo 

Makura 

Malekula 

Malo 

Merlav 

Moanus 

Mota 

Motu 

Nggao 

Nguna 

Pala 

Santo 

Wango 

i-ei 


Motu 


Baravon 

Bugotu 

Buka 

Epi 

Fagani 

King 

Lakon 

Matupit 

Mota 

Norbarbar 

Pala 

Retan 

Santo 

Vaturanga 

Wango 

Alo  Teqel 

Baravon 

Mosin 

Motlav 
Norbarbar 

Pak 
Pala 

Retan 
Sasar 

Tanna 
Vuras 

Aneityum 
Baki 

King 
Laur 

Malekula 
Malo 

Mota 
Nggao 

Norbarbar 
Paama 

Ambrym 
Aneityum 
Baravon 
Buka 

Duke  of  York 
Kabakada 
Kalil 
King 

Lamassa 
Lambell 
Laur 

Malekula 

Matupit 

Motu 

Nguna 

Pala 

Tanna 

Mota 


Motu 


Ambrym 

Buka 

Duke  of  York 


Gog 
Lambell 


Malo 
Merlav 


Mota 
Motu 


Sesake 
Tanna 


Alo  Teqel 
Aneityum 


Eromanga 
Malekula 


Malo 
Mota 


Omba 
Retan 


Tanna 
Volow 


POLYNESIAN 

r  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA. 

Alo  Teqel 

Ambrym 

Aneityum 

Arag 

Baki 

Bierian 

Bululaha 

Epi 

Gog 

Guadalcanar 

King 

Lamassa 

Lambell 

Laur 

Lo 

Maewo 

Makura 

Malekula 

Malo 

Merlav 

Mota 

Motlav 

Nifilole 

Norbarbar 

Paama 

Pala 

Retan 

Sasar 

Tanna 

Volow 

Ambrym 

Aneityum 

Arag 

Bugotu 

Buka 

Eromanga 

Gog 

Iai 

Lamassa 

Lambell 

Leon 

Malo 

Mosin 

Mota 

Motlav 

Motu 

New  Georgia 

Nifilole 

Pak 

Sasar 

Sesake 

Vaturanga 

Volow 

Vuras 

Wango 

123 


Duke  of  York     Laur 


Lakon 


u-h 


Laur 


u-/> 


Aneityum 
Aneityum 


Nggela 
Aneityum 


ai-e  Eromanga 
Lo 


au-ai 


Pala 


Mota 


Arag 


Malekula 


Murray  Id 


Omba 
AE 


AI 

Motlav 

AU 

New  Georgia 


Norbarbar 


Nggela 


Pak 


Ulawa 


\-t 


-nd 


i-y 


Norbarbar 

Malekula 

Mosin 

Motlav 

Norbarbar 

L 

Alo  Teqel 
Baki 

Bugotu 

Merlav 

Buka 

Gog 

Maewo 

Aneityum 

Baki  (note  312) 

\-dr 


Lakon 


Bierian 


\-th 


Bugotu 


l-nl 


Pak 


Pak 


Merlav 


Vuras 


Sasar 


Norbarbar 


Lamassa 


124 


THE   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 


\-k 


Aneityutn 

Nggao 

Vaturanga  (i 

lote  312) 

\-h 

Eromanga 

Lo 

In 

Dufaure  Id 

Mota 

Pala 

Saa 

Ulawa 

Mosin 

Nengone 

l-mj 

Baki 

l-rag 

Alo  Teqel 

Merlav 

Mota 

Pak 

Sasar 

Gog 

Mosin 

Motlav 

Retan 

Vuras 

Lakon 

1 — 

Baravon 

Guadalcanar 

Motu 

Paama 

Vaturanga 

Bierian 

NQ 

ng-»g 

Alite 

Duke  of  York 

Lo 

New  Georgia 

Sasar 

Alo  Teqel 

Eromanga 

Maewo 

Nggao 

Savo 

Ambry  m 

Fagani 

Malekula 

Nggela 

Sesake 

Arag 

Gog 

Malo 

Nguna 

Tangoan  Santo 

Baki 

Guadalcanar 

Marina 

Norbarbar 

Tanna 

Baravon 

Kabakada 

Matupit 

Omba 

Uea 

Belaga 

King 

Merlav 

Paama 

Ulawa 

Bierian 

Lakon 

Moanus 

Pak 

Vaturanga 

Bougainville 

Lamassa 

Mosin 

Raluana 

Volow 

Bugotu 

Lambell 

Mota 

Retan 

Vuras 

Buka 

Laur 

Motlav 

Saa 

Wango 

Bululaha 

Lemaroro 

Nengone 

ng-n 

Alo  Teqel 

King 

Maewo 

Motlav 

Pala 

Baki 

Lakon 

Makura 

Motu 

Santo 

Buka 

Lamassa 

Malekula 

Nguna 

Sasar 

Duke  of  York 

Lambell 

Malo 

Norbarbar 

Tanna 

Gog 

Laur 

Moanus 

Omba 

Volow 

Kabadi 

Lo 

Mota 

Pak 

Vuras 

ng-nj 


Aneityum 


ng-ji 


Natalava 


ngg 


Aneityum 
Baki 


ng-ra 


Bierian 


ng— 


Dufaure  Id 


k-k 


Ambrym 

Aneityum 

Baki 

Baravon 

Bierian 

Bougainville 

Bugotu 

Deni 


Eromanga 
Lo 


Malekula 
Motu 


Duke  of  York 

Epi 

Eromanga 

Fagani 

Iai 

King 

Lamassa 

Lambell 


Makura 
Malekula 


Malo 


K 

Lifu 

Maewo 

Makura 

Malekula 

Malo 

Merlav 

Moanus 


Mota 


Mota 


Nggela 


Santo 


Motu 

Nifilole 

Murray  Id 

Santo 

Nengone 

Savo 

New  Georgia 

Sesake 

Nggao 

Tangoan  Santo 

Nggela 

Tanna 

Nguna 

Vaturanga 

POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA. 


125 


kg 

Alo  Teqel 

Lakon 

Marina 

Nggao 

Sasar 

Ambrym 

Laur 

Merlav 

Nggela 

Savo 

Aneityum 

Leon 

Mosin 

Norbarbar 

Sesake 

Arag 

Lo 

Mota 

Omba 

Tanna 

Belaga 

Maewo 

Motlav 

Pak 

Volow 

Bugotu 

Malekula 

Motu 

Pala 

Vuras 

Fagani 
Gog 

Malo 

Murray  Id 

Retan 

Wango 

k-kh 

Malekula 

Tangoan  Santo 

k-ng 

Alite 

Mosin 

Motlav 

Sasar 

Volow 

Aneityum 

Mota 

Pak 

Vaturanga 

k-ngg 

Eromanga 

Malekula 

y-h 

Ambrym 

Malekula 

New  Georgia 

Vaturanga 

k-m 

Motu 

k-mk 


Baki 


k-v 


Malo 


k-w 


k-y 


Alo  Teqel 

Lakon 
Maewo 

Tanna 


Tangoan  Santo 

Merlav 

Mosin 

Mota 


Norbarbar 
Omba 


Pak 
Sasar 


Sesake 
Vuras 


n-ng 


Alite 

Buka 

Malo 

Nengone 

Ugi 

Ambrym 

Bululaha 

Matupit 

Norbarbar 

Ulawa 

Baravon 

Duke  of  York 

Moanus 

Pala 

Wango 

Belaga 

Malekula 

Motu 

N 
Leon 

Saa 

Alo  Teqel 

Eromanga 

Mota 

Saa 

Ambrym 

Fagani 

Lifu 

Motlav 

Santo 

Aneityum 

Gog 

Lo 

Motu 

Sasar 

Arag 

Guadalcanar 

Maewo 

Nengone 

Savo 

Baki 

Iai 

Makura 

Nggao 

Sesake 

Baravon 

Kabadi 

Malekula 

Nggela 

TangoattSanto 

Belaga 

Kabakada 

Malo 

Nguna 

Tanna 

Brierly  Id 

Kalil 

Marina 

Nifilole 

Ugi 

Bugotu 

King 

Matupit 

Norbarbar 

Ulawa 

Buka 

Lakon 

Meli 

Omba 

Vaturanga 

Bululaha 

Lamassa 

Merlav 

Pak 

Volow 

Duke  of  York 

Lambell 

Moanus 

Retan 

Vuras 

Epi 

Laur 

Mosin 

Ruavatu 

Wango 

Bugotu 

Lamassa 

Merlav 

Nggela 

Ulawa 

Fagani 

Lambell 

Mota 

Pala 

Volow 

Gog 

Laur 

Motlav 

Saa 

Wango 

King 

Lo 

n-gn 


n-ny 


Bugotu 

v 
Aneityum 


Buka 


Moanus 


126 

THE  POLYNESIAN 

WANDERINGS. 

n-l 

Alite 
Arag 
Bierian 

Bougainville      Maewo 
Buka                   Marina 
Fagani                Mota 

Motlav 
Nggela 

Ugi 
Vaturanga 

n-ra 

New  Georgia 

Nggao 

n-r 

Malekula 

n-t 


Alo  Teqel 


Marina 


h-h 


h-s 


h-t 


h-j 
h-) 


h-i> 


Ambrym 

Bugotu 

Lakon 

Nggela 

Retan 

Arag 

Deni 

Makura 

Norbarbar 

Vaturanga 

Belaga 

Epi 

Motlav 

Omba 

Volow 

Bierian 

Eromanga 

Nggao 

Alite 

Gog 

Malekula 

Mota 

Sesake 

Bauro 

Kalil 

Malo 

Nguna 

Tangoan  Santo 

Brierly  Id 

King 

Marina 

Pak 

Ulawa 

Buka 

Lamassa 

Merlav 

Pala 

Vaturanga 

Bululaha 

Lambell 

Moanus 

Saa 

Vuras 

Eromanga 

Laur 

Mosin 

Santo 

Wango 

Fagani 

Maewo 

Alite 


h-d 


Motu 


h-ih 


Belaga 


h-ls 


Saa 


Guadalcanar 


Tangoan  Santo 

Aneityum 

Aneityum 


Sesake 


Lo 


Tanna 


Malekula 


Wango 


s-sh 


Ambrym 

Baravon 

Deni 

Duke  of  York 

Santo 

Baki 

S 
Maewo 

Alite 

Fagani 

New  Georgia 

Sasar 

Alo  Teqel 

Gog 

Mai 

Nggao 

Savo 

Aneityum 

Guadalcanar 

Malekula 

Nggela 

Sesake 

Belaga 

King 

Malo 

Nifilole 

Tangoan  Santo 

Bierian 

Lakon 

Merlav 

Norbarbar 

Tanna 

Brumer  Id 

Lamassa 

Moanus 

Paama 

Ulawa 

Buka 

Lambell 

Mosin 

Pak 

Vaturanga 

Bululaha 

Laur 

Mota 

Saa 

Vuras 

Epi 

Leon 

Nengone 

Santo 

Wango 

Eromanga 

oavo 
Brumer  Id 

POLYNESIAN   RELICS  IN  MELANESIA. 


127 


s-h 


s-d 


Ambrym 

Aneityum 

Arag 

Motu 


s-t 


Alite 


s-k 


Baki 


s-lh 


Belaga 


s-y 


Baki 


Bierian 
Bugotu 
Buka 


Wango 


Lakon 

Lo 

Motlav 


Motu 

Nggao 

Nggela 


Norbarbar 

Omba 

Volow 


Tanna  (note  239) 


Duke  of  York. 


Alite 


Santo 


t-t 


t-d 


t-nd 


Alo  Teqel 

Bululaha 

Laur 

Motu 

Saa 

Ambrym 

Deni 

Lo 

Nengone 

Santo 

Aneityum 

Duke  of  York 

Maewo 

New  Georgia 

Sasar 

Arag 

Epi 

Makura 

Nggao 

Sesake 

Baki 

Eromanga 

Malekula 

Nggela 

Tangoan  Santo 

Baravon 

Fagani 

Malo 

Nguna 

Tanna 

Belaga 

Gog 

Marina 

Nifilole 

Ugi 

Bierian 

Iai 

Matupit 

Norbarbar 

Ulawa 

Bougainville 

Kalil 

Merlav 

Omba 

Vaturanga 

Brierly  Id 

King 

Moanus 

Pak 

Volow 

Brumer  Id 

Lakon 

Mosin 

Raluana 

Vuras 

Bugotu 

Lamassa 

Mota 

Retan 

Wango 

Buka 

Lambell 

Motlav 

Arag 

Buka 

King 

Malo 

Pala 

Bierian 

Eromanga 

Kalil 

Baravon 

Lo 

Motlav 

Norbarbar 

Vaturanga 

Bougainville 

Maewo 

Nggela 

Sesake 

Volow 

Bugotu 

t-dr 


Ambrym 


t-ndr 


Moanus 


t-th 


Aneityum 


Baki 


Bugotu 


t-s 


t-h 


t-j 


t-r 


Ambrym 

Aneityum 

Bierian 

Buka 
Eromanga 

Malo 
Marina 

Mota                    Paama 
New  Georgia        Tanna 

Arag 

Bierian 

Tanna 

Baki 

Malekula 

Lemaroro 

Malekula 

Moanus 

Mota  (note  258) 

128 

THE   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 

King 

Lamassa 

Lambell 

Laur 

t-m 

Alite 

Lakon 

Motlav 

Omba 

Sasar 

Alo  Teqel 

Merlav 

New  Georgia 

Pak 

Volow 

Gog 

Mosin 

Norbarbar 

(note  217) 

Vuras 

t-w 

Fagani 

t-k 

Baravon 

Fagani 

King 

Lifu 

Saa 

Brierly  Id 

Iai 

Lamassa 

Nggela 

Wango 

Deni 

Kabadi 

Lambell 

Wango 

t— 

Alite 

Bululaha 

Pak 

Sasar 

Ulawa 

Alo  Teqel 

Fagani 

Saa 

Ugi 

Wango 

Bauro 

Leon 

M 

m-m 

Alite 

Deni 

Laur 

Mota 

Saa 

Alo  Teqel 

Duke  of  York 

Leon 

Motlav 

Santo 

Ambrym 

Epi 

Lifu 

Motu 

Sasar 

Aneityum 

Eromanga 

Lo 

New  Georgia 

Savo 

Arag 

Fagani 

Maewo 

Nggao 

Sesake 

Baki 

Gog 

Makura 

Nggela 

Tangoan  Santo 

Baravon 

Guadalcanar 

Malanta 

Nguna 

Tanna 

Belaga 

Iai 

Malekula 

Nifilole 

Ugi 

Bierian 

Kabakada 

Malo 

Norbarbar 

Ulawa 

Brierly  Id 

Kalil 

Marina 

Omba 

Vaturanga 

Brumer  Id 

King 

Matupit 

Pak 

Volow 

Bugotu 

Lakon 

Merlav 

Retan 

Vuras 

Buka 

Lamassa 

Moanus 

Ruavatu 

Wango 

Bululaha 

Lambell 

Mosin 

m-mw 

Merlav 

Mota 

Motlav 

Retan 

Volow 

Mosin 

Marina 


tn-ng 


Alo  Teqel 

Nggela 


Bugotu 


m-t 


Malo 


Y-V 


v-/ 


v-6 


y-mb 


Tangoan  Santo  (note  312) 
Lo 

Nggela 


Baki 

Gog 

Merlav 

Omba 

Sesake 

Baravon 

Lo 

Mota 

Savo 

Vanua  Lava 

Belaga 

Malekula 

Nggela 

Ambrym  Fagani  (note  291) 

Deni  Mai  Pala 

Bugotu  Maewo  Merlav 


Motlav 


Volow 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA. 


129 


y-p 


\-pw 


v-h 


\-u 


\-t 


Aneityum 
Lo 

Marina 

Mota 

Norbarbar 

Vanua 

Malekula 

Saa 

Wango 

Alite 
Baki 
Bierian 

Eromanga 
Malekula 

Malo 
Moanus 

Mota 
Pala 

Sesake 
Tanna 

Alo  Teqel 

Ambrym 

Aneityum 

Arag 

Baravon 

Bululaha 

Gog 

Leon 

Lo 

Malekula 

Mosin 
Mota 
Motlav 
Nengone 

Norbarbar 
Omba 
Pak 
Saa 

Sasar 
Ulawa 
Volow 
Vuras 

Marina 


v-ku 


Alite 


Arag 


Maewo 


t-v 


Alite 

Epi 

Laur 

Mota 

Retan 

Alo  Teqel 

Eromanga 

Leon 

Motlav 

Santo 

Ambrym 

Fagani 

Lo 

Motu 

Sasar 

Arag 

Gog 

Maewo 

Nggela 

Sesake 

Baki 

Guadalcanar 

Makura 

Nguna 

Tanna 

Baravon 

Iai 

Malekula 

Nifilole 

Ugi 

Belaga 

Kabadi 

Malo 

Norbarbar 

Vaturanga 

Bierian 

King 

Marina 

Omba 

Volow 

Bugotu 

Lakon 

Merlav 

Pak 

Vuras 

Deni 

Lamassa 

Mosin 

Bierian 

Malekula 

Nggao 

Nguna 

Tanna 

Fagani 

Meli 

Nggela 

Sesake 

Vanikoro 

Lamassa 

i-p 

Aneityum 

Eromanga 

Lambell 

Moanus 

Tangoan  Santo 

Baravon 

King 

Malekula 

Nifilole 

Vanikoro 

Brierly  Id 

Lamassa 

Matupit 

Sesake 

i-b 

Ambrym 

Bierian 

Eromanga 

Malo 

Tangoan  Santo 

Baki 

Duke  of  York 

Malekula 

f-mb 

Moanus 

Nggela 

t-mbw 

Malekula 

f-k 


t-kr 


f-n 


Aneityum 

Nggao 

Nifilole 


f-ng 


Tanna 


Nggao 


Vaturanga 


130 


THE)   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


t-s 


f-ih 


Eromanga 
Tangoan  Santo 


ft 


f-h 


f-M 


Pala 


Moanus 


Mota 


i-w 


Ambrym 

Bululaha 

Lo 

Pala 

Ulawa 

Aneityum 

Kalil 

Motu 

Saa 

Vaturanga 

Bougainville 

Lambell 

Paama 

Ugi 

Wango 

Buka 

Laur 

Aneityum 


Malo 


Pala 


Alo  Teqel 

Kabakada 

Matupit 

Nguna 

Santo 

Aneityum 

King 

Merlav 

Ninlole 

Sasar 

Arag 

Lakon 

Mosin 

Norbarbar 

Sesake 

Baravon 

Lamassa 

Mota 

Omba 

Ugi 

Duke  of  York 
Gog 

Lo 

Maewo 

Motlav 
Nengone 

Raluana 

Ulawa 

Duke  of  York 

Lamassa 

Maewo 

Malekula 

Nengoi 

Iai 

Lifu 

Makura 

Moanus 

v-P 


Alo  Teqel 

Bugotu 

Lo 

Nengone 

Sasar 

Aneityum 

Bululaha 

Malekula 

New  Georgia 

Savo 

Arag 

Eromanga 

Marina 

Norbarbar 

Sesake 

Baravon 

Fagani 

Moanus 

Pak 

Tanna 

Belaga 

Lakon 

Mota 

Saa 

Ugi 

Bougainville 

Lifu 

Motu 

Santo 

Ulawa 

p-mp 


Eromanga 


p-fc 


Alite 

Fagani 

Laur 

Motu 

Sesake 

Baki 

Gog 

Maewo 

New  Georgia 

Tangoan  Santo 

Baravon 

Guadalcanar 

Malekula 

Nggela 

Tanna 

Bierian 

Kabakada 

Malo 

Norbarbar 

Vaturanga 

Brierly  Id 

King 

Matupit 

Omba 

Volow 

Buka 

Lamassa 

Merlav 

Pala 

Wango 

Duke  of  York 

Lambell 

Motlav 

Savo 

p-mb 

Baki 

Deni 

Lamassa 

Merlav 

Norbarbar 

Baravon 

Epi 

Lambell 

Moanus 

Omba 

Belaga 

Gog 

Laur 

Nggao 

Sesake 

Bugotu 
Buka 

King 

Malekula 

Nggela 

Vaturanga 

p-m 

Bierian 

Lamassa 

Tanna  (note  207) 

p-kpw 

Arag 

Lakon 

Maewo 

Motlav 

Volow 

Gog 

Lo 

Mota 

Norbarbar 

Vuras 

v-l 

p-bu 

v-i 


Fagani 


Malo 


Aneityum 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA. 


131 


p-v 


p-w 


p-k 


Arag 

Belaga 

Buka 

Buka 

Maewo 

Wango 
Ambrym 


Epi 

Malo 

Moanus 

Savo 

Gog 

Marina 

Mota 

Sesake 

Lakon 

Merlav 

Nggela 

Vaturanga 

Mosin 


Motlav 


Volow 


Vuras 


We  shall  next  subject  these  Melanesian  mutations  to  a  comparison 
with  those  which  have  been  observed  in  the  Polynesian  family,  as 
set  forth  in  the  tables  beginning  on  page  50,  confining  our  atten- 
tion to  the  consonants. 


The  following  changes  are  common  to  the  two  families :  L  to  t,  to  nd,  to  dr, 
to  n,  these  in  the  same  series ;  to  ng  in  the  palatal  series ;  to  extinction.  Of 
these  the  most  widespread  in  the  Polynesian  family  are  the  extinction  and 
the  w-change,  the  others  being  found  in  but  one  language  apiece.  In  the 
Melanesian  family  the  most  widely  extended  are  the  extinction  and  the 
changes  to  n  and  ng. 

Distinctly  Melanesian  mutations  are  these :  L  to  j,  to  to,  to  th,  to  nl,  to 
k,  to  h,  to  mj.  Of  these,  \-j  identifies  itself  with  the  \-t  mutation,  as  will 
appear  in  the  examination  of  T;  and  with  this  the  Baki  mj  is  probably 
associable  as  a  reinforced  /.  Similarly  the  \-th  of  Bugotu  is  seen  to  belong 
to  the  \-t  mutation  when  we  observe  the  t-th  mutation  in  that  speech. 
Lamassa  nl  is  a  reinforced  I. 

The  purely  Melanesian  mutations,  then,  are  1  to  to,  to  k,  to  h. 

NG 

Common  to  the  two  families  are :  NQ  to  n,  to  k,  to  extinction,  the  more 
extended  in  Polynesia  being  the  first  and  the  third,  the  ^-change  occurring 
only  in  the  eastern  Marquesas  and  in  Viti.  The  ^-mutation  in  Melanesia 
occurs  but  once,  in  Aneityum.  The  change  to  n  is  very  frequent.  Extinc- 
tion is  met  with  only  in  Torres  Straits,  at  Dufaure  Island  and  Motu,  in  the 
latter  speech  forming  one  of  the  points  of  great  resemblance  with  Tahiti. 

Distinctively  Melanesian  are :  NQ  to  nj,  to  nd,  to  g,  to  to.  The  g-muta- 
tion  is  easily  seen  to  be  a  variant  upon  the  ^-change ;  it  occurs  in  seven 
languages  of  the  New  Hebrides  and  in  one  of  the  Solomons. 

The  purely  Melanesian  mutations  are  NQ  to  w,  to  nj,  to  nd. 

K 

Common  to  the  two  families  are :  K  to  g,  to  ng,  to  ngg,  to  extinction.  The 
extinction  is  the  most  widely  extended  in  Polynesia,  being  the  rule  in 
Hawaii,  Tahiti,  and  in  Samoa  where  it  is  so  recent  that  the  failure  of  vowels 
wholly  to  glide  over  the  gap  is  represented  by  '  as  an  alphabetic  character 
under  the  name  of  the  catch.  In  Melanesia  the  most  frequent  is  the 
^-mutation,  and  the  extinction  comes  next  in  frequency. 


132  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Distinctively  Melanesian  mutations  are:  K  to  kh,  to  mk,  to  h,  to  m,  to 
v,  to  w,  to  y.  The  kh-change.  is  of  the  same  order  as  the  ^-mutation,  a 
further  move  in  the  same  series.  The  mk  of  Baki  is  but  a  prefatory  rein- 
forcement. 

The  purely  Melanesian  mutations  are :  K  to  h,  to  m,  to  v,  to  w,  to  y. 

N 

Common  to  the  two  families  are :  N  to  /,  to  r,  to  ng.  None  is  frequent  in 
Polynesia ;  the  /-mutation  occurs  in  Nukuoro  and  Samoa  and  in  but  one 
word  (fonu-volu  296),  the  r-mutationin  but  a  single  word  in  Rotuma  and 
Tahiti.     In  Melanesia  the  mutations  to  ng  and  l-r  are  of  wide  extent. 

Distinctively  Melanesian  mutations  are:  N  to  gn,  to  ny,  to  m,  to  t,  to 
extinction.  The  first  of  these  is  probably  an  ng-form,  for  we  recall  that 
the  early  missionaries  in  the  Pacific  adopted  that  spelling  in  the  case  of 
Rarotogna  for  the  indisputable  Rarotonga. 

The  purely  Melanesian  mutations  are :  N  to  ny,  to  m,  to  t,  to  extinction. 

H 

The  aspirate  is  difficult  to  trace  in  Polynesia.  It  is  preserved  as  aspira- 
tion only  in  Niue,  Tonga  and  Uvea ;  it  appears  as  s  in  Rotuma  and  Viti, 
as  th  in  Viti,  and  once  as  w  in  Hawaii.  In  Melanesia  the  aspiration  is 
preserved  quite  widely,  still  more  widely  it  has  passed  into  the  sibilant. 
The  i/f-mutation  appears  in  Belaga  and  Guadalcanal 

The  purely  Melanesian  mutations  are :  H  to  t,  to  d,  to  ts,  to  /,  to  /,  to  v, 
to  extinction. 


Common  to  the  two  families  are :  S  to  sh,  to  h,  to  th,  to  extinction.  In 
each  family  the  most  widely  extended  mutation  is  that  from  the  sibilant 
to  the  aspiration. 

Distinctively  Melanesian  mutations  are :  S  to  2,  to  t,  to  d,  to  k,  to  r,  to  y, 
to  w. 


Common  to  the  two  families  are :  T  to  nd,  to  j,  to  th,  to  s,  to  k,  to  extinc- 
tion. In  Polynesia  the  widest  extent  is  measured  by  the  t-k  mutation. 
In  Melanesia  no  one  mutation  has  a  marked  frequency  over  several  others. 

Distinctively  Melanesian  mutations  are :  T  to  d,  to  dr,  to  ndr,  to  h,  to  r, 
to  n,  to  m,  to  w,  to  g.  The  rf-mutation  is  but  a  slight  variant  upon  t  itself, 
the  p-mutation  is  a  variant  of  the  fe-mutation. 

The  purely  Melanesian  mutations  are :  T  to  dr,  to  ndr,  to  h,  to  r,  to  n,  to 
m,  to  w,  to  g. 

M 

In  Polynesia  the  sole  variation  upon  the  labial  nasal  (m-ng)  occurs  in  but 
a  single  word  in  Maori  and  Viti.  Similarly  in  Melanesia  this,  the  only 
common  mutation,  occurs  in  but  a  single  word,  not  the  same,  however,  as 
the  Polynesian,  in  Alo  Teqel  and  Lo. 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA.  133 

Distinctively  Melanesian  mutations  are :  M  to  raw,  to  n,  to  ng,  to  v,  to 
r,  to  t.  The  raw-change  is  scarcely  to  be  classed  as  a  mutation ;  it  is  a 
fashion  in  pronunciation  which  exists  but  in  a  restricted  area  of  the  Banks 
Group  in  the  northern  New  Hebrides. 

The  purely  Melanesian  mutations  are :  M  to  v,  to  r,  to  t,  to  n,  to  ng. 


Common  to  the  two  families  are:  V  to  h,  to  w.  The  latter  alone  has 
width  of  extent  in  either;  v-h  in  Polynesia  is  found  in  but  one  word  each 
in  Niue,  Nukuoro,  and  Rotuma;  and  in  Melanesia  in  but  one  word  common 
to  Saa  and  Wango. 

Distinctively  and  wholly  Melanesian  are  these  mutations :  V  to  /,  to  b, 
to  mb,  to  p,  to  pw,  to  u,  to  /,  to  few,  to  extinction. 


Common  to  the  two  families  are :  F  to  v,  to  h,  to  p,  to  b,  to  w,  to  extinc- 
tion. In  Polynesia  the  widest  extent  marks  the  mutations  to  h,  to  v,  and 
extinction ;  in  Melanesia  the  order  of  frequency  is  v,  w,  p,  h,  extinction. 

Distinctively  Melanesian  mutations  are:  F  to  mb,  to  mbw,  to  k,  to  kr, 
to  n,  to  ng,  to  s,  to  th,  to  t,  to  u.  Of  these  the  mb  and  mbw  are  reducible 
to  p  (6),  and  the  u  to  the  common  w. 

The  purely  Melanesian  mutations  are:  F  to  k,  to  kr,  to  n,  to  ng,  to  s, 
to  th,  to  t. 


Common  to  the  two  families  are :  P  to  b  (mb),  to  v,  to  h,  the  last  occurring 
in  a  single  word  common  to  Rotuma  and  Wango. 

Distinctively  and  wholly  Melanesian  are:  P  to  mp,  to  m,  to  kpw,  to/,  to 
bu,  to  I,  to  w,  to  extinction. 

In  a  former  paper  in  which  I  subjected  the  truly  Polynesian  lan- 
guages to  a  similar  detailed  examination*  it  was  pointed  out  that 
with  certain  exceptions  noted  the  whole  play  of  consonant  mutation 
was  a  vertical  or  series  matter : 

One  more  preliminary  statement:  we  have  already  said  that  for  con- 
venience we  should  enter  upon  our  alphabetical  conspectus  the  aspirate  in 
the  neighborhood  of  each  of  the  three  series.  The  convenience  is  this,  that 
the  aspirate  is  not  palatal,  not  lingual,  not  labial,  yet  it  lies  as  close  to  the 
one  as  to  the  other.  We  shall  find  it  involved  in  all  these  changes,  but  it 
does  not  affect  the  rule  which  we  are  about  to  enunciate. 

With  the  three  exceptions  noted  (s-v,  ng-n,  t-k)  the  whole  play  of  con- 
sonant mutation  in  Polynesian  is  a  matter  of  vertical  change.  When  a 
palatal  changes  it  changes  to  another  palatal,  lingual  modified  remains 
lingual  still,  and  labial  remains  labial  even  though  its  play  of  mutation 
carries  it  bodily  into  the  vowel  tract.  But  there  is  no  horizontal  move- 
ment, the  labial  under  stress  of  change  does  not  become  palatal  or  lingual. 


*"Samoan   Phonetics  in   the  Broader   Relation,"   17   Journal   of   the  Polynesian 
Society,  217. 


134  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Now,  vertical  and  horizontal  are  convenient  terms  to  employ  when  the 
conspectus  is  before  the  eye,  but  as  terms  they  have  no  real  value  in  nature. 
That  which  it  is  of  value  to  recognize  is  that  which  underlies  this  talk 
of  vertical  mutation,  of  labial,  lingual,  palatal  invariability.  That  all- 
important  underlying  fact  is  this :  no  matter  which  of  the  three  organs  of 
speech  mechanism  this  early  speaker  elected  to  employ  for  the  expression 
of  any  given  sense  he  does  not  change  to  another  organ  in  case  the  result 
is  not  satisfactory,  and  this  holds  true  with  his  remotest  descendants 
wherever  they  may  to-day  be  found.  A  novice  at  the  trade  of  speaking, 
he  may  fumble  the  tool  he  has  chosen  to  employ,  but,  being  man  and 
obstinatively  progressive,  he  sticks  to  the  use  of  that  same  tool  until  he 
has  learned  the  knack  of  it. 

Accordingly  we  are  to  omit  all  such  instances  from  our  discussion 
of  the  Melanesian  dealing  with  Polynesian  material,  for  inasmuch 
as  the  mutations  are  found  in  Polynesia  without  exterior  influence 
we  can  not  prove  that  similar  vertical  mutations  when  found  west 
of  Viti  are  due  in  any  degree  to  Melanesian  influence. 

The  motion  in  each  series  is  downward,  excepting,  of  course,  the 
three  mutes  which  stand  at  the  foot  of  each  column  and  whose 
vertical  motion  can  only  be  upward.  Any  exception,  therefore,  to 
this  general  downward  motion  of  mutation  calls  for  attention. 
There  are  but  three  such. 

i.  K-y.  This  is  found  only  in  Tanna  yasuk  (251)  rat.  As  set 
forth  in  the  note  upon  this  item  the  matter  is  too  obscure  to  serve 
as  a  satisfactory  base  for  any  deduction. 

2.  S-r.  This  is  found  only  in  isa  (337)  bad  Tanna  ra,  a  poor 
language  from  which  to  draw  conclusions,  particularly  when  the 
instance  is  unique. 

3.  V-u.  This,  with  the  v-w,  which  involves  no  more  vital  a  dis- 
tinction than  an  alphabetic  symbol,  is  truly  an  upward  motion  on 
our  charts  of  the  sounds.  But  under  the  appearance  there  is  a 
deeper  principle.  In  the  labial  mutations  we  find  such  forms  as 
m-mw,  p-pw,  p-kpw,  p-bu,  \-ku.  If  we  are  to  interpret  m-mw,  for 
instance,  as  implying  that  m  stands  fast  and  at  the  same  time  moves 
upward,  we  are  at  once  engaged  with  the  phonetics  of  Sir  Boyle 
Roche's  bilocal  bird.  It  becomes  clear  that  the  nucleus  of  all  the 
labials  is  the  vowel-semivowel  u-w.  In  another  place  I  comment 
upon  the  fact  that  the  Melanesians  have  but  recently  begun  to 
acquire  command  of  their  lips,  not  as  yet  facile.  Thus  the  pri- 
mordial semivowel  persists  with  the  consonant  which  is  evolving 
therefrom,  plumule  and  cotyledon  breaking  ground  together  to  tell 
the  tale  of  origins. 

When  these  vertical  mutations  are  omitted  we  shall  find  a  con- 
siderable number  remaining  which  we  are  justified  in  characterizing 
as  Melanesian.  They  are  the  following,  some  effort  having  been 
made  to  assort  them  in  reasonable  groups. 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA.  135 

1.  Involving  the  aspiration : 

k-h        h-v        \-h        h  /        i-h        p-h 

Superficially  these  are  extra-serial  mutations.  If,  however,  my  expla- 
nation be  valid  that  the  aspiration  should  be  regarded  as  close  to  each 
series  it  will  be  permissible  to  regard  it  as  the  decay  stage  of  each  of  these 
columns.     The  i-h  change,  too,  is  frequent  in  Polynesia. 

K-h.  This  rests  upon  five  instances,  one  triply  and  two  doubly  sup- 
ported. In  mataku  (258)  we  find  Ambrym  matehag  Malekula 
metoh  Vaturanga  matahuni.  In  kafika  (193)  Malekula  Pangkumu 
has  havih,  two  instances  in  one  word.  In  ika  (300)  we  find  New 
Georgia  ihani  Malekula  na-ih.  In  kau  (301),  noting  the  existence 
of  a  second  stem  kai,  we  find  New  Georgia  hai  Vaturanga  hai. 
There  are  two  widely  separated  foci  of  the  mutation,  Ambrym- 
Malekula,  leeward  islands  in  the  central  New  Hebrides ;  Vaturanga 
and  New  Georgia,  leeward  in  the  central  Solomons. 

H-/.  For  this  we  have  the  single  instance  of  hala  (339)  path  Aneityum 
ne-falaig.  The  language  is  not  very  satisfactory  and  no  great 
value  may  attach  to  this  unique  instance. 

H-v.  For  this  we  have  but  a  single  example,  Sesake  vinaga  (169); 
and  in  this  there  is  uncertainty  as  to  whether  the  Proto-Samoan 
was  aspirate  or  sibilant. 

\-h.  This,  the  converse  of  the  next  preceding  item,  rests  upon  a 
single  instance.  In  lava  (307)  we  find  Saa  laha  and  Wango  raha. 
The  occurrence  of  this  mutation  is  in  the  southern  Solomons  on 
either  side  of  the  straits  which  part  San  Cristoval  and  Malanta, 
not  far  from  the  northern  k-h  focus. 

Ph.  This  rests  upon  the  single  instance  of  vula  (284)  in  which  we 
find  Wango  hura.  This  lies  within  the  focus  of  the  preceding 
item. 

2.  We  have,  then,  two  distinct  and  distant  foci  in  which  there  is  a  ten- 
dency to  reproduce  certain  of  the  Proto-Samoan  consonants  by  the  aspira- 
tion. The  islands  on  which  this  occurs  are  large  islands,  with  the  possible 
exception  of  Ambrym,  which  is  near  the  dividing  line  between  the  large  and 
the  small. 

By  far  the  larger  group  of  the  anomalies  in  mutation  is  that  in 
which  there  is  clearly  a  passage  from  one  series  to  the  next  in  order. 

3.  Lingual  to  labial: 

L-m.  This  rests  insufficiently  upon  the  single  instance  of  malama 
(322)  light  Bierian  mamama. 

N-m.  This  rests  on  a  single  doubtful  instance,  anus  (351)  to  spit,  in 
which  we  find  Nggao  misu  and  New  Georgia  kamisu.  It  occurs 
in  the  central  islands  of  the  Solomons. 

T-m.  If  this  be  a  valid  mutation  it  rests  upon  but  a  solitary  word, 
tama  (217),  which  in  Omba,  Gog,  Alite  and  New  Georgia  becomes 
mama,  and  in  Merlav,  Lakon,  Pak,  Sasar,  Vuras,  Mosin,  Alo 
Teqel,  Motlav,  Volow  and  Norbarbar  mam.  The  argument  for 
this  mutation  will  be  found  in  the  note  upon  this  item  in  the 
systematic  study  of  the  data.  This  again  has  two  foci :  one,  the 
Banks  Group  (omitting  Mota),  dipping  down  to  Omba  in  the 
northern  New  Hebrides;  the  other  in  the  central  Solomons. 


136  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

T-w.  This  change  rests  upon  the  single  instance  of  the  same  tama, 
in  which  we  find  Fagani  wama.  As  its  immediate  neighbors  in 
the  central  Solomons,  Ulawa,  Wango,  Saa  and  Bululaha,  have  the 
decapitated  ama  this  may  amount  to  no  more  than  an  obscure 
mouthing  of  the  same  form. 

4.  Labial  to  lingual : 

M-r.  This  occurs  in  malama  (322)  light  Bugotu  Nggela  marara, 
neighbors  in  the  central  Solomons. 

M-w.  For  this  we  have  no  less  than  five  examples,  four  Marina  and 
one  Tangoan  Santo,  our  scanty  vocabularies  not  allowing  us  to 
coordinate  the  two  languages  even  in  a  single  example.  These 
are:  lima  (312)  five  Marina  Una;  lima  (313)  hand  Marina  Una; 
manu  (317)  bird  Marina  nanu;  mala  (324)  eye  Marina  nana;  malu 
(316)  gentle  Tangoan  Santo  nalum.  This  mutation  is  restricted 
to  the  island  of  Fspiritu  Santo  in  the  northern  and  leeward  New 
Hebrides,  a  large  island. 

M-t.     Found  in  a  single  instance,  manifinifi  (254)  thin  Malo  tanivinivi. 

V-t.  In  vai  (291)  water,  we  note  the  doubtful  case  of  Marina  tei,  an 
alternative  with  pei. 

F-n.  This  rests  upon  the  single  instance  fua  (360)  fruit  Nifilole  nua, 
and,  as  will  be  found  in  the  systematic  study  of  the  data,  a  more 
consistent  explanation  is  probable. 

F-s.  This  is  based  on  nifo  (259)  tooth  Pala  ngise,  and  fafine  (290) 
woman  Eromanga  sivin.  I  incline  to  see  in  this,  first  a  mutation 
f-h,  which  is  common  in  Polynesian  and  is  found  elsewhere  in 
Melanesia  (Ambrym  vihin),  then  a  secondary  mutation  h-s,  which 
is  extremely  common. 

F-t.  This  is  found  as  a  variant  Mota  form  in  the  same  word  fafine 
Mota  vavine  and  tavine;  perhaps  in  fia  (218)  how  manyMoanus  tje. 

F-th.     Occurs  once,  in  fano  (147)  to  go  Tangoan  Santo  thano. 

P-l.  Such  a  mutation  is  doubtfully  suggested  in  papa  (279)  a  board 
Aneityum  apalapal,  thin,  flat. 

5.  Lingual  to  palatal : 

L-k.     This  rests  upon  lima  (313)  hand  Vaturanga  kima  Nggao  kame 

Aneityum  ni-kman,  and  talinga  (250)  ear  Aneityum  tiknga. 
L-ng.     This  rests  doubtfully  upon  the  single  instance  lalo  (123). 

6.  Palatal  to  lingual : 

NG-nd.     It  appears  solely  in  talinga  Natalava  kulinda. 

The  second  and  smaller  group  of  these  anomalies  is  made  up  of 
the  mutations  from  and  to  series  two  removes  away. 

7.  Palatal  to  labial : 

NQ-m.  This  rests,  abundantly  supported,  upon  the  single  instance 
of  ngata  (199)  snake  Santo  mata  Ffate  mwata  Mota  mata  Malo 
moata,  all  probably  equivalent,  and  a  variant  Efate  mata  is  equiv- 
alent with  Santo  mata  Bierian  n'mata  Malekula  na-mat. 

K-ra.  If  this  be  valid  it  must  rest  upon  kili  (304)  Motu  miri,  with  the 
added  disadvantage  that  Melanesia  affords  us  almost  no  identi- 
fications of  this  word.  The  m  in  kati  (302)  Bierian  mkati  follows 
a  line  quite  other,  it  is  clearly  akin  to  the  prefacing  of  the  mutes 
in  Viti;  this  is  found  again  in  keli  (297)  Baki  Bierian  mkili. 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS  IN  MELANESIA.  137 

K-v.  For  this  we  find  the  single  instance  of  hull  (194)  dog  Malo  vuria 
Tangoan  Santo  vuriu.  It  will  be  observed  that  the  area  of  this 
leaping  mutation  is  included  in  the  but  scantily  more  extended 
area  of  the  similar  ng-m  mutation. 

K-w.  This  very  interesting  mutation,  not  only  a  leaping  mutation 
but  as  well  from  a  consonant  to  a  semivowel,  while  most  firmly 
validated,  rests  upon  the  single  instance  of  kutu(^o6)  louse  Omba 
(etc.)  wutu  Merlav  (etc.)  wut  Pak  (etc.)  -wu.  The  area  of  its 
occurrence  includes  all  of  the  ng-m  k-v  area  of  the  Banks  Group 
and  the  northern  New  Hebrides,  with  a  yet  further  extension  in 
Sesake  to  the  central  tract  of  the  latter  archipelago. 

8.  Labial  to  palatal : 

fA-ng.  In  a  single  instance,  malum  (316)  Lo  melunglung  Alo  Teqel 
mulunglung.     It  lies  in  the  same  Banks  Group  area  of  anomalies. 

F-ng.  For  this,  too,  we  have  but  one  example,  film  (215)  how  many 
Nggao  ngiha  Vaturanga  ngisa.  It  lies  in  an  area  of  marked 
anomalies,  in  fact  with  the  k-h  and  n-m  areas  it  completes  a 
triangle  in  southern  Ysabel  and  New  Georgia  and  northern 
Guadalcanar  of  the  Solomons,  within  which  lies  Savo  of  a  far 
different  linguistic  character. 

F-fe.  This  rests  as  yet  uncertainly  on  ufi  (273)  yamTanna  nuk,  and 
then  only  if  n  function  as  article  with  a  substantive  uk,  n-uk. 
We  note  in  uncertainty  ifo  (206)  down  Aneityum  suko  Gog  sug. 
The  mutation  in  nofo  (201)  to  sit  Nggao  nokro  is  wholly  abnormal. 

9.  Finally  we  have  left  for  consideration  a  half  dozen  variants  which 

elude  the  foregoing  effort  to  find  order  in  irregularity. 
NQ-nj.     Noted  in  matangi  (274)  the  wind  Aneityum  ni-mtinjop.     It 

is  possible  that  m(i)tin  is  the  survival  of  the  stem  matangi  and 

jop  an  accretion  of  some  sort ;  I  have  been  unable  to  identify  jop 

as  an  independent  word  or  in  other  composition  in  Aneityum. 
N-ny.     This  occurs  in  namu  (328)  mosquito  Aneityum  inyum  Moanus 

njam.     Buka  and  Bugotu  have  already  been  noted  as  varying 

this  n  to  gn. 
S-y.     In  sulu  (182)  torch  Baki  yulu. 
T-dr.     Found    in  to' a  (375)   to  subside  Ambrym  dro  dru  to   abide; 

tutulu  (367)  to  leak  Baki  drudruli.     Associated  herewith  is  t-ndr 

talinga  (350)  ear  Moanus  ndrilinga,  tahi  (352)  sea  Moanus  ndras. 

In  this  reinforced  r  we  have  elsewhere  found  evidence   of  the 

effort  to  reproduce  r  grasseye. 

The  result  of  this  inspection  of  the  anomalies  in  mutation  is  that 
we  identify  two  distinct  areas  in  which  Polynesian  material  was 
rudely  subjected  to  purely  Melanesian  methods,  one  area  somewhat 
diffuse  in  the  northern  New  Hebrides  archipelago,  including  the 
Banks  Group  and  Torres  Islands,  the  other  sharply  defined  on  the 
larger  islands  in  the  mid  Solomons;  and  that  in  at  least  the  two 
more  numerous  of  these  anomalous  mutations  there  seems  an  inter- 
relation between  the  two  areas. 

If  the  result  of  all  this  painful  examination  were  no  more  than  the 
circumscription  of  these  two  small  areas,  interesting  as  that  result 


138  THE   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 

might  become  when  the  material  for  Melanesian  study  is  more 
abundant,  we  should  judge,  and  rightly,  the  time  and  labor  ill  spent 
which  brought  no  better  returns. 

But  I  feel  confident  that  this  material,  thus  handled,  does  unfold 
to  us  the  log  of  the  Proto-Samoan  swarm  and  does  prove  to  us  that 
this  migration,  at  least,  followed  the  Melanesian  course  quite  regard- 
less of  the  wind-and-wave  argument  on  which  Dr.  Thilenius  has 
expended  so  much  attention.  It  will  be  observed  that  these  studies 
have  identified  Proto-Samoan  elements  in  Melanesian,  and  scarcely 
other  than  Proto-Samoan.  The  Tongafiti  swarm  does  not  appear. 
That  must  be  left  for  later  study :  first,  its  segregation  in  Polynesian 
philology,  then  its  identification  in  whatever  travel  lane  it  may  have 
followed.  It  may  be  that  it  can  be  identified  in  that  mid-Pacific 
track  which  Thilenius  proposed.  This  much  is  certain,  the  Tongafiti 
migration  has  left  absolutely  no  trace  of  its  passage  in  Melanesia. 

On  the  sieve  hypothesis,  namely,  that  the  Polynesian  content  of 
Melanesia  is  due  to  drift  of  castaways  from  Nuclear  Polynesia,  we 
should  look  to  find  such  content  strongly  localized  at  those  points 
more  immediately  to  leeward  of  the  point  of  involuntary  departure, 
that  is  in  Viti  and  the  New  Hebrides.  Yet  as  to  Viti  the  Samoan 
record  is  clear.  It  was  not  drift  of  castaways,  it  was  a  long  series 
of  purposeful  voyages  from  Samoa  to  Viti,  from  Viti  to  Samoa, 
for  love  and  for  war ;  it  was  such  a  common  voyage  that  the  sisters 
Tilafainga  and  Taema  swam  it.  And  as  to  the  New  Hebrides, 
where  the  Polynesian  content  by  this  theory  should  be  at  its  best, 
we  have  just  proved  the  existence  there  of  an  area  in  which  the 
Polynesian  is  at  its  poorest.  Furthermore  this  Polynesian  element 
is  found  quite  as  strongly,  in  fact  more  strongly,  in  the  Solomons 
and  yet  more  northern  groups  quite  outside  the  normal  course  of 
drift,  so  far  as  I  am  able  to  identify  it  upon  the  charts  with  the  aid 
of  no  merely  theoretical  familiarity  with  the  winds  and  currents  of 
this  western  Pacific. 

Let  us  rather  examine  our  data  in  the  light  of  what  might  be 
expected  of  a  great  ethnic  swarm,  and  not  the  feeble  struggle  for 
life  of  fishermen  landed  in  distress  upon  inhospitable  shores.  Let 
us  set  before  ourselves  the  manner  of  such  voyaging. 

Under  the  stress  of  some  expulsive  force  acting  upon  their  rear 
in  Indonesia,  under  the  draft  of  some  force  leading  out  into  the 
eastward  unknown,  the  Proto-Samoan  fleets  passed  through  some 
one  or  more  of  the  free  channels  out  of  the  Malay  seas.  They  were 
navigators,  for,  as  I  have  already  had  occasion  to  remark,  we  can  not 
deny  them  their  ability  to  sail  the  seas  to  Nuclear  Polynesia,  while 
granting,  as  we  must,  their  ability  to  sail  voyages  of  equal  length 
out  of  Nuclear  Polynesia  to  yet  ulterior  eastern  lands.  Samoa  was 
no  dockyard,  it  was  no  school  of  navigation;  Bougainville's  name 


POLYNESIAN   REUCS  IN   MELANESIA.  139 

of  Navigators'  Islands  for  that  group  had  no  deeper  signification 
than  that  he  found  his  ships  surrounded  by  a  fleet  of  canoes. 

We  know  the  type  of  these  vessels.  Discoverers  have  described 
them  in  the  accounts  of  their  South  Sea  voyages ;  sketches  of  them 
there  are  a-plenty.  I  have  seen  the  last  in  Samoa  of  the  type  of 
double  canoes  with  sails  fit  for  ocean-going.  We  know  that  each 
could  carry  its  hundred  or  so  of  passengers,  could  eat  up  into  the 
wind  and  lay  a  course  almost  as  close  as  the  fore-and-afters  which 
are  the  American  contribution  to  the  marine.  The  one  principal 
defect  in  these  vessels  as  the  vehicles  of  long  voyages  was  in  the 
victualling,  and  that  defect  produced  a  system  of  voyaging  with- 
out which  we  should  be  at  an  utter  loss  to  prick  their  course  upon 
our  charts. 

Each  of  these  voyages  was  an  Odyssey.  Stocked  with  such  food 
and  water  as  they  could  find  the  means  to  carry  they  coasted  wher- 
ever coasts  were  available  to  follow,  and  thus  they  voyaged  until 
the  commissariat  called  for  replenishing.  Then  they  landed,  they 
established,  albeit  temporarily,  food  colonies  until  the  land  could 
yield  them  a  crop  sufficient  to  carry  them  yet  farther,  until  the  same 
ventral  need  established  them  yet  again  in  a  like  food  colony. 

These  revictualling  settlements  are  of  the  utmost  moment  in  our 
study.  Three  elements  are  primal  in  the  establishing  of  each  such 
settlement.  It  must  have  a  sufficient  supply  of  water ;  it  must  show 
an  encouraging  area  of  soil  fit  for  tilth;  its  autochthonous  population 
must  be  such  that  the  voyagers  might  feel  secure  of  maintaining 
themselves  and  their  families  during  the  months  of  the  crop  period, 
whether  by  superiority  in  numbers  or  by  better  skill  in  warlike  arts 
is  immaterial. 

In  general  the  supply  of  potable  water  would  be  found  ample 
wherever  the  two  other  conditions  were  satisfied.  In  the  whole 
western  Pacific  area  there  is  a  wide  contrast  between  two  types 
of  islands  mingled  in  close  juxtaposition.  The  large  islands  are 
commonly  high,  great  masses  of  volcanic  extrusion  with  forbidding 
shores  and  little  productive  soil  in  sight  save  in  small  patches  in  deep 
bays.  A  race  in  whom  the  ethnic  sense  had  reached  such  a  high 
stage  of  development  as  to  send  them  forth  in  company  as  these 
Proto-Samoans  swarmed,  would  naturally  expect  that  the  large 
population  of  a  large  island  would  assemble  in  concert  at  the  point 
of  attack  to  repel  the  invader.  The  small  islands  are  commonly 
low;  their  acreage  is  greater  up  to  the  visible  forest,  this  being  an 
important  criterion,  for  visible  possibilities  of  tilth  point  to  a  neces- 
sary sojourn  of  but  one  crop  season ;  to  clear  the  jungle  for  plantation 
would  require  three  and  probably  more  seasons.  The  population  of 
a  small  island,  even  if  aggressively  hostile,  would  be  more  within  the 
control  of  the  adventurers  of  a  single  vessel  or  small  squadron.     We 


140  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

should  look,  then,  to  find  the  Polynesian  element  most  strongly- 
marked  in  these  smaller  islands  rather  than  on  the  adjacent  main 
where  Dr.  Thilenius  is  so  insistent  in  pointing  out  their  absence. 

Remember  the  Proto-Samoans  are  voyaging  under  sail. 

What  must  a  Nelson  have  before  Trafalgar  can  be  his  day  ?  The 
weather  gage.  Dreading  the  perils  of  a  lee  shore,  does  not  every 
sailor  hug  the  wind?  There  is  in  this  no  deep  ethnic  principle  which 
we  are  called  upon  to  establish  as  in  the  possession  of  our  Polynesian 
swarm.  It  is  sufficient  to  know  that  they  were  under  sail  upon  the 
sea;  the  rest  follows  as  an  elemental  principle  of  the  mechanics  of 
seamanship.  Thence  we  shall  do  well  to  look  for  them  to  windward 
in  the  lands  along  which  they  pass,  less  to  leeward. 

Coming  from  Indonesia  into  the  Pacific,  the  coasting  voyage  along 
the  rugged  heights  of  the  Solomon  Islands,  which  rise  in  the  sea  from 
Buka  to  San  Cristoval,  set  for  these  voyagers  a  course  approximately 
southeast  as  we  now  should  lay  it  by  compass,  full  and  bye  when 
reduced  to  the  rhumb  of  the  wind  prevailing  during  the  months 
which  would  be  found  most  favorable  for  navigation.  After  600 
miles  of  navigation  by  landmark  in  this  great  chain  which  with 
consistent  uniformity  has  coincided  with  a  full  and  bye,  what  more 
natural  than  that,  when  the  last  landmark  has  sunk  astern  and  the 
open  sea  is  to  be  adventured,  the  pilots  still  should  follow  the 
course  set  for  them  by  the  wind  ?  Next  upon  the  track  thus  hugging 
the  wind  lies  the  Santa  Cruz  Group.  Beyond  this  small  archipelago 
lies  yet  another  void  of  the  sea,  always  the  sea  they  must  have  loved, 
always  the  constant  draft  of  the  trade  wind  which  hitherto  not  only 
had  carried  them  on  their  course  but  had  laid  for  them  that  success- 
ful course.  We  must  never  lose  sight  of  the  fact  that  it  was  only 
those  who  followed  this  course  full  and  bye  who  found  the  chance 
to  survive — a  few  points  off  and  the  voyage  was  protracted  in  pain 
and  ended  mutely  in  starvation  and  thirst  upon  an  empty  sea  which 
marks  no  memorial  of  the  manhood  it  takes. 

From  Santa  Cruz  the  intervals  of  the  sea  which  we  know  are 
uneven.  Working  on  the  wind  there  lie  a  thousand  miles  of  all  but 
unbroken  ocean  before  the  next  landfall.  To  the  south — near,  yet 
out  of  eyeshot — lie  the  New  Hebrides.  With  chart  and  compass  we 
can  find  the  nearest  land,  to  seek  or  to  avoid  as  may  best  suit  the 
purpose  of  our  voyaging.  But  these  navigators  of  the  Polynesian 
swarm  had  no  knowledge  of  what  land  might  be  in  the  unknown  sea. 
For  many  leagues  the  course  set  for  them  by  the  unchanging  wind 
had  led  them  coastwise  where  land  was,  and  when  the  sea  grew 
empty  the  same  sailing  track  had  led  them  on  to  yet  new  land. 
Thus  may  we  reasonably  expect  that  taking  their  departure  from  the 
last  sight  of  Santa  Cruz  the  fleets  would  set  bravely  forth  upon  the 
course  that  so  long  had  served  them  and  so  well. 


POLYNESIAN  RELICS   IN  MELANESIA.  141 

I  feel  that  I  can  not  set  too  acute  an  accent  upon  this  idea  of  course. 
Without  knowledge  of  what  might  lie  before  them,  with  no  chart 
and  with  no  compass  to  guide  them,  even  had  they  known  what  they 
sought,  there  was  but  one  fixed  and  recognizable  fact  in  empty  sea 
under  the  cloud-flecked  emptiness  of  sky.  This  fact  was  direction, 
the  angle  with  the  wind  at  which  their  canoes  were  at  their  best 
sailing  speed.  Where  all  else  was  uncertainty  the  fixity  of  this  fact 
must  have  kept  them  true  upon  the  sea  by  night  as  well  as  by  day, 
for  in  the  darkness,  when  the  eye  could  no  longer  see  the  tremor  of 
the  after  leach  of  the  great  mat  sail  bellying  above  them,  the  ear 
could  be  warned  by  its  quivering.  All  else  uncertainty,  this  alone 
was  fact. 

The  New  Hebrides,  therefore,  lying  so  near  would  yet  be  distant 
because  out  of  course.  Upon  the  shores  from  Norbarbar  to  Aneityum, 
still  more  remote  and  still  more  to  leeward,  in  Uea,  Lifu,  and  Mare,  at 
the  most  remote  spot  to  leeward  beyond  which  lay  no  land  whatever, 
at  New  Caledonia,  would  come  only  the  dull  sailors  and  those  who 
through  blast  of  gales  had  sagged  down  the  wind.  Therefore  from 
the  point  where  the  axis  of  the  land  masses  breaks  from  its  northwest- 
southeast  direction  and  sets  off  north-south  we  should  expect 
to  find  a  difference  in  the  Polynesian  content  of  the  indigenous 
languages. 

So  far  in  these  notes  our  attention  has  been  given  to  the  direction 
of  the  Polynesian  traverse  through  Melanesia.  We  may  pause 
briefly  to  consider  a  point  of  relative  duration  of  this  traverse,  and 
we  note  with  surprise  that  Thilenius  has  permitted  himself  to  write 
of  a  measure  of  weeks. 

Much  earlier  in  this  work  I  have  noted  the  instances  of  Polynesian 
inclusions  within  Melanesia.  Stated  in  terms  of  the  point  as  now 
presented,  these  are  cases  where  the  duration  of  the  traverse  has 
reached  the  absolute  maximum  in  a  fixed  and  permanent  settlement, 
a  relinquishment  of  the  voyage. 

Remember  that  we  have  no  means  of  determining  what  was  the 
impulse  upon  which  these  voyages  were  undertaken.  It  will,  how- 
ever, involve  no  great  strain  of  the  probabilities  if  we  assume  as 
established  the  reasonable  hypothesis  which  has  been  proposed,  that 
the  impulse  upon  the  Polynesians  commorant  in  Indonesia  was  an 
expulsive  force  and  that  it  was  applied  upon  them  on  their  exposed 
northern  flank  and  upon  their  rear  equally  exposed  to  the  crowding 
of  swarms  of  alien  and  incompatible  migration  from  the  Asiatic  main- 
land. Upon  this  assumption  we  may  naturally  draw  the  conclusion 
that  the  power  of  expulsion  had  practically  vanished  when  the 
Polynesian  swarm  had  set  the  great  island  of  New  Guinea  behind 
them.  This  we  know  of  a  certainty,  in  all  the  unknown  ages  which 
have  elapsed,  the  Malayan  peoples  (if  it  were  their  ancestors  who 


142  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

crowded  out  the  Sawaiori)  have  been  able  to  effect  no  lodgment 
of  settlement  upon  that  dark  island,  and  their  trade  settlement  has 
scarcely  advanced  beyond  the  occasional  raiding  dash  of  the  sea 
rover  and  slaver. 

Once  in  Torres  Straits,  for  such  as  found  the  exit  in  the  Arafura 
Sea,  once  within  the  great  bight  of  the  Bismarck  Archipelago,  for 
what  seems  to  have  been  the  main  flight,  the  voyagers  lacked  impulse 
as  they  certainly  wanted  direction.  They  were  afloat,  but  they  were 
headed  nowhere  in  particular.  The  world  may  have  been  in  a  sense 
before  them,  but  choice  was  limited  to  such  lands  as  they  might 
chance  upon.  I  have  already  spoken  of  the  necessity  of  crop  settle- 
ment as  a  condition  of  their  naval  economy.  Without  destination 
to  lure  onward,  without  force  behind  to  drive  them  yet  farther 
along,  such  crop  settlement  under  favorable  conditions  of  soil,  water, 
and  subduable  autochthons  tended  inevitably  to  become  a  perma- 
nent colonization. 

If  we  note  upon  the  charts  the  position  of  such  Polynesian  inclu- 
sions, crop  settlements  become  fixed  colonies — the  islands  of  the 
western  verge  of  Polynesia  in  Nuguria,  Tauu  and  Liueniua,  Matema, 
Ticopia,  Sikayana,  Mai,  Aniwa,  Fotuna — we  shall  find  them  with- 
out exception  the  windward  islands  of  the  archipelagoes  with  which 
respectively  they  are  associated  in  descriptive  geography.  Even 
Rennel  and  Moiki,  although  they  lie  to  leeward  of  San  Cristoval 
in  the  southern  Solomons,  are  yet  a  weather ly  achievement  to  such 
voyagers  as  issued  easterly  from  Torres  Straits.  Where  we  find 
these  fixed  colonies  in  such  number  there  must  have  been  other  crop 
settlements  similar  in  their  beginnings  which  endured  in  the  measure 
of  years  or  perhaps  generations  until  inability  to  withstand  the 
assaults  of  the  indigenes  or  the  lure  of  some  new  squadron  of 
wanderers  of  their  own  race  and  speech  led  them  to  essay  yet 
again  the  great  sea,  never  forgetting  that  it  is  inborn  a  character- 
istic of  the  Polynesian  to  hold  himself  proudly  the  master  of  the 
ocean. 

If  these  considerations  are  to  be  held  somewhat  of  more  worth 
than  the  divagations  of  fancy  there  must  somewhere  be  some  record 
to  give  them  substance.  Where  else,  then,  than  in  these  speech 
records  which  we  have  subjected  to  such  minute  analysis? 

But  how  to  make  the  record  appear  ? 

For  Mota,  for  Aneityum,  and  for  Efate  we  now  have  dictionaries 
of  unequal  excellence.  These  languages  we  may,  therefore,  compare 
with  the  Polynesian  languages  for  which  we  have  similar  standards, 
indeed  regulate  by  so  much  of  the  comparative  Polynesian  phil- 
ology as  has  been  elaborated  upon  these  data.  For  so  much  we 
are  thankful,  yet  these  are  but  three,  and  in  the  data  upon  which 
these  studies  rest  we  have  had  under  intimate  dissection  no  less  than 


POLYNESIAN   RELICS   IN   MELANESIA.  143 

ninety  languages  in  Melanesia.  Had  we  dictionaries  of  each  of  the 
ninety  we  might  easily  note  the  exact  percentage  of  words  which 
mark  the  Polynesian  content  in  each.  Then  our  comparison  would 
be  as  exact  as  it  would  be  facile.  Unfortunately  there  remain 
eighty-seven  languages  of  which  our  knowledge  rests  upon  a  very 
few  words  preserved  at  random  in  many  works  of  reference.  The 
exact  measure  we  seek  is  impossible  of  application. 

Yet  we  are  by  no  means  left  without  recourse.  There  is  at 
our  hand  a  certain  measure  of  the  quality  of  the  Polynesian  inclu- 
sions in  these  Melanesian  tongues.  The  identifications  have  been 
made  with  all  the  assistance  which  can  inhere  in  long  practical 
acquaintance  with  the  comparative  Polynesian  philology.  I  have, 
accordingly,  had  no  hesitation  in  definitely  accepting  as  Polynesian 
identification  many  a  word  which  would  completely  fail  of  recog- 
nition by  the  Polynesian  of  any  one  tongue.  This  is  due  to  the  fact 
that  the  Melanesian,  alien  to  the  Sprachgeist  of  his  loan  material,  may 
deal  with  the  Polynesian  word  which  has  come  into  his  possession 
according  to  the  spirit  of  his  own  speech.  Thus  the  Samoan  who 
says  fafanga,  to  feed,  might  quite  fail  of  recognizing  his  mother 
tongue  when  the  New  Irelander  had  trimmed  here  and  added  there 
to  make  Lambell  angan;  and  his  familiar  longo,  to  hear,  would  be 
wholly  inaudible  to  him  in  Marina  rogotag.  Yet  there  are  words 
which  he  could  comprehend. 

I  have  therefore  taken  as  criteria  of  this  measurement  the  words 
in  each  Melanesian  language  which  a  Samoan,  knowing  only  Samoan, 
could  comprehend  if  he  were  set  down  on  the  alien  shore  amid  a 
hostile  folic  under  circumstances  where  every  instinct  of  life  would 
fill  him  with  anxious  desire  to  know  from  the  strange  sounds  what 
disposition  was  to  be  made  of  him.  Not  the  learned  pursuits  of 
a  philologist  this,  but  the  working  of  the  wits  of  a  man  under  the 
compelling  stress  of  elemental  need.  I  assume  that  his  ears  thus 
pricked  up  would  gather  those  words  which  exist  in  common  in  his 
language  and  that  of  his  savage  hosts,  and  there  are  many  such, 
even  where  the  final  vowel  has  undergone  abrasion.  Further  I 
assume  that  when  the  consonant  structure  of  any  given  word  remains 
the  same  in  the  two  languages  his  wits  would  be  sharp  enough  to 
recognize  the  word  when  the  vowels  had  undergone  modification; 
thus  Epi  fefene  would  be  easily  comprehensible  to  the  Samoan  who 
says  fafine  for  woman.  The  same  will  hold  when  the  vowel  structure 
is  constant ;  thus  Ulawa  nimanima  could  not  but  be  comprehensible 
to  the  Samoan  who  knows  his  hand  as  lima.  Finally,  in  those  cases 
where  the  vowels  remain  unaltered  and  the  mutation  of  consonants 
is  not  at  variance  with  the  system  of  mutation  normal  to  the  Polyne- 
sian languages,  I  feel  justified  in  the  assumption  that  the  strain  of 
need  would  awaken  our  Samoan  to  a  conscious  recognition  of  his 


144  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

own  word  in  its  new  guise.  In  effect  I  set  before  the  individual  the 
task  which  has  proved  easy  to  his  race.* 

For  each  of  the  languages  of  sufficient  representation  I  have  tabu- 
lated the  results  of  this  examination  and  have  set  them  down  in  the 
foregoing  tables.  Employing  the  sum  of  these  several  elements  as 
dividend,  and  for  divisor  the  whole  number  of  words  in  the  available 
material  which  have  been  identified  as  Polynesian,  we  obtain  a 
figure  which  stands  for  the  quality  of  the  resemblance  of  each  lan- 
guage with  the  Proto-Samoan,  and  this  coefficient  of  quality  has 
been  inserted  in  its  proper  place  in  the  tables. 

Now  for  the  graphic  presentation  of  the  results.  Upon  the  chart 
of  the  island-studded  ocean  between  the  termini  of  Indonesia  and 
Polynesia,  respectively,  we  insert  these  coefficients  of  quality  and 
delimit  the  areas  of  equal  resemblance. 

*Not  a  single  detail  of  such  westward  drift  and  its  result  can  be  lacking  in  interest 
to  us.  Therefore  I  note  the  following  double  instance  from  the  Rev.  John  Inglis's 
"In  the  New  Hebrides"  (page  33) : 

"On  Aneityum  the  idols  were  all,  like  the  Jewish  altars,  of  uncarved,  unhewn 
stones.  The  only  exception  to  this  which  we  ever  found  was  in  the  case  of  Tuatau, 
a  natmas  which  I  found  at  Anauunse  and  took  home  with  me.  Tuatau  was  of  wood, 
a  piece  of  a  breadfruit  tree.  Like  the  idolaters  mentioned  by  the  prophet,  the  maker 
of  this  idol  had  chosen  a  tree  that  will  not  rot.  It  was  a  rudely  shaped,  uncouth 
figure,  its  countenance  only  very  slightly  resembling  the  human  face  divine.  I  was 
struck  with  its  being  made  of  wood,  and  afterwards  learned  that  it  was  not  a  native 
idol — it  was  of  foreign  manufacture.  It  had  a  little  history  of  its  own,  which  may  serve 
to  illustrate  that  of  '  the  image  which  fell  down  from  Jupiter '(Acts  xix,  35).  About  the 
beginning  of  this  [the  nineteenth]  century  as  nearly  as  native  chronology  supplied  me 
with  the  date  on  which  to  calculate,  in  the  days  of  Tuatau,  a  great  chief  of  Anauunse, 
this  poor  idol  was  one  morning  found  drifted  ashore  by  the  northeast  wind.  How  long 
it  had  been  tossed  upon  the  ocean  nobody  knew.  But  as  it  bore  all  the  marks  of  a 
Malay  idol  [Dr.  Inglis  thus  denominates  the  Polynesians],  and  was  very  like  the  fisher- 
man's god  of  Rarotonga,  as  given  in  Williams's  '  Missionary  Enterprises'  and  which,  he 
says,  'was  placed  on  the  forepart  of  every  fishing  canoe;  and  when  the  natives  were 
going  on  a  fishing  excursion,  prior  to  setting  off  they  invariably  presented  offerings  to 
the  god,  and  invoked  him  to  grant  success' — it  seemed  highly  probable  that  this  idol 
was  a  Rarotongan  fisherman's  god — that  the  canoe  on  which  it  was  borne  had  been 
wrecked — that  thepoor  fishermen  had  been  drowned — and  that  the  idol  had  been  drifted 
along  before  the  tradewinds  till  it  was  cast  ashore  on  Aneityum.  But,  be  that  as  it 
may  have  been,  its  subsequent  history  was  well  enough  known.  Among  a  people 
remarkably  unskilled  in  the  pictorial  arts,  its  faint  resemblance  to  the  human  form 
secured  for  it  favor  and  veneration.  The  day  on  which  it  was  found  was  one  on  which 
Tuatau  was  making  a  great  feast.  The  natmasses  were  always  closely  connected  with 
the  feasts.  It  was  one  of  the  fundamental  articles  in  the  creed  of  heathenism  on  Anei- 
tyum that  the  man  who  made  the  largest  feasts  and  who  presented  the  most  costly 
offerings  to  the  natmasses  was  the  man  that  most  effectually  propitiated  their  favor. 
The  sacred  men  all  declared  that  the  natmasses  had  made  this  image  and  brought  it  to 
Tuatau ;  and  the  chief  and  the  ignorant  populace  accepted  the  statement  as  readily,  and 
believed  it  as  firmly,  as  the  Asiarchs  and  the  idolaters  of  Ephesus  believed  that  the  ugly 
little  statue,  made  of  ebony  and  vine  wood  by  Canetias,  was,  as  the  priests  of  Diana 
affirmed  it  to  be,  'the  image  that  fell  down  from  Jupiter.'  The  chief  received  it  as  a 
token  of  the  special  favor  of  the  natmasses,  placed  it  within  the  sacred  enclosure,  and 
thenceforth  regarded  it  as  his  tutelary  divinity.  After  the  death  of  Tuatau  the  idol 
received  his  name,  and  was  supposed  to  be  watching  over  his  spirit;  and  it  continued 
to  be  worshipped  till  Christianity  was  accepted  in  Anauunse. 

"Had  the  idol  been  a  man — a  shipwrecked  sailor,  or  one  of  the  poor  fishermen  on  the 
prow  of  whose  canoe  it  sat  conspicuous  as  Castor  and  Pollux  did  in  the  ship  that  carried 
Paul — to  a  certainty  he  had  been  killed,  and  most  probably  also  eaten;  at  least  a  ship- 
wrecked sailor  met  with  this  sad  fate  at  Eromanga  within  less  than  a  twelvemonth  of 
the  time  when  Tuatau  fell  into  my  hands;  but  being  a  block  of  wood,  shaped  so  as  to 
have  a  faint  resemblance  to  a  man,  it  was  set  up  and  worshipped  as  a  god." 


POLYNESIAN  REUCS  IN  MELANESIA.  145 

As  soon  as  we  trace  the  contours  connecting  the  islands  whose 
languages  show  approximately  equal  coefficients  of  Polynesian  qual- 
ity it  becomes  at  once  manifest  that  we  are  concerned  with  two 
great  areas.  These  are  so  distinct,  so  widely  separated,  that  it  is 
practically  impossible  to  conceive  of  them  as  having  the  same  origin, 
at  least  in  this  Melanesian  tract  of  the  Pacific  with  which  we  have 
to  do.  We  shall  therefore  do  well  to  consider  them  in  detail,  each 
by  itself,  and  to  reserve  the  discussion  of  their  diversity  of  origin 
until  after  that  preliminary  survey. 

One  of  these  areas  embraces  southern  Melanesia,  from  the  Torres 
Islands  to  New  Caledonia.  In  these  islands,  the  New  Hebrides  form- 
ing the  principal  and  determining  mass,  the  contours  of  equal  quality 
extend  from  northwest  in  a  general  direction  toward  the  southeast. 
Along  the  axis  cutting  these  contours  from  northeast  toward  south- 
west we  find  that  the  coefficient  of  quality  diminishes  from  the  east. 

In  the  southern  New  Hebrides  we  find  two  instances  of  purely 
Polynesian  speech,  at  Aniwa  and  at  Fotuna,  these  representing  the 
position  of  the  contour  of  ioo.  It  is  important  to  note  that  Aniwa 
and  Fotuna  are  the  most  weatherly  of  the  New  Hebrides  archi- 
pelago, that  is  to  say  they  are  the  points  to  be  reached  by  a  fleet 
steering  full  and  bye,  the  best  sailing  point  of  canoes  and  the  only 
sailing  point  which  gives  the  helmsman  on  unknown  seas  a  sense 
of  direction  for  his  course.  The  three  larger  islands  in  this  section 
of  the  archipelago  show  scant  traces  of  Polynesian  admixture,  and 
the  quality  coefficient  is  low ;  Eromanga  58,  Aneityum  46,  and  Tanna 
no  more  than  29.  Still  farther  west  the  Loyalties  make  no  better 
showing:  Nengone  45,  and  Lifu  42,  while  Uea  records  a  Polynesian 
content  entirely  of  the  modern  epoch  and  known  to  be  derived 
from  an  involuntary  voyage  from  Uvea  in  Nuclear  Polynesia. 

In  the  examination  of  the  central  and  northern  New  Hebrides, 
for  except  in  the  history  of  discovery  it  is  not  advisable  to  disso- 
ciate the  Banks  Group,  we  are  able  to  draw  contours  of  90,  80, 
and  70  quite  plainly.  Along  the  windward  face  of  the  archipelago 
appear  spots  which  might  establish  the  curve  of  100,  such  being  the 
Polynesian  settlement  in  Efate"  and  Mae  on  the  island  of  Three  Hills. 
At  the  north  the  curve  of  90  is  established  on  Vanua  Lava  by  Leon, 
the  other  languages  of  that  island  standing  at  40  and  the  bush 
language  (Alo  Teqel)  at  the  lowest  mark  of  19.  Working  down  the 
weather  aspect  of  the  archipelago,  Arag  falls  but  little  below  this 
contour  and  Makura,  Nguna  and  Efate"  lie  above  it.  Mota  in  the 
extreme  north  shows  the  same  influence  as  Leon  on  Vanua  Lava. 
The  contours  of  80  and  70  are  satisfactorily  drawn  in  close  paral- 
lelism with  that  of  90  and  are  well  established  by  a  sufficiency  of 
points  of  identification.  The  high  value  of  Marina  89  in  the  deep 
bay  of  the  north  coast  of  Espiritu  Santo  need  not  prove  as  anoma- 


146  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

lous  in  position  as  at  first  sight  it  might  appear.  While  Vanua 
Lava-Mota-Arag  identify  one  point  of  migration  entrance  into  the 
archipelago,  it  is  quite  probable  that  Marina- Arag  identify  another 
entrance  for  fleets  sailing  a  little  to  leeward  when  making  this 
landfall. 

We  next  examine  the  northern  area.  Its  curve  of  ioo  is  beauti- 
fully established  along  a  great  length;  from  southeast  to  northwest 
we  note  Anuda,  Ticopia,  Matema,  Sikayana,  Liueniua,  Nukumanu, 
Tauu  and  Nuguria,  all  Polynesian  communities,  all  the  most  weath- 
erly  islands  of  the  Santa  Cruz  Group,  of  the  Solomons,  and  of  New 
Ireland  respectively.  At  the  other  limit  the  curve  of  60  may  dis- 
tinctly be  traced  along  the  leeward  faces  of  the  Solomons  and  of 
the  Santa  Cruz  Group.  Between  these  two  well-marked  contours 
the  curves  of  70  and  80  are  very  distinct  in  the  Solomons  and  in 
the  strait  between  New  Britain  and  New  Ireland.  Along  the  range 
of  the  Solomons  the  migration  track  is  plainly  drawn  along  the 
weather  coast  or  in  the  easy  channel  from  southern  Ysabel  toUlawa. 

We  may  now  examine  the  points  at  which  the  migration  streams 
which  establish  these  two  areas  come  into  closest  approximation. 
These  points  are  two,  the  interval  between  Deni  and  the  Torres 
Islands,  and  the  interval  between  Moiki-Rennel  and  the  southern 
Solomons.  Here,  if  anywhere,  the  two  streams  came  their  nearest 
to  a  chance  of  mingling. 

In  this  examination  we  must  bear  in  mind  a  few  clearly  estab- 
lished facts.  These  voyages  were  performed  without  chart  or  com- 
pass. The  leaders  knew  nothing  of  what  land  might  lie  before  them. 
Their  only  norm  of  direction  was  set  by  the  constancy  of  the  trade 
wind  and  their  only  method  of  conforming  to  that  norm  was  by 
sailing  closehauled,  to  which  they  had  the  added  inducement  of 
seamanship  in  that  this  was  the  best  sailing  point  of  their  canoes. 
To  deviate  from  that  course  where  no  landfall  had  been  made  and 
where  there  was  no  knowledge  that  land  might  exist  would  be  to 
relinquish  a  purposeful  voyage  for  merely  idle  cruising. 

In  the  case  of  the  gap  south  of  Deni  intermingling  could  have 
taken  place  only  from  the  north  toward  the  south.  It  is  incon- 
ceivable that  a  fleet  having  made  the  most  northerly  landfall  of  the 
New  Hebrides,  whether  at  Lo  or  at  Vanua  Lava,  should  leave  the 
new  lands  already  in  sight  to  beat  dead  to  windward  where  no 
land  was  known  to  exist.  Similarly  there  could  be  no  reason  for 
vessels  taking  their  departure  from  the  Santa  Cruz  group  to  leave 
the  one  course  which  they  knew,  to  set  out  toward  the  south  which 
was  a  direction  they  had  no  means  of  determining,  and  to  run  free 
upon  their  least  convenient  and  most  dangerous  point  of  sailing. 

At  the  other  point  of  approximation  we  should  note  that  Moiki 
and  Rennel  are  invisible  from  the  nearest  islands,  Guadalcanar  and 


POLYNESIAN  REEICS  IN  MELANESIA.  147 

San  Cristoval,  and  that  no  land  is  visible  from  them.  They  are 
islands  having  the  speech  quality  coefficient  of  ioo,  for  they  are 
settled  by  Polynesians.  Such  islands  we  have  already  learned  to 
look  for  as  the  most  weatherly  achievements  of  Polynesian  voyagers 
in  this  great  migration  movement.  In  the  southern  Solomons  the 
course  of  migration  is  distinctly  marked  to  windward  of  Malanta 
and  through  the  island-dotted  channel  north  of  Guadalcanar  and 
San  Cristoval.  With  all  these  landmarks  to  point  the  way  it  is 
inconceivable  that  canoes  should  leave  the  coastwise  course  and 
head  to  leeward  for  islands  far  beyond  their  sight  and  wholly  out 
of  their  knowledge.  Likewise  for  voyagers  passing  beyond  Moiki- 
Rennel  the  closehauled  course  would  not  carry  them  within  sight 
of  San  Cristoval,  but  would  give  them  a  more  distant  landfall  in 
the  Torres  Islands,  and  thence  the  land  in  view  would  deflect  them 
southeastward  on  a  coasting  voyage. 

It  is  quite  clear,  therefore,  that  these  two  points  of  approach  were 
gaps  not  crossed  and  that  the  two  streams  of  migration  remained 
largely  distinct.  The  dull  canoes  of  the  northern  stream,  a  few  set 
to  leeward  by  gale  or  other  accident,  may  have  reached  the  southern 
stream  and  have  escaped  notice ;  but  that  there  was  any  accretion  to 
the  northern  stream  from  the  southern  is  wholly  out  of  the  question. 

No  account  has  yet  been  made  of  the  two  western  points  of  this 
identification,  Moanus  83  north  of  New  Guinea,  and  Motu  85  in  the 
Gulf  of  Papua  on  the  southern  coast  of  that  great  island.  With 
the  mass  of  this  almost  continental  island  beween  them  these  two 
distant  points  of  equal  quality  must  stand  apart.  Each  represents 
the  most  westerly  identifiable  point  of  a  migration  swarm  and  these 
two  swarms  must  have  been  wholly  distinct.  Moanus  I  regard  as 
the  first  point  of  the  stream  which  in  part  went  to  windward  of 
New  Ireland  and  in  part  has  left  its  traces  in  St.  George's  Channel, 
thence  has  swept  along  the  Solomons,  thence  past  Matema  and 
Ticopia  and  onward  to  Rotuma,  and  still  beyond  to  its  lodgment 
in  Samoa — the  Samoa  Stream.  Motu  and  Moiki  likewise  establish 
early  points  on  the  migration  track  which  generally  parallels  the 
Samoa  Stream,  but  runs  some  distance  southward  until  it  makes 
the  landfall  of  the  northern  New  Hebrides  and  then  is  deflected 
sharply  south  by  the  opportunity  and  the  convenience  of  sailing 
coastwise  with  its  double  joy  of  war  and  victual,  which  sets  forth 
once  more  upon  empty  sea  from  Aniwa  and  Fotuna  and  at  last 
enters  Nuclear  Polynesia  by  way  of  Fiji — the  Viti  Stream. 

Now  it  comes  to  us  to  discuss  briefly  the  relative  age  of  the 
Polynesian  content  identified  in  Melanesian  possession  and  the  same 
material  in  Polynesia  itself. 

Of  two  forms  in  general,  one  with  a  final  vowel  and  one  with  a 
terminal  consonant  following  the  same  vowel,  which  in  all  proba- 


148  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

bility  is  the  elder?  As  between  two  great  groups  of  speech,  to  one 
of  which  the  final  consonant  is  most  repugnant,  to  the  other  of 
which  the  final  consonant  is  so  distinctly  pleasurable  that  in  many 
parts  of  the  group  a  stem  final  vowel  is  abraded  in  order  to  reach 
a  closed  syllable,  in  antecedent  probability  which  of  these  repre- 
sents an  earlier  type? 

We  do  not  have  to  rest  on  the  antecedent  probability,  clear  as 
we  shall  find  it.  That  the  form  in  the  terminal  consonant,  the 
characteristic  Melanesian  form,  is  the  earlier  and  elder  is  shown  us 
in  the  Polynesian  itself.  Look  at  valu  (281)  to  scrape  taro;  Efate" 
baru-si  Mae  barusi,  of  the  same  sense,  might  lead  us  to  infer  that 
the  root  form  is  barus;  in  Samoan  valusanga,  the  derivative  meaning 
taro  scrapings,  we  find  a  direct  proof  that  the  s  is  radical,  for  the 
formative  suffix  was  applied  early  enough  to  protect  the  final  con- 
sonant from  abrasion.  Examples  abound  in  these  data ;  I  note  but 
these  few  for  the  reference  of  such  as  wish  to  give  the  topic  extended 
study:  71,  81,  160,  162,  191,  204,  224,  227,  266,  283,  289. 

This,  too,  plays  an  important  part  in  the  condemnation  of  the 
sieve  theory  and  the  castaway  drift.  Which  is  more  reasonable, 
that  a  dozen  very  closely  allied  languages  should  act  harmoniously 
in  dropping  final  consonants,  or  that  ninety  languages  with  very 
scant  community  and  no  intercommunication  should  agree  in  adding 
precisely  the  same  consonant  as  closure  to  open  roots  brought  them 
in  storm-driven  canoes,  and  that  the  same  terminals  should  be  picked 
up  in  several  cases  by  the  score  of  languages  in  Indonesia,  a  region 
physically  exterior  to  all  such  possibility  of  canoe  drift?  There  can, 
indeed,  be  no  shadow  of  doubt  that  the  Melanesians  in  their  keeping 
of  the  Polynesian  loan  material  have  preserved  an  earlier  type. 
Therefore  the  conclusion  is  inevitable  that  the  Polynesians  were 
commorant  in  Melanesia  at  some  time,  and  for  some  time,  anterior 
to  their  settlement  of  the  unoccupied  lands  of  the  central  and  east- 
ern Pacific. 

We  are  dealing  in  these  studies  with  the  record  of  what  the  Poly- 
nesians taught  the  Melanesians,  no  inconsiderable  contribution  in 
the  aggregate.  But  did  the  Melanesians  teach  the  Polynesians 
nothing?     Was  the  gift  altogether  so  one-sided? 

In  the  rigid  examination  of  the  material  I  can  find  but  a  single 
word  which  I  suspect  to  have  come  into  Polynesian  possession  from 
Melanesian  tongues.  This  is  Samoan  'isumu  (251)  rat,  and  it  calls 
for  no  little  agility  to  identify  this  word,  not  elsewhere  Polynesian 
and  by  no  means  in  common  Samoan  use,  with  the  word  which 
means  rat  in  certain  parts  of  Melanesia,  namely  in  the  New  Hebrides, 
and  in  the  Solomons  in  just  that  area  of  the  islands  of  the  Malanta 
channel  which  marks  our  curve  of  maximum  quality  of  Polynesian 
content. 


POLYNESIAN  RKIylCS  IN  MELANESIA.  149 

The  reason  is  by  no  means  far  to  seek. 

Homekeepers  have  ever  homely  wits.  Our  Polynesians,  who  had 
the  genius  to  conduct  such  voyages  as  under  far  more  favoring 
conditions  have  brought  immortality  to  Quiros  and  Mendafia,  to 
La  Perouse  and  Dumont  d'Urville,  to  Magelhaens  and  Roggewein, 
to  Cook,  to  Byron  and  to  Bligh,  to  Wilkes— such  were  a  folk  far  in 
advance  of  the  rude  autochthons  of  the  islands  they  encountered  in 
their  passage.  The  black  man  could  learn  much  from  the  brown; 
there  was  little  in  the  liberal  arts  that  the  Melanesian  could  com- 
municate to  the  bright,  aye  the  brilliant,  Polynesian.  Where  they 
came  into  contact  could  only  have  been  in  the  crop  settlements, 
and  in  such  it  must  have  been  an  essential  condition  that  the  black 
sat  in  subjugation  to  the  brave  brown  sea-rover.  What  does  the 
slave  in  any  community  teach  to  his  lord  which  comes  into  the 
prevailing  speech?  One  word  in  these  two  hundred  is  all  we  can 
suspect  the  Polynesian  to  have  taken  from  the  Melanesian,  and  that 
one  very  doubtful.  Yet  who  of  us  without  painful  research  can 
identify  for  so  much  as  the  five  fingers  of  but  a  single  hand  a  word 
apiece  which  the  Britons  have  set  into  the  language  which  is  ours 
by  right  of  the  conquest  of  Britain  by  the  Roman,  the  Saxon,  the 
Norman? 

Yet  one  more  reason  is  simultaneously  and  equally  operative. 
Crop  settlement  approximating  semi-permanence  may  have  taken 
place  piecemeal  among  ninety  varying  languages.  Such  Melanesian 
elements  as  each  settlement  might  have  permitted  itself  to  adopt 
in  the  particular  spot  of  its  sojourn  would  be  incomprehensible  to  all 
other  members  of  the  migration  swarm  who  had  sojourned  in  con- 
tact with  each  of  the  other  eighty-nine  languages.  Upon  their  reas- 
sembling in  Nuclear  Polynesia  the  alien  elements  comprehended  but 
by  the  company  of  a  single  vessel  would  be  restricted  in  compre- 
hensibility  to  that  crew  alone,  and,  thus  from  the  beginning  limited 
in  use,  would  tend  toward  disuse  and  Polynesia  would  know  them 
no  longer;  the  superior  language  would  heal  its  own  wounds. 

Before  leaving  this  central  chapter  in  which  we  have  discussed  in 
many  lights  the  Polynesian  content  of  Melanesian  speech  I  wish  to 
sum  up  the  major  conclusions  to  which  we  have  been  led. 

i .  In  the  plexus  of  Melanesian  speech  a  certain  element  has  been 
proved  to  have  a  common  origin  with  the  Polynesian. 

2.  That  this  varies  in  quality  according  to  the  ability  of  its 
Melanesian  possessors  to  respect  the  vital  principle  with  which  it 
came  into  their  possession. 

3.  That  this  represents,  wherever  the  data  admit  of  deduction, 
a  phase  more  primitive  than  the  Polynesian  of  the  eastern  archi- 
pelagoes. 


150  THE)   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 

4.  That  it  can  not  be  drift  material  brought  by  eastern  castaways, 
but  is  derived  from  the  sojourn  of  Polynesian  ancestors  in  Melanesia 
when  on  their  way  from  Indonesia  to  the  mid-Pacific. 

5.  That  from  the  material  here  involved  in  discussion  we  can  lay 
out  one  great  track  of  the  migrant  swarm  with  much  precision,  and 
that  a  second  may  be  laid  out  with  considerable  probability. 

6.  That  along  these  two  tracks  the  only  Polynesian  voyagers  who 
have  left  any  trace  are  those  of  the  earlier  Proto-Samoan  swarm, 
and  that  the  wanderings  of  the  later  Tongafiti  migration  must  be 
sought  elsewhere  than  in  Melanesia. 


CHAPTER  VIII. 
SAWAIORI  MATERIAL  IN  INDONESIA. 

Limitation  of  the  points  of  inquiry — Check-list  of  the  Indonesian 
material — Synoptical  tables  of  mutation  varieties — Mutations  com- 
pared with  the  systems  of  the  Pacific  languages — Character  and  prob- 
able place  of  the  contact  of  Indonesian  and  Polynesian — The  nature  of 
an  ethnic  swarm  discussed — The  Malay  advance  was  an  affair  of 
outposts — Whence  arose  the  speech  community,  which  after  all  is  a 
matter  of  but  a  gross  of  words — The  Indonesians  are  shown  to  be 
borrowers — Two  lines  of  Sawaiori  escape  through  the  Malay  Archi- 
pelago lead  to  the  two  tracks  identified  through  Melanesia — The 
designation  Malayo-Polynesian  should  be  discarded  because  false. 

The  scope  of  this  work  does  not  include  such  a  detailed  dissection 
of  the  Indonesian  languages  as  that  to  which  the  Melanesian  tongues 
have  been  subjected  in  the  foregoing  chapter.  This  speech  area 
has  its  own  diligent  students,  and  to  their  researches  we  owe  the 
present  advanced  state  of  our  knowledge  of  the  multiplicity  of 
Malaysian  speech.     Thus  are  we  spared  the  necessity  of  pathfinding. 

In  the  present  chapter  we  shall  limit  our  attention  to  the  con- 
sideration of  such  Indonesian  material  as  is  brought  into  comparison 
with  the  data  from  the  Pacific  areas  here  under  discussion.  We 
shall  examine  it  for  the  purpose  of  discovering  to  what  extent  it 
may  be  used  either  in  support  or  in  disproof  of  the  theory  that  the 
Pacific  languages  have  developed  out  of  the  Indonesian,  or  that  both 
derive  from  a  common  parent.  In  this  we  shall  develop  whatever 
support  such  examination  may  give  to  the  theory  that  this  common 
parent  was  Semitic.  We  shall  be  led  to  a  rigid  consideration  of  the 
validity  of  the  older  consociation  of  these  speech  areas  as  the 
Malayo-Polynesian  family. 

Beyond  these  several  points  of  inquiry  we  shall  not  advance.  We 
shall  do  no  more  than  to  place  these  data  conveniently  at  the  service 
of  students  of  Indonesian  philology. 

As  we  have  done  in  the  earlier  chapters  we  present  a  series  of 
tables  for  readiness  of  access  to  the  material  here  assembled.  For 
a  large  amount  df  the  Indonesian  material  indebtedness  is  gratefully 
acknowledged  to  the  industry  and  research  of  Mr.  Tregear  recorded 
in  his  "Maori  Comparative  Dictionary." 

Malay . .  . 


9 

10 

27 

29 

3° 

31 

32 

33 

34 

36 

37 

45 

46 

47 

79 

170 

171 

173 

174 

175 

176 

177 

178 

179 

181 

183 

185 

215 

216 

218 

220 

221 

222 

223 

224 

225 

226 

227 

228 

229 

230 

232 

233 

236 

237 

239 

240 

241 

243 

244 

245 

246 

247 

248 

250 

251 

255 

256 

257 

258 

260 

261 

262 

264 

265 

266 

268 

270 

271 

272 

273 

274 

275 

276 

277 

278 

279 

281 

282 

283 

284 

286 

287 

288 

151 


152  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Malay...  289  290  291  292  294  296  297  298  299  300  301  302  304  305 

306  307  308  309  310  311  312  315  316  317  318  321  323  324 

325  327  328  329  330  331  332  333  334  335  336  337  338  339 

340  341  342  343  344  345  346  347  348  349  350  351  352  353 

354  356  357  358  359  360  361  362  363  364 

Malagasy  28  35  37   38   46   47  169  171  172  175  177  179  184  213 

216  218  219  220  221  223  228  231  232  234  235  236  238  239 

242  244  246  247  249  250  253  254  255  256  257  258  259  260 

267  272  273  274  277  278  281  282  283  288  290  293  294  296 

297  298  301  302  307  308  311  312  314  316  317  318  319  320 

321  324  325  326  327  328  329  330  331  332  333  334  335  336 

337  338  339     340  341  343  344  345  346  347  348  350  353  355 

357  358  362  363  364 

Ahtiago.217  290  291  300  305  306  312  317  324  329  330  333  352  360 

Allor....291  

Amblaw  217  265  278     291     300     312     316     317     330     360 

Amboyna  190  352 

Aru 284 

Awaiya.180  217  257     278    290     291     300    312     317     324     330     333     350    352 

Baju....25i  257  265     278     291     301     305     306    309    312     317     324     333     335 

350  360 

Baliyon.250  269  308     324     335     343 

Basakrama  250  266    279    312     350 

Batak.  ..329 

Batavia  .243 

Batumerah  278  290     291     300    312     313     316     317     324     330     333     350 

Beu  ...243 

Bicol 214  237  250  274  292  330 

Binue  .  .  .343 

Bolanghitam  217  278     306     309     312     313     317     324 

Borneo. .300  309  350     360 

Bouton..2i7  257  259     290    300     305     306    312    313     317     324     333     350 

Brissi  West  259 

Bual  ..  ..278 

Bugi 47  267  274  277  279  292  308  328  343  344  350  352  360 

Buru 291  352  356  361 

Caimarian  217  265  278  290  291  300  306  312  317  324  329  330  %■** 

350  352  360 

Cajeli...2i7  265  278  290  291  312  313  317  330  333  360 

Ceram...278  291  329    352     356 

Chamorri  350  352 

Champa.  291  308  312     313 

Dorey.  .  .291  312 

Dyak...309  312  317  324  328  330  350 

Ende....278 

Gah 217  251  257  265  275  278  290  300  306  312  316  317  324  329 

330  352  360 

Galela  .278  352 

Gani 278  290  291  298  300  306  312  317  352 

Gilolo  ...  284 

Goram. .  .291 

Guaham.317  352 

Ilocan  . .267  277  284     290    294     300    323     324     332     334     339    342    346 

Java...  31  171  182     224    225     251     261     265    267     270     272    273     274    276 

277  278  283     285     288     289     290     295     298     299     300     306     308     312 

316  321  324     330     333     334     335     336     339    342     344     346     350     352 

357  360  364 

Jobi  ...312 

Kaili....278  284 

Kaioa  Id.  291 

Kandayan  343 

Kawi  ...  250  334  352 

Kayan.259  263  273     275     277     278    294    308     309     312     317     322     324^328 

344  346  "*- 

Kisa....259  265  273     274     276    278     282     283     284     295     312     313     317     3(8 

323  324 

Lampong  312  343 

Landa . . . 343 


SAWAIORI  MATERIAL  IN  INDONESIA.  153 

Lariko..2i7  265     278    290    300    306    312    317     324     330     333     350 

Liang...  217  265    278    290     291     300    312     313    317    324     330     333    350    360 

Lobo 284 

Macassar   78  216    252    256    267     279     285     290    294    306     308    313    318     324 

327  328     329     332     343     344     345     347     350    352     353    355 

Madura.  .290  305     324 

Magindano  250     259    274     276    284    294     308     312    313     317     318     321     342 

347 
Mame.  .  .312 

Manatolo  259 

Massaratty  217     251     290    291     300     306     312    329     330     333    350     360 

Matabello  259     265     278     300    306    312    316    317     324     329     333    352 

Matu....261  267     276     277     305     317     327     336    344     350 

Mayapo..2i7  265     290    291     300     306     312    317     329     330     333     350    360 

Menado.217  291     300     306    309    312     313     317     324     333    360 

Menankabau  350 
Molucca  .  284 

Morella.190  217     278    290     291     300     306     312     313     317     324     330     333     350 

360 

Mysot...2i7  278     290     291     300     306     312     324     361 

Nicobar  .  300  324     326 

Pampangas  276     277     278     309     312     321     324    327     328     344     353 

Pangasinan  329 
Pani....295 

Rotti  .  ..278  284    291 

Salayer  .217  275     285     290     306     312     324     33°     333     360 

Salibabo  257  278     290     291     312     317     330     360 
Salu  ...  .278 

Sambawa  312     329     343 
Sandol  .  .278 

Sanguir    217  290     306     309     312     317     329     333     352     360 

Saparua  180  217     259     290    291     300     312     316     317     324     333    335     350 

Saru    ...171  312 
Sassac  .  .343 

Satawal  294  350     352 
Save...  259 

Savu 294  305     317     324     335     343 

Silong  .  .  290  291     294     300     323     324     339     350 
Sirang  .  .312 

Siwa 346 

Solor....284  291 

Sula  ...   259  275     278     306     317     350 

Sulu....2i4  267     290    291     294     300     308    312     313     317     324     330    335     350 

fagafog  '   45     185     214     249    250    259    267     274    276     277     287     295     308     309 

312  321     324     327     344     346     350     353 

Teluti       217  26s     290     291     300     312     316     3*7     324     330     333     360 

Teor         217  278     285     290     291     300     301     305     306     312    313     317     324     333 

350  360 
Ternati.  .276 

Tidore...278  295     300    352 

Timor...  278  284    312     329 

Togeanlds17  *Z    W    ¥Si    8?    292     294     298     308     3,2     3.7     32.     324     352 

Tringanu  284 
Ulea....350 
Utanata  284 

mS!s°mt22U    In    287     292     3.0     3.2     3.7     3*7     344    350     363 

Wahai     .217  278     300    306     312     317     324     330     333     350     360 

Waigiou.290  291     317     344     361 


154 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


It  will  now  be  in  order  to  tabulate  as  in  other  chapters  the  refer- 
ences to  the  several  mutation  varieties. 


A. 


a-oi 

Bolanghitam 

309 

Menado 

309 

a-e 

Malay 
Malagasy 

Awaiya 

Bajvi 

Batumerah 

216 

239 
316 
35o 
350 
35o 

250 
250  302 

Caimarian 

Dyak 

Lariko 

Liang 

Mayapo 

Morella 

35o 

3°9  324 

35o 

35o 

35o 

35o 

Saparua 

Satawal 

Sula 

Teor 

Togean  Ids 

Wahai 

350 
35o 
35o 
290 
292 
35o 

a-i 

Malay 
Malagasy 

183 
246 

302 

312 

Saparua 
Teluti 

290 
290 

Teor 

313  324  360 

a-o 

Malay 
Baliyon 
Basakrama 
Bugi 

324 
324 
312 

277 

279 

Dyak             317  325 
Kisa               282 
Macassar       350 
Menankabau        350 

Salibabo 
Saru 
Togean  Ids 

278 
312 
312 

a-u 

Malay 
Bugi 

181 
350 

224  307 

Java 

Mysot 

224  324 
324 

Ternati 

276 

ai-e 

Allor 
Rotti 

291 
291 

Teluti 

291 

Togean  Ids 

291 

ai-ei 

Batumerah 

291 

Morella 

291 

ai-oi 

Baju 

291 

Vaiqueno  East     291 

E. 


e-o 


Malay 

Malagasy 

Ahtiago 

Awaiya 


Batumerah   290 


e-at 
Matu 

e-i 
Malay 

Ilocan 

e-u 
Java 

e-y 


47  128  132 
247  272  297 
249  297  338 
290 
290 


276 


132  261  290 
311  315  318 

338  347 
290 


272 


Bugi 

47 

Saparua 

Caimarian 

290 

Sulu 

Java 

272 

Tagalog 

Lariko 

290 

Teluti 

Liang 

290 

Teor 

Salibabo 

257 

Visayas 

Java  261  276  290 

Kisa  276  318  323 

Macassar  347 

Madura  290 


290 
290 
249 
290 
290 
3io 


Magindano  276 

Matu  261 

Salayer  290 

Sanguir  290 


Malagasy       172  318 


SAWAIORI   MATERIAL   IN   INDONESIA. 


155 


Malay 

Malagasy 
Batavia 


174  225  227 
288  329 
355 
243 


Chamorri      350 
Dorey  291 

Java  225 


Sanguir         329 
Silong  300 

Tobo  330 


Malay 
Awaiya 

Basakrama  312 
Caimarian  291 
Java  171 


170  171  352 
180  291 


Kisa 

Sanguir 

Saparua 

Saru 

Silong 


274 
290 
350 

171 
291 


Teluti  330 

Timor  312 

Ulea  350 

Waigiou  291 


Malay 
Gah 


225 
352 


Madura 
Savu 


305 
305 


Teor 


305 


Malay 
Malagasy 


222  223  225 

362 

171  362 


Ahtiago 

Baju 

Bouton 


305 
305 
305 


Matu 
Savo 


305 
259 


Malagasy       219  346  347  350 


0-0 
Malay  ■ 


Malagasy 


o-au 
Malay 

o-e 

Malagasy 


255  257  296 

311  336  353 

362 

255  282  296 

355 


309 


Awaiya 

Baju 

Bouton 

Gah 

Kayan 


257 
257 
257 
257 
259  263 


Tagalog         309 


Kisa 

259 

Matu 

336 

Salibabo 

257 

Tagalog 

287 

Visayas 

287 

353 


O-J 


Malagasy       331  353  362         Manatolo      259 
Bouton  259  Savo  259 

BrissiWest  259  Sula  259 


Tagalog      259 
Vaiqueno  East 


259 


0-1* 

Malay 

Malagasy 


181  221  325 
33i  357 
171  3H  325 
33i 


Baliyon 

Java 

Magindano 


269 

285  336  354 

259 


Pampangas  353 
Salayer  285 
Tagalog        353 


o-y 

Malagasy 


259 


U. 


u-a 

Malay 


Malagasy 


79  220  221 
239  266  281 
299  3'6 
273  281 


Basakrama  266 

Matu 

344 

Java              299  316 

Sambawa 

343 

tariko           278 

Sula 

306 

u-au 
Malay 


334 


156 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


Malay 

Malagasy 
Ahtiago 

176  224  329 
358 

296  316 
306  329 

Ceram 
Gani 
Java 
Kandayan 

329 
317 
224 

343 

Mysot 

Teor 

Waigiou 

306 
301 
3i7 

tt-0 

Malay            179  328  330 

34i 

Malagasy       179  216  267 
273  278  294 
320  334  343 

Amblaw        316 

Batumerah   317 

Bolanghitam        278  317 

Bugi              328 

Dyak             317  328 

Gah 

Ilocan 

Kayan 

Lariko 

Liang 

Macassar 

Magindano 

Massaratty 

Matabello 

Mayapo 

3i7 
294 

317 
317 
317 
216 
317 
306 
317 
306 

360 

328  344 

306  328 

Pangasinan 

Pampangas 

Salayer 

Saparua 

Sula 

Sulu 

Tagalog 

Teor 

Togean  Ids 

Wahai 

329 
321 

330 
3i7 
306 
294 
267  321 

3i7 
321 

3i7 

34i 

u-6 

Malay 

262 

u-v 

Malagasy 

335 

u-a 

Malay 

226  233  262 

u-we 
Awaiya 

330 

Batumerah 

330 

Caimarian 

330 

u-vri 
Amblaw 
Cajeli 

330 
330 

Massaratty 
Mayapo 

330 
330 

Morella 

33o 

a-yo 
Bicol 

330 

a-yu 

Malay 

3°  1 

NQ. 

"g-g 

Malay 

332 

Ilocan 

332 

ng-fc 

Malagasy 

336 

ng-n 

Malagasy 

Batumerah 

169  213  246 
274  308  346 
350 
350 

Caimarian 
Lariko 
Liang 
Morella 

35o 
350 
350 
350 

Saparua 

Teor 

Wahai 

35o 
35o 
35o 

ng-refe 

Satawal 

35o 

ng-rej 

Chamorri 

350 

K 

k-ch 
Malay 

224 

k-g 

Malay 

Bicol 

178  225  227 
297  299  302 
214 

Java 
Menado 

225 
300 

299 

Nicobar 
Tagalog 

300 
214 

k-h 

Malagasy 

249  258  297 
301  302  353 

Teor 

305 

306 

SAWAIORI  MATERIAL  IN  INDONESIA. 


157 


Java 

k-ng 

Malay 

k-ngk 
Malay 

k— 

Ahtiago 
Awaiya 


224 
181 
171 


300 
300 


Batumerah   300 
Caimarian     300  306 
Gani  300 


\-d 
Malay  260  261  272 

334  335  336 

364 
Malagasy       297  311  327 

348  350  364 


H. 


Togeanlds  308 
272 


l-kl 
Malay 


l-» 


Timor 


Us 

Malay 

1— 

Sulu 


n-h 
Kayan 

n-kn 
Kayan 


284 
220 
35o 

328 
259 


a-l 


Macassar       328 
296 


n-ng 

Malay 


n-nj 

Dyak 

n — 

Ilocan 


328 
290 


h-A 

Bolanghitam 

h-d 
Ilocan 
Java 


278 


339 
278  339 


n-y 


Java 


171 


Lariko  300 

Liang  300 

Matabello  300  306 

Morella  300  306 


Mysot 


Baju 
Baliyon 
Ilocan 
Kawi 


Java 
Wahai 

Tagalog 


306 


L. 


335 

335 
334 
334 


272 
312  350 

350 


Sassac 
Kisa 


343 
284 


Macassar      328 

H. 

Matabello     352 
Kaili  278 


Tagalog         353 


Saparua 
Teluti 
Tidore 
Wahai 


300 
300 
300 
300  306 


Macassar      327 
Matu  261 

Sulu  335 


Togean  Ids  284 


Wahai 
Tagalog 


3i7 
259 


Matabello     278 


278 


Silong 


339 


158 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


h-Z 


Amblaw 

278 

h-ndr 

Malagasy 

47 

h-»g 
Kisa 

278 

h-rer 

Bugi 

47 

h-r 

Malagasy 

278 

h-s 

Malay 

Ahtiago 

Amboyna 

Awaiya 

Bugi 

Buru 

Caimarian 

352 
352 
352 
352 
352 
352 
352 

h-t 

Satawal 

352 

h— 

Macassar 

352 

s-ch 

Malay 

45 

s-d 

Malay 

47  298 

s-g 
Malay 

132 

s-h 

Malay 
Malagasy 

233  337 
169  223 

Malay 

34i 

s-n 

Malagasy 

344 

s-ng 

Togean  Ids 

298 

Ceram 

352 

Chamorri 

352 

Galela 

352 

Gani 

352 

Guaham 

352 

Ilocan 

323 

Java 

352 

Sunda 


352 


S. 


Awaiya 
Java 


1 80 
342 


Malagasy       34 1 


Kawi 

352 

Kayan 

278 

Sanguir 

352 

Tidore 

352 

Tobo 

352 

Togean  Ids 

352 

Kayan  263 

Saparua         180 


Malagasy       29S 


s-t 


H 


Galela 


352 


Java  298 


Malay 

170  225 

Malagasy 

239 
T. 

Java 

225 

t-ch 
Malay 

237  268 

Sunda 

352 

t-d 
Malay 
Gah 

357  358 
329 

Java 
Matabello 

357 
329 

Timor 
Tobo 

329 
329 

Gani 


352 


Tidore 


352 


SAWAIORI  MATERIAL  IN  INDONESIA. 


t-h 


Satawal         294 


t-J 


Malagasy 

358 

Macassar 

352 

Tobo 

217 

t-k 
Malay 
Caimarian 

225 
329 

Java 
Kisa 

324 

318  323  324 

Teor 

35o 

t-m 
Gah 

217 

Mysot 

217 

t-n 

Java 
Kayan 

346 
346 

Massaratty 

217 

Mayapo 

217 

t-ndr 

Malagasy 

238 

t-nch 
Batak 

329 

t-nt 

Malay  216  222  256         Macassar       329 

Malagasy       256  Pangasinan  329 


t-s 


Malay  225  247  329 

Malagasy       324 


Buru 


352 


t-tj 


Bugi 


350 


t-ts 

Malagasy 

329 

t-2 

Malagasy 

47 

t— 

Malay               47 
Malagasy         47 
Amblaw         217 
Awaiya          217 
Bolanghitam         217 

Bouton 
Ahtiago 
Bugi 
Caimarian 

217 
217 

47 
217 

M. 

m-6 

Malay 

224  315  327 

Malagasy 

172 

m-h 

Tagalog 

327 

m-lm 
Menado 

313 

m-p 

Malay 

325 

m-v 

Malagasy 

327 

m-w 
Java 

224 

m — 

Visayas 

327 

Sambawa      329 
Sanguir         329 


Cajeli 
Lariko 
Liang 
Sanguir 


217 
217 
217 
352 


159 


160 


THE   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 


Malagasy 

307 

V-h 

Vaiqueno  East  291 

v-6 

Malay 

310 

y-f 

Malagasy 

281 

y-p 

Malay 

281 

y-w 

Malay 

307  31 

Ahtiago 

291 

Allor 

291 

Amblaw 

291 

Awaiya 

291 

Batumerah 

291 

Buru 

291 

Caimarian 

291 

Cajeli 

291 

Ceram 

291 

Baju 


291 


Malay 


291 


Dorey 

291 

Gani 

291 

Liang 

291 

Massaratty 

291 

Mayapo 

291 

Morella 

291 

Mysot 

291 

Rotti 

291 

Salibabo 

291 

Champa 

291 

Saparua  291 

Silong  291 

Solor  291 

Sulu  291 

Teluti  291 

Teor  291 

Togean  Ids  291 

Visayas  291 

Waigiou  291 


F. 


f-/ 


Malagasy 

233 

235 

254 

Massaratty 

290 

329  360 

Sulu 

290 

259 

273 

296 

Matabello 

259 

329  (ph) 

Teor 

36o 

Ahtiago 

329 

(ph) 

Mayapo 

290 

329  360 

Timor 

284 

Ceram 

329 

(ph) 

Satawal 

294 

Tobo 

329 

Gah 

329 

f-6 
Malay 

174 

175 

220 

Bugi 

360 

Molucca 

284 

222 

246 

272 

Cajeli 

360 

Salayer 

290  360 

273 

291 

292 

Gah 

290 

Salibabo 

290  360 

294 

360 

Ilocan 

290 

294 

Sanguir 

329  360 

Malagasy 

2  73 

314 

Kayan 

294 

Silong 

290  294 

Amblaw 

360 

Liang 

35o 

Sulu 

294 

Baju 

360 

Macassar 

290 

294 

Togean  Ids 

292  294 

Bicol 

292 

Madura 

290 

Visayas 

292 

Borneo 

360 

Menado 

360 

Waigiou 

290 

Bouton 

290 

f-ch 

Bouton 

259 

\-h 

Malay 

215 

Lariko 

290 

Sanguir 

290  (how). 

Malagasy 

213 

329 

Liang 

290 

Sula 

259 

Awaiya 

290 

Madura 

290 

Teluti 

290  360 

Caimarian 

290 

360 

Manatolo 

259 

Timor 

329 

Kisa 

259 

Morella 

290 

360 

Wahai 

360 

-m 
Bicol 

214 

Sulu 

214 

Tagalog 

214 

f-mb 
Cajeli 


290 


SAWAIORI  MATERIA!,  IN  INDONESIA. 


161 


1-p 


Malay 


Beu 
Bicol 


170  223  245 

287  288  296 

329 

243 

214 


t-s 


Brissi  West  259 


f-v 


Malagasy 


f-iw 

Bouton 

Bugi 

Gah 


246  273  282 
288  293  294 


290 
292 
360 


f— 

Batak  329 

Batumerah  290 

Caimarian  329 


Gani  290 

Java  288 

Kay  an  259 

Magindano    259 
Mysot  290 


Savo  259 

Ahtiago         290  360 


Java 
Kisa 


Macassar 
Salayer 


272  273  283 
290  360 

273  282  283 


329 
290 


Pangasinan  329 
Sambawa      329 
Saparua        290 
Tagalog         259  287 
Visayas         287 


Vaiqueno  East     259 


Kayan 


273 


Magindano    294 
Savu  294 

Teor  290 


Saparua        259 
Teluti  290 


V-P 

Malay 


Malagasy 
Amboyna 
Baliyon 

p-6 
Malay 


Malagasy 
Batavia 


P-/ 


Malagasy 
Aru 


183  217  241 

247  250  279 

289 

179  250 

190 

250 


45  171  176 
178  221  241 
286 
218 
243 


175 
284 


Basakrama  266  279 
Bicol  250 

Bugi  279 

Java  289 

Kawi  250 

Macassar       279 


Ilocan 
Java 
Kaili 
Salayer 


L,obo 
Rotti 


171  285 

284 
285 


284 
284 


Magindano  250 

Morella  190 

Saru  171 

Tagalog  250 

Teor  285 


Solor  284 

Tagalog  45 

Togean  Ids   284 
Tringanu      284 


Togean  Ids   284 


p-mb 

Malagasy       218 


p-v 

Malay 

p-w 
Gilolo 


128  284 
284 


Malagasy      171 


Kisa 

284 

Magindano 

284 

rontal  Abrasion: 

Malay 

47   177 

258 

Gah 

275  290 

290  291 

323 

Java 

290 

Malagasy 

177  325 

Kayan 

344 

Ahtiago 

217  290 

Massaratty 

350 

Amblaw 

217 

Matu 

35o 

Awaiya 

217 

Menado 

217 

Borneo 

350 

Morella 

217 

Cajeli 

290 

Mysot 

290 

Dyak 

312 

Nicobar 

300 

Utanata 

284 

Pampangas  328 

Salayer 

217 

Sanguir 

217 

Saparua 

217 

Sulu 

290 

Teluti 

217 

Teor 

217 

Wahai 

217 

Waigiou 

290 

162 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


Frontal  Accretion: 


Malay 

79  170  '75 

Gani 

312 

Salibabo 

312 

176  241  278 

Java 

274  278  321 

Sandol 

278 

304  321  337 

342 

Saparua 

180 

Malagasy 

175 

Lariko 

278 

Silong 

291 

Ahtiago 

305 

Liang 

278 

Sula 

278 

Awaiya 

180 

Macassar 

327 

Tagalog 

274 

295    321 

Baju 

278 

Magindano 

274  313  321 

Teor 

278 

Bicol 

274 

Menado 

300 

Ternati 

276 

Borneo 

300 

Morella 

278 

Tidore 

295 

300 

Bolanghitam         217 

Pampangas 

321 

Togean  Ids 

321 

Bouton 

305  306  313 

Pani 

295 

Visayas 

274 

Galela 

278 

Terminal  Abrasion: 

Malay 

79  132  170 

Gani 

290  312 

Kar  Nicobar 

324 

175  176  270 

Ilocan 

267 

Sirang 

312 

289  299  302 

Java 

299  357 

Tagalog 

214 

304  357 

Jobi 

312 

Teor 

306 

350 

Baliyon 

250  269 

Macassar 

35o 

Ternati 

276 

Bicol 

214 

Mayapo 

329 

Tobo 

329 

Bugi 

350 

Mysot 

217  290  306 

Waigiou 

290 

Dorey 

312 

312  324 

Gah 

312 

Terminal  Accretion: 

Malay 

128   171   177 

Borneo 

300 

Matabello 

259 

278    30O 

178  179  185 

Bouton 

217  257  300 

316 

317    324 

222  223  226 

305  312 

Matu 

267 

277    305 

227  228  237 

Brissi  West 

259 

336 

344 

239  245  247 

Bual 

278 

Mayapo  300  317  350  360 

248  250  255 

Bugi 

267  274  277 

Menado 

300 

256  260  266 

279  308  352 

Molucca 

284 

274  278  279 

Caimarian 

278  291  300 

Morella 

190 

291  300 

284  291   298 

3°6  33°  35° 

313 

33° 

300  305  308 

360 

Mysot 

291 

311  317  323 

Cajeli 

217  278  290 

Pampangas 

1  277 

278  327 

327  328  329 

313  3i7  360 

328 

353 

331   332  335 

Ceram 

278  329 

Pani 

295 

34'   352  353 

Dorey 

291 

Rotti 

278 

359  362  364 

Dyak 

317  324  328 

Salayer 

330 

Malagasy 

171   177   179 

Gah 

278  290  300 

Salibabo 

257 

278 

223  235  238 

316  317  324 

Salu 

278 

239  250  255 

329  33°  352 

Sambawa 

343 

258  260  267 

Gani 

291   300  317 

Sandol 

278 

273  274  278 

Gilolo 

284 

Sanguir 

217 

352  360 

298  302  308 

Guaham 

317 

Saparua 

180 

300  335 

314  320  335 

Ilocan 

277  284  300 

Silong 

290 

300  323 

338   341   353 

323  332  334 

324 

339 

355  362  364 

339  342 

Solor 

284 

Ahtiago 

217  300  306 
317  324  329 

Java 

171   267  274 
277  298  308 

Sulu 

267 

335 

308  317 

33°  360 

316  339  35° 

Tagalog  185  259 

267  274 

Amblaw 

217  278  300 

352  364 

277 

295  308 

317  330  36o 

Kawi 

250  352 

Teluti    21, 

7    291 

300  317 

Amboyna 

190 

Kayan 

259  277  278 

324 

33°  360 

Am 

284 

308  317  328 

Teor 

278 

285  300 

Awaiya 

257  278  291 

344 

305 

313  317 

300  317  330 

Kisa 

259  276  278 

324 

360 

Baju 

305  335 

312  313  324 

Tidore 

278 

300 

Baliyon 

308   335 

Lampong 

343 

Timor 

278    284 

Basakrama    250  279  350 

Lariko 

300 

Tobo 

217 

278 

Batavia 

243 

Liang 

300  313 

Togean  Ids   278 

284 

Batumerah    278  290  291 

Lobo 

284 

Tringanu 

284 

300  313  316 

Macassar 

216  267   279 

Utanata 

284 

324  33°  350 

353 

Visayas 

185 

274  278 

Beu 

243 

Magindanc 

)    259  274  284 

317 

327 

Bicol 

274  330 

308  317  340 

Wahai   278  300 

306  317 

Bolanghitam         217  317 

Massaratty   300  350  360 

324 

35°  3°o 

SAWAIORI   MATERIA!,   IN   INDONESIA. 


163 


ifixion: 

Amblaw 

3°o 

Gani 

278 

Salibabo 

278 

Awaiya 

278 

Ilocan 

277 

Salu 

278 

Baju 

278  301 

Java 

267  283 

Sandol 

278 

Basakrama 

250 

Kisa 

282  283 

Sulu 

267  335 

Batumerah 

278 

Lariko 

278 

Tagalog 

277 

Bual 

278 

Liang 

278 

Teor 

278  291 

Bugi 

277 

Massaratty 

329 

Tidore 

278 

Caimarian 

278 

Matu 

277 

Timor 

278 

Cajeli 

27S 

Mayapo 

329 

Tobo 

278 

Ceram 

27S 

Morella 

278 

Togean  Ids 

278 

Ende 

278 

Pampangas 

27S 

Visayas 

278 

Galela 

278 

Rotti 

278 

Wahai 

278 

etathesis: 
Malay 

316 

Ilocan 

346 

Sulu 

33° 

Malagasy 

316 

Java 

316 

Tagalog 

250 

Ahtiago 

33o 

Kawi 

250 

Teluti 

33° 

Baliyon 

250 

Macassar 

290 

Teor 

291 

Bicol 

250 

Silong 

290 

Wahai 

330 

Next  we  shall  compare  the  mutation  series  of  the  consonants  in 
Indonesia  with  the  variants  observed  in  the  Pacific  areas  as  set 
forth  in  the  tables  in  each  of  the  two  preceding  chapters.  The 
results  of  such  comparison  fall  under  the  several  following  classes : 


Indonesian  only. 

ng-fc 

k-^ngk 

xi-kn 

h-ng 

s-d 

s-rag 

t—ndr 

t-ts 

m-lm 

m — 

ng— nh 

\-kl 

n-nj 

h—nr 

s-g 

t-ch 

t-nch 

t-z 

m-p 

t-ch 

k-ch 

\-s 

Br-l 

h-r 

H 

t-g 

t-nt 

m-b 

m-w 

f— TO 

k-j 

n-h 

h—ndr 

s-ch 

s-n 

t-k 

t-tj 

m-h 

k-»g 


a-ng 


Indonesian-Polynesian. 


Indonesian-Melanesian. 


ng-g 

ag-nj 
k-h 

H 

n — 

h-/ 

h-d 

S~r 

s-t            t-n           v-f           v — 
t-d           m-^v          \-p          i-mb 
t-m          v-b 

I  ndonesian-Melanesian-Polynesian . 

f-s 
P-f 

p— mb 

p-v 

p-w 
P— 

ng-n 

k-g 
k— 

l-d 
\-n 
1— 

n-l 

a-ng 
n-h 

h-s          t-j          t —          v-w 
h—          t-s            v-h          f-6 
s-h           t-k 

i-h 
i-p 

f-v 
i-w 

f— 

p-b 

We  shall  forward  our  understanding  of  whatever  interrelation 
may  exist  among  these  three  several  language  groups  by  a  more 
detailed  examination  of  each  of  these  classes.  If  there  be  any  valid- 
ity in  the  theory  that  the  three  families  are  descendants  of  a  com- 
mon parent  we  should  look  for  confirmatory  evidence  in  the  amount 
of  their  concord  in  mutation  principles.  This  can  be  made  to  appear 
only  in  a  detailed  examination. 

In  Polynesia  we  have  seen  the  palatals  to  be  subject  to  but  slight 
derangement.  In  the  case  of  ng  the  more  frequent  mutations  are 
of  the  form  ng-n  and  ng — .  Only  the  former  extends  through  all 
these  families.     In  Polynesia  it  is  normal  in  Hawaii,  the  western 


164  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Marquesas,  and  Sikayana,  sporadic  in  Rotuma.  In  Melanesia  it  is 
not  normal  (with  a  possible  exception  in  the  case  of  Santo);  it  is 
traceable  through  the  languages  of  that  area  rather  as  a  quality 
with  which  a  certain  few  loan  words  are  endowed.  In  Indonesia  it 
is  seen  to  be  a  quality  of  talinga  (350) ;  in  Malagasy  only  is  it  suffi- 
ciently frequent  to  be  considered  as  a  speech  endowment ;  the  Mala- 
gasy words  in  which  this  mutation  is  found  are  all  identifiable  as 
Polynesian  material,  and  several  of  them  are  carried  with  the  same 
modification  through  Melanesia. 

In  Polynesia  the  mutation  ng-&  is  normal  in  the  eastern  Mar- 
quesas, sporadic  in  one  instance  in  Viti.  In  Melanesia  its  place  is 
taken  by  ng-g,  a  word  quality.     In  Indonesia  it  is  found  but  once. 

ng-n;  is  highly  problematical  in  the  sole  instance  in  which  it  is 
found  in  Aneityum.  Its  presence  in  the  Indonesian  rests  upon 
Tregear's  citation  talinga  (350)  ear  Chamorri  talanja,  against  which 
we  set  talanga  from  Fritz's  Chamorro  dictionary. 

ng-nh,  resting  on  longo  (336)  sound  Malagasy  rohona,  is  not  cer- 
tainly Sawaiori. 

ng-nh  in  talinga  (350)  ear  Satawal  talinhe  is  a  good  identification 
but  the  mutation  is  without  parallel. 

K. 

In  Polynesia  the  principal  variation  of  k  is  to  extinction,  this 
being  normal  in  Samoa,  Hawaii,  and  Tahiti,  and  not  unknown  in 
several  other  languages.  In  Melanesia  it  is  found  widely  extended 
as  a  word  quality;  in  Bululaha,  Saa,  Ugi,  and  Ulawa  it  appears 
as  a  speech  endowment,  these  being  in  the  region  of  crop  colonies 
in  the  Solomons.  In  Indonesia  it  appears  as  a  word  quality  of  but 
two  vocables. 

Of  the  k-g  mutation  we  have  record  of  but  a  single  instance, 
sporadic  in  the  Paumotu.  In  Melanesia  this  is  of  frequent  occur- 
rence and  in  many  languages  it  is  normal.  In  Indonesia  it  is  infre- 
quent outside  of  the  Malay,  a  speech  endowment  none  the  less 
though  sluggish;  the  Malay  and  Javanese  words  in  which  it  occurs 
are  Sawaiori,  those  in  other  languages  doubtful. 

k-h  is  of  rare  occurrence  in  Melanesia.  In  Indonesia  it  is  satis- 
factorily identified  in  Teor  and  in  some,  though  not  in  all,  of  its 
occurrences  in  Malagasy. 

k-ng  is  of  rare  occurrence  in  Polynesia,  equally  rare  in  Melanesia, 
and  its  single  appearance  in  the  Malay  is  not  a  wholly  satisfactory 
identification. 

k-ngk  practically  corresponds  to  the  k-ngg  found  four  times  in 
Viti,  rarely  in  Melanesia.  In  Indonesia  it  is  found  in  but  two 
vocables,  each  in  two  languages. 

k-ch  and  k-j  are  not  satisfactorily  identified. 


SAWAIORI  MATERIAL  IN  INDONESIA.  165 

L. 

Grouping  1  and  r  because  of  the  frequently  mentioned  impracti- 
cability of  establishing  a  stem  independence  in  our  present  data, 
we  note  that  in  Polynesia  the  most  frequent  mutation  is  the  extinc- 
tion. This  becomes  most  strongly  marked  in  the  Marquesas.  It 
is  infrequent  in  Melanesia.  In  Indonesia  it  appears  in  Sulu  and 
Tagalog  in  the  same  word,  talinga  (350)  ear,  and  in  the  Togean 
Islands  in  pula  (284)  to  shine,  at  least  the  \-y  mutation  noted  in 
that  instance  is  a  close  approximation  to  extinction. 

The  \-n  mutation  in  Polynesia  seems  more  a  word  quality,  for  it 
appears  in  two  languages  each  for  data  100,  154,  312,  313;  these 
removed  from  the  reckoning,  we  find  it  only  five  times,  all  in  Nukuoro. 
In  Melanesia  it  is  rare.  In  Indonesia  it  is  found  in  pula  (284)  to 
shine  Timor  funan  the  moon,  twice  in  Wahai;  these  three  words 
are  included  in  the  list  of  those  similarly  affected  in  Polynesia. 

The  long  leap  from  Ungual  semivowel  to  mute  of  the  same  series 
is  found  but  once  in  Polynesia  (l-t  Mangareva  287)  and  once  in  Viti 
(l-nd  287).  In  Melanesia  it  is  scarcely  more  frequent.  In  Indo- 
nesia l-t  does  not  occur;  \-d  appears  sporadically  in  several  lan- 
guages, one  instance  (350)  containing  the  greater  number  of  its 
Melanesian  occurrences  as  well.  This  mutation  is  most  marked  in 
Malay  (seven  times)  and  Malagasy  (five  times).  Of  the  Malay 
instances  but  two  (260,  334)  are  open  to  any  doubt,  of  the  Malagasy 
but  two  (348,  350)  are  really  convincing.  The  \-j  mutation,  really 
a  t- variation,  is  found  but  once  in  Indonesia,  three  times  in  two  lan- 
guages of  the  New  Hebrides,  and  not  at  all  in  Polynesia.  \-s  is  noted 
in  a  single  instance  in  Malay  and  very  unsatisfactory,  l-kl,  noted 
once  in  Malay  and  Java,  is  rather  an  accretion  than  a  mutation. 

N. 

The  variants  of  the  three  nasals  follow  two  cleavage  planes,  the 
vertical  in  series,  the  horizontal  across  all  series.  In  the  case  of 
ng  we  have  observed  as  well  ng-n  and  ng-k.  In  Polynesia  n  shows 
this  horizontal  movement  only  backward,  n-ng,  and  this  only  in 
Moriori  and  once  in  Viti.  In  Melanesia  n-ng  is  quite  widely  spread, 
affecting  several  vocables  and  most  of  them  repeated  in  several  lan- 
guages; here  is  found  in  one  instance  the  forward  n-m  mutation. 
In  Indonesia  the  n-ng  mutation  occurs  once  each  in  Malay,  Kisa, 
and  Tagalog,  the  Kisa  instance  doubtful. 

In  Polynesia  the  only  vertical  mutation  is  upward  in  the  series 
to  the  semivowel,  to/ina  single  word  in  two  languages,  to  r  in 
another  word  in  two  other  languages.  This  mutation  in  Melanesia 
has  a  wide  extenf  in  the  case  of  nifo  (259)  tooth,  and  is  less  widely 
found  in  three  other  of  our  data.  In  Indonesia  it  is  found  once  each 
in  Macassar,  Sassac,  and  Wahai,  the  latter  affecting  the  same  vocable 
as  in  Alite. 


166  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

The  extinction  of  n,  found  once  in  Marina,  is  highly  doubtful  in 
the  single  Indonesian  case  in  Jafine  (290)  woman  Ilocan  babai. 

The  n-l  in  Kayan,  n-nj  in  Dyak  and  Macassar,  and  n-y  in  Pam- 
pangas  are  found  only  in  the  vocable  (328)  which  in  Macassar  has 
also  afforded  an  instance  of  n-l  and  gives  n-ny  in  Melanesia.  The 
single  instance  of  k-kn  is  of  uncertain  nature. 

H. 

The  foregoing  tables  record  a  considerable  number  of  mutation 
forms  for  the  aspiration  in  Indonesia.  For  the  mutation  h-s,  no  less 
than  twenty- two  languages  afford  examples;  yet  on  closer  inspec- 
tion it  will  appear  that  in  the  latter  case  but  three  vocables  are  at 
all  involved,  and  that  six  vocables  only  are  involved  in  the  whole 
range  of  mutation  of  the  aspirate.  We  feel  justified,  therefore,  in 
regarding  this  as  partaking  more  of  word  quality  than  of  speech 
endowment.  In  Polynesia  the  aspiration  has  all  but  vanished; 
comparison  of  mutant  forms,  therefore,  would  be  futile,  the  only 
forms  common  to  the  three  families  being  h-s  and  extinction.  Mela- 
nesia, in  strong  contrast  with  each  family,  shows  a  marked  ten- 
dency to  employ  the  aspiration  in  its  proper  function ;  over  an  equal 
and  interlacing  area  it  follows  the  h-s  mutation.  Common  to  Indo- 
nesia and  Melanesia  are  these,  h-t,  h-d,  and  h-j,  the  two  latter  being 
variants  upon  the  primal  h-t  mutation;  the  vocables  involved  in 
these  changes  in  Indonesia  are  similarly  involved  in  Melanesia,  which 
has  a  few  in  addition  of  its  own.  Mutations  peculiar  to  Indonesia 
are  the  following :  h-l,  h — ,  h-m,  an  upward  movement  in  the  series, 
discoverable  only  in  the  two  vocables  recorded  in  our  data  under 
numbers  47  and  278;  regarding  ndr,  as  so  frequently,  in  the  light 
of  an  effort  to  compass  the  r  grasseye\  h-ndr  (Malagasy  47)  falls  into 
this  group.  In  Kisa  278  h-ng  is  explicable  as  the  upward  shift  h-n 
(which  is  nowhere  discoverable) ,  upon  which  is  added  the  rearward 
shift  n-ng;  confirmation  being  found  in  our  record  of  the  latter 
mutation  in  that  speech. 

S. 

The  sibilant  is  better  retained  in  Indonesia  than  in  Polynesia,  a 
facility  which  it  shares  with  Melanesia.  The  mutation  common  to 
the  three  families  is  s-h,  normal  to  at  least  eight  Polynesian  lan- 
guages, far  less  frequent  in  Melanesia,  and  in  Indonesia  affecting 
but  seven  vocables  in  six  languages.  Of  the  mutations  common  to 
Indonesia  and  Melanesia,  s-r  (found  in  Malagasy  and  Java  298) 
rests  doubtfully  on  Tanna  337;  and  s-t  is  found  in  Alite  and  Wango 
in  the  same  337.  Wholly  Indonesian  are  s-ch,  s-j,  s-d,  but  they 
group  naturally  with  s-t.  s-n  (Malagasy  344)  lacks  confirmation, 
s-ng  (Togean  298),  however,  seems  quite  feasible,  s-g  (Malay  132) 
is  very  doubtful. 


SAWAIORI  MATERIAL  IN  INDONESIA.  167 

T. 

Common  to  the  three  families  are  the  mutations  t-s  and  extinc- 
tion. The  former  is  quite  rare  in  Polynesia,  not  particularly  fre- 
quent in  Melanesia,  and  in  Indonesia  involves  but  five  vocables  in 
four  languages,  one  of  these  being  similarly  affected  in  four  of  the 
Melanesian  languages. 

t-k  is  the  rule  in  Hawaii,  rapidly  becoming  normal  in  Samoa,  well 
established  in  Melanesia,  and  somewhat  common  in  Indonesia,  t-; 
is  well  established  in  Tonga ;  Melanesia  shows  it  in  Baki  and  Male- 
kula;  its  use  in  Indonesia  is  but  slight;  with  it  should  be  grouped 
the  t-ch  of  Malay,  t-tj  of  Bugi,  and  t-nch  of  Batak. 

For  the  extinction  of  t  we  muster  but  a  single  example  in  Poly- 
nesia (Marquesas  350),  quite  a  respectable  number  of  instances  in 
Melanesia,  but  its  Indonesian  record  is  almost  exclusively  written 
in  217,  a  doubtful  case  as  will  be  seen  in  the  discussion  of  the  note 
thereupon. 

In  the  forms  common  to  Indonesia  and  Melanesia  t-d  is  the  sim- 
plest variant,  rather  widely  (including  t-nd)  disseminated  in  Mela- 
nesia, in  Indonesia  involving  but  three  vocables  in  six  languages. 
t-m  in  both  families  rests  wholly  upon  the  doubtful  217.  t-n  in 
Melanesia  is  found  only  in  New  Ireland  329;  in  Indonesia  it  rests 
soundly  on  346  (Java  and  Kayan)  and  doubtfully  on  217. 

Of  forms  wholly  Indonesian,  t-nt  is  not  infrequent  and  is  under- 
stood as  a  nasal  reinforcement  of  the  mute,  t-ts  and  t-z  are  met 
with  but  once  apiece,  both  in  Malagasy,  t-h  (once  in  Satawal)  may 
be  regarded  as  a  secondary  mutation  of  the  t-s  hitherto  noted.  For 
t-ndr  we  find  but  one  example,  in  the  Malagasy,  yet  it  is  quite 
satisfactory,  t-g,  a  violent  mutation,  rests  upon  a  single  vocable 
(352)  in  Galela,  Gani,  and  Tidore. 

M. 

The  mutations  of  m  need  scarcely  engage  our  attention  in  this 
rapid  review.  Polynesia  affords  but  a  single  instance;  in  Indonesia 
but  five  vocables  are  involved ;  even  in  Melanesian  crudity  of  speech 
m  is  almost  constant. 

V. 

The  v-mutations  common  to  all  three  families  are  \-w  and  v-h. 
In  Polynesia  v-w  has  become  normal  in  Maori,  Hawaii,  and  Viti; 
in  Melanesia  it  is  satisfactorily  established  over  a  wide  area  or  sev- 
eral areas  interlaced  by  this  mutation;  in  Indonesia  it  rests  almost 
wholly  on  vai  (291),  a  word  quality  at  best.  The  Indonesian  \-h 
rests  wholly  upon  this  vai,  in  a  single  instance;  it  is  found  in  Mela- 
nesia in  but  one  vocable  in  two  languages;  our  Polynesian  data 
afford  us  only  three  instances. 


168  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Of  the  forms  common  to  Indonesia  and  Melanesia  v-/  is  scantily 
represented  in  either;  \-b  in  a  solitary  Malay  instance  is  rather  more 
common  in  Melanesia;  x-p,  once  in  Malay,  occurs  in  but  two  vocables 
in  Melanesia;  and  v  extinct  is  represented  in  Melanesia  by  one 
vocable  in  two  languages  and  in  Indonesia  by  the  somewhat  doubt- 
ful Malay  and  Champa  identifications  of  vai. 


In  Polynesia  the  most  common  f-mutations  are  i-h,  normal  in 
Hawaii,  Mangareva,  Maori,  and  Tongarewa;  and  f  extinct,  normal 
in  Bukakuka,  Mangaia,  and  Rarotonga.  In  Indonesia  i-h  involves 
but  six  vocables  in  fifteen  languages,  in  Melanesia  it  is  more  frequent. 
The  extinction  of  f  in  Indonesia  is  found  in  four  vocables  in  seven 
languages,  in  Melanesia  in  eight  vocables  in  eight  languages. 

i-b  is  met  with  but  twice  in  Polynesia;  including  f-mb,  it  is  rather 
more  common  in  Melanesia,  is  frequent  in  Malay  and,  with  narrower 
application,  quite  generally  extended  over  Indonesia.  Closely  asso- 
ciated with  this  is  i-p,  twice  appearing  in  a  single  vocable  in  Poly- 
nesia, widely  extended  in  several  Melanesian  instances,  frequent  in 
Malay,  and  of  considerable  extent  in  other  Indonesian  languages. 
i-v  is  normal  in  Viti ;  in  all  the  rest  of  Polynesia  involves  but  five 
vocables  in  eight  languages ;  is  very  common  in  Melanesia ;  in  Indo- 
nesia is  found  several  times  in  Malagasy  and  rarely  in  Malaysia. 
i-w,  once  met  with  in  two  Polynesian  languages,  is  very  common 
in  Melanesia ;  in  Indonesia  is  found  several  times  in  Java  and  rarely 
in  Seven  other  languages,  is  is  common  to  Indonesia  and  Melanesia , 
but  is  rare  in  each,  i-ch  is  peculiar  to  Indonesia  and  rests  upon  a 
single  and  satisfactory  example,  Bouton  259.  The  i-m  mutation 
(214)  is  most  uncertain. 

P. 

The  only  mutation  common  to  the  three  families  is  p-b.  For  this 
Polynesia  yields  but  few  examples;  including  p-mb  it  is  by  far  the 
most  frequent  Melanesian  variant;  it  is  frequent  in  Malay  and  nar- 
rowly extends  to  ten  other  languages  of  Indonesia,  p-/  appears  in 
but  a  single  Melanesian  example;  in  a  single  vocable  it  appears  in 
four  languages  of  the  Malay  Archipelago  and  doubtfully  once  in 
Malagasy,  p-v  has  a  somewhat  wide  distribution  in  Melanesia,  but 
is  rare  in  Indonesia,  p-w  appears  once  in  Gilolo  and  in  the  same 
vocable  in  the  New  Hebrides,  in  another  in  Buka.  The  extinction 
of  p  involves  the  same  vocable  in  three  Indonesian  and  one  Mela- 
nesian languages. 

In  the  Indonesian  check-list  I  have  distinguished  in  bold-faced 
type  the  vocables  which  appear  in  Malayan  tongues  with  the  quality 
factor  of  recognizability  by  the  Samoan,  of  which  I  have  made  such 


SAWAIORI   MATERIAL   IN   INDONESIA.  169 

use  in  treating  of  the  Melanesian  languages.  Beyond  this  record 
of  quality  I  hesitate  to  tread  upon  a  field  already  so  well  cultivated 
by  its  own  specialists;  yet  in  so  far  as  this  area  is  involved  in  the 
erection  of  a  Malayo-Polynesian  speech  family  it  is  a  fair  field  for 
the  Sawaiori  student.  Since  we  have  now  brought  one  ethnic  swarm 
of  Polynesian  voyagers  back  to  the  threshold  of  Indonesia  at  two 
doorways  respectively,  and  have  made  it  plain  that  the  later  Tonga- 
fiti  swarm  has  found  its  exit  elsewhere  than  at  these  identified  por- 
tals, we  are  amply  justified  in  our  examination  of  Indonesia  so  long 
as  our  search  is  restricted  to  the  replevin  of  Sawaiori  material. 

The  prominent  numerals  in  the  preceding  list  make  it  wholly  mani- 
fest that  the  Polynesian  and  the  Indonesian  have  at  some  place  and 
at  some  time  been  in  intimate  contact.  That  this  place  of  inter- 
mingling was  not  the  Pacific  is  equally  manifest,  for  the  Pacific 
languages  contain  no  elements  of  Indonesian  origin  save  this  scanty 
collection  picked  out  of  Polynesian  and  Melanesian.  A  second  line 
of  proof  lies  in  the  consistent  tradition  of  the  Polynesians  that  they 
came  over  seas  on  a  long  voyage  from  the  west. 

Restricted,  then,  to  Indonesia  as  the  place  of  mingling,  we  must 
first  examine  the  history  of  the  two  races.  Of  the  Malay  race  we 
know,  for  their  records  of  their  own  history  show  it,  that  Indonesia 
was  not  the  place  of  their  origin.  Upon  it  they  are  intruders ;  from 
the  Asiatic  main  they  came  by  the  easy  path  of  the  Malay  Peninsula. 
So  far  as  the  traditions  of  Java  can  be  reduced  to  a  measure  of 
synchronism,  we  can  fix  Java  as  uninhabited  by  Malayans  about 
400  B.  c,  and  a  century  later  settled  by  20,000  families  emigrating 
from  northwest  India  under  Arishtan  Shar  and  dispersing  to  Mala- 
bar, the  Maldives  and  Madagascar;  a  large  emigration  from  the 
Panjab  to  the  archipelago  between  200  and  150  b.  c. ;  and  by  125 
b.  c.  the  archipelago  overrun  with  these  races. 

As  concerns  the  Sawaiori  we  lack  all  but  the  most  indefinite  infor- 
mation before  their  sojourn  in  Indonesia.  We  do  not  regard  them 
as  autochthons,  for  their  traditions  call  for  a  migration  yet  earlier. 
But  we  are  fairly  entitled  to  regard  them  as  in  possession  of  the 
islands  from  Sumatra  to  the  Philippines  at  the  time  of  the  Malaysian 
swarm.  All  indicia  point  to  their  retreat  before  the  swarm  advanc- 
ing upon  their  western  flank,  the  only  lines  of  retreat  open  to  them 
being  in  the  eastern  quadrants. 

It  is  difficult  for  us  to  arrive  at  the  comprehension  of  the  expulsion 
of  a  race  from  its  home.  We  have  to  go  back  to  rude  times  to  find 
ground  for  the  belief  that  such  things  can  be,  to  the  swarming  of 
the  Huns  upon  Europe  reported  to  us  in  the  testimony  of  eye- 
witnesses and  sufferers  at  the  bloody  hands  of  Attila.  Without 
detail  we  have  accepted,  with  dull  imaginations  and  no  great  com- 
prehension, the  westward  movement  of  the  Aryan  races. 


170  THE   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 

Such  movements  we  denominate  ethnic  swarms;  a  convenient 
designation !  no  hesitation  has  been  felt  in  employing  it  in  the  fore- 
going chapters.  But  in  denomination  do  we  really  describe?  In 
calling  the  movement  of  the  Sawaiori  an  ethnic  swarm  do  we  get 
sight  of  the  nature  of  the  movement  ? 

In  the  hydraulic  physics  of  geography  Niagaras  are  rare;  few 
streams  go  tumbling  over  cliffs  in  a  mass ;  the  course  of  the  greatest 
rivers  is  marked  by  many  an  eddy,  many  a  backwater,  many  a  pool 
where  motion  scarcely  appears.  It  is  only  in  the  errant  fancy  of 
the  runaway  child  that  tired  feet  on  a  weary  way  will  at  last  bring 
him  to  a  real  jumping-off  place.  A  stream  of  human  migration  can 
only  flow  in  succeeding  waves;  many  an  eddy  current  will  bear  on 
a  new  destination. 

Particularly  must  such  have  been  the  case  with  the  expulsion  of 
the  Sawaiori  before  the  Malay.  In  bulk  and  in  the  end  it  did  indeed 
become  a  great  ethnic  swarm.  In  detail  and  in  the  performance  it 
could  have  been  no  more  than  affairs  of  outposts. 

The  genius  of  Polynesian  culture  has  nowhere  as  yet  touched  the 
idea  of  a  national  life.  Samoa  is  almost  singular  in  the  possession 
of  a  collective  name  for  its  archipelago;  the  Samoan,  the  Viti,  the 
Marquesan,  and  the  Maori  are  alone  in  the  possession  of  national 
names.  Civic  righteousness  goes  not  beyond  the  village;  village 
does  not  go  to  the  relief  of  village  in  distress;  there  is  even  now 
nowhere  a  nation  to  arise  in  unity  to  set  a  bold  and  united  front 
against  an  invader.  Each  tiny  village  makes  its  own  defense.  Vic- 
torious it  holds  its  ground  until  the  next  attack;  defeated  it  is  a 
sufficiently  mobile  unit  to  set  forth  in  search  of  a  new  home.  We 
must  remember  that  such  were  the  conditions  of  the  Sawaiori  in 
the  archipelago  when  the  Malay  in  a  similar  wise  were  advancing 
upon  them. 

Under  such  conditions  there  are  three  main  possibilities.  A  Sawai- 
ori village  resists  attack  after  attack,  maintains  its  good  defense, 
retains  the  little  islet  or  the  pleasant  bay  of  some  larger  island  which 
is  its  home,  is  surrounded  by  settlements  of  the  alien  race,  in  time 
peaceful  relations  arise.  A  Sawaiori  village  realizes  that  resistance 
is  futile,  puts  out  to  sea,  seeks  a  new  home.  A  Sawaiori  village, 
debellated  in  some  sudden  onfall  or  by  the  crush  of  overwhelming 
force,  goes  down  in  defeat,  and  the  sole  survivors,  the  noncombatant 
women  and  children,  are  incorporated  with  the  conquerors. 

The  second  event  accounts  for  our  wanderers  over  sea,  those  whose 
voyages  we  have  traced  through  Melanesia  and  into  their  present 
Polynesian  homes.  The  first  and  third  events  are  to  account  for 
such  speech  community  as  may  be  found  in  Indonesia  and  Polynesia. 

It  is  not  a  great  community.  There  are  very  few  items  which 
are  not  included  in  the  data  here  assembled.     See  what  a  small  basis 


SAWAIORI   MATERIAL   IN   INDONESIA.  171 

it  forms  for  the  erection  of  a  Malayo-Polynesian  family.  In  the 
Malay  itself,  the  speech  of  which  we  have  the  longest  record  and 
the  fullest  comprehension,  there  are  but  75  vocables  safely  identified 
as  common  in  these  data  to  the  two  families.  Making  the  most  gen- 
erous allowance,  a  lavish  allowance,  for  the  vocables  which  evaded 
compilation  under  the  conditions  of  this  research,  we  can  only  thus 
doubtfully  find  a  community  of  150  words. 

We  are  to  consider  the  source  of  this  petty  common  vocabulary. 
In  the  analysis  of  the  possibilities  it  may  have  been  borrowed  from 
Indonesia  by  the  Sawaiori  during  their  joint  occupancy  of  that  area ; 
it  may  have  been  delivered  to  each  from  a  common  source.  It  may 
have  been  contributed  by  the  Sawaiori  to  their  Malaysian  conquer- 
ors, by  such  of  the  Sawaiori  as  persisted  as  inclusions  in  the  Indo- 
nesian settlement,  it  being  well  understood  that  sooner  or  later  they 
were  absorbed  in  the  alien  culture  and  outside  this  linguistic  record 
have  left  no  mark,  or  at  best  a  scarcely  measurable  trace. 

If  the  Malay  peoples  advancing  upon  the  Sawaiori  peoples  whom 
they  found  in  possession  of  the  islands  of  the  Indian  Archipelago 
forced  their  vocables  upon  the  folk  whom  it  was  their  pleasure  and 
to  their  interest  to  scatter  before  them,  then  we  are  at  an  utter  loss 
to  comprehend  the  nature  of  such  intercourse,  for  it  is  not  in  one 
generation  nor  yet  in  three  that  a  people  adopts  any  considerable 
element  of  an  alien  speech.  Furthermore,  if  the  Sawaiori  borrowed 
directly  from  the  Indonesian,  incomprehensible  as  such  a  contin- 
gency is,  we  should  expect  to  find  the  greatest  range  of  variety,  the 
widest  divergence  from  phonetic  principles,  among  the  several  divi- 
sions of  the  borrowing  race,  the  closest  uniformity  among  the  lenders. 
Yet  in  the  case  of  each  of  these  seventy-five  vocables  here  discussed 
the  Polynesian  keeps  the  word  practically  without  alteration;  in  Indo- 
nesia the  range  of  variety  is  enormous*  The  nature  of  the  Indonesian 
variety  is  plain  to  see  in  the  phonetic  tables  heretofore  drafted. 

We  note  three  types,  and  careful  study  of  the  tables  will  show 
that  all  variants  fall  under  one  or  other  of  these  types. 

First :  phonetic  variation  recognizable  as  a  Polynesian  type.  This 
may  mean  that  dialectic  variation  in  the  Sawaiori  material  existed 
at  the  time  when  the  two  races  had  the  word  in  common,  a  very 
possible  contingency.  It  may  mean  that  in  the  word  itself  was  a 
disposition  or  motion  toward  a  certain  type  of  mutation  which  was 
carried  over  with  the  loan,  a  contingency  almost  impossible,  for  we 
have  yet  to  learn  of  an  instinct  in  the  word ;  the  Sprachgeist  resides 
in  the  speaker. 

Second:  incorporation  upon  the  common  stem  of  formative  ele- 
ments distinctively  Malaysian.  This  sort  of  thing  is  very  common 
in  all  speech,  markedly  characteristic  of  our  own  English  in  its  word- 
pilfering  from  every  source. 


172  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Third :  modification  of  the  common  stem  by  mutation  unusual  to 
the  Indonesian  phonetic  and  probably  representing  the  resultant  of 
an  effort  to  reproduce  foreign  sounds  difficult  to  the  borrower's  vocal 
organs. 

Similarly  we  should  expect  to  find  a  word  delivered  by  the  Malay- 
sians to  the  Sawaiori  diminishing  in  frequency  along  the  wide  eastern 
extent  of  the  migration,  practically  constant  in  Indonesia  itself. 
The  answer  thereto  is  patent  in  the  check-list :  Polynesia  holds  each 
of  these  words  practically  to  its  utmost  east ;  it  is  Indonesia  which 
shows  great  gaps. 

We  can  not,  therefore,  regard  the  common  vocabulary  as  in  any 
sort  borrowed  by  Sawaiori  from  Indonesia. 

To  the  theory  of  derivation  from  a  common  parent  the  objections 
are  insuperable.  A  common  parent  would  have  delivered  a  greater 
community  of  vocabulary,  would  have  delivered  a  grammatical  sys- 
tem that  would  show  some  interrelation  between  the  two  branches 
of  the  family.  There  is  absolutely  no  record  of  a  speech  of  man 
which  contains  these  few  vocables  which  Polynesia  and  Indonesia 
share,  for  it  must  be  plain  long  ere  this  point  is  reached  that  the 
Semitic  theory  has  no  sound  base. 

The  third  possibility  is  that  to  which  alone  the  objections  are  so 
few  and  so  slight  as  readily  to  yield  to  the  study  of  the  problem, 
namely,  that  the  community  of  vocabulary  is  Indonesian  borrowing 
from  Sawaiori.  How  this  might  be  brought  about  has  sufficiently 
been  indicated  already  in  the  consideration  of  the  nature  and  extent 
of  the  Sawaiori  expulsion. 

The  indication  of  quality  of  such  borrowed  material  presented  in 
the  check-list  affords  more  matter  of  interest.  As  in  our  study  of 
the  Melanesian  traverse  it  indicates  by  lines  of  higher  quality  the 
lines  of  travel. 

Assuming,  and  this  the  well-recorded  traditions  of  Java  warrant — 
assuming  the  appulse  of  the  advancing  Malaysians  as  delivered  upon 
the  islands  of  the  archipelago  by  the  convenient  way  of  the  Malay 
Peninsula,  Sumatra  first  would  feel  the  shock,  and  Java  next  in 
practically  undiminished  volume.  From  Java  two  eastward  ways 
lie  out  like  a  <.  The  northern  line,  following  the  north  shore 
of  Borneo,  leads  directly  to  the  Philippines;  following  the  south 
shore  of  that  great  island  leads  equally  to  the  Philippines  in  their 
southern  extent,  but  affords  many  opportunities  of  deviation  by 
Celebes  toward  Gilolo  northward  and  toward  Bum  and  Ceram  in 
a  southerly  course,  and  there  the  flight  would  be  stopped  by  the 
inhospitality  of  New  Guinea  with  the  obstacle  of  its  fierce  and 
immiscible  Papuan  race. 

The  southern  line  leads  directly  into  the  Arafura  Sea  and  Torres 
Straits.     The  halting-places  are  such  islands  as  Bali,  Lombok,  Rotti, 


SAWAIORI  MATERIAL  IN   INDONESIA.  173 

Samba wa,  Timor,  and  lesser  groups  yet  farther  east.  In  the  Arafura 
Sea  the  southern  line  would  be  joined  by  such  of  the  fugitives  along 
the  northern  line  as  deviated  on  the  Celebes-Buru-Ceram  course  and 
were  turned  still  further  away  by  New  Guinea. 

New  Guinea  is  no  theoretical  obstacle.  We  find  less  trace  of  the 
Sawaiori  on  its  almost  continental  mass  than  upon  any  spot  of  land 
which  their  canoes  could  have  reached  in  the  flight.  Even  up  to 
the  present  day  the  Malays,  for  two  millenniums  holding  all  of 
Indonesia  and  voyaging  hither  and  yon  for  the  equal  joys  of  fighting 
and  of  trading,  have  succeeded  in  making  no  permanent  lodgment 
upon  the  Papuan  shore. 

The  Sawaiori  flight  out  of  Indonesia  inverts  the  seasonal  migration 
of  the  geese — its  <  opens  forward.  Thus  parted,  approximately  at 
Java,  it  is  to  be  a  long  flight  before  those  diverging  lines  come 
together,  not  until  Samoa  is  reached  and  a  new  home  for  the  united 
race,  for  such  at  least  as  have  escaped  the  infinite  perils  of  unknown 
seas.  It  will  be  recalled  that  in  the  study  of  the  migration  through 
Melanesia  the  material  under  examination  was  assembled  to  prove 
the  existence  of  a  northern  and  a  southern  track,  the  Samoa  and 
the  Viti  streams  respectively,  one  emerging  from  Indonesia  through 
an  eastern  portal  in  the  Bismarck  Archipelago,  the  other  through  a 
southern  portal  in  Torres  Straits. 

The  latter  is  readily  recognizable  as  the  direct  production  of  the 
southern  line  of  flight  in  Indonesia.  If  we  examine  such  vocables 
as  exhibit  a  difference  between  the  two  streams  in  Melanesia  we 
shall  find  that  those  which  characterize  the  northern  stream  find 
their  greatest  frequency,  preserve  the  highest  quality,  in  the  several 
languages  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  Bicol,  Ilocan,  Magindano, 
Pampangas,  Sulu,  Tagalog,  Visayan  and  others  from  which  our 
material  is  less  complete. 

It  seems  that  now  it  is  time  to  relinquish  the  term  Malayo-Poly- 
nesian.  There  is  neither  ethnic  nor  linguistic  unity.  If  the  Indo- 
nesians in  the  paucity  of  their  original  speech  have  borrowed  some 
150  vocables  from  their  victims,  if  they  have  been  willing  to  take 
even  their  numerals  from  a  conquered  and  fugitive  race,  it  does  not 
seem  that  they  are  entitled  to  be  bracketed,  and  that  with  the 
honors  of  first  mention,  with  a  distinct  family  of  speech.  The  Poly- 
nesian is  an  older  speech  than  the  Indonesian,  one  that  has  been 
carried  greater  distances  of  sea  and  land  than  even  our  Aryan  until 
after  centuries  the  Aryans  grew  bold  enough  to  conquer  the  sea; 
yet  uncounted  generations  earlier  the  sea  had  been  the  easy  path 
for  the  Sawaiori  to  come  to  his  Polynesian  own. 


CHAPTER  IX. 
THE  SAWAIORI  BEGINNING  RESTS  UNKNOWN. 

Check-list  of  the  Semitic  words  for  which  affinity  has  been  sought — 
Failure  of  the  effort  to  identify  this  material  with  Sawaiori  stock — 
The  reasons  lie  in  false  definitions  and  ignorance  of  phonetic  prin- 
ciples— The  Semitic  does  not  conform  to  the  laws  of  the  family — - 
Summation  of  the  results  of  this  inquiry — The  two  Sawaiori  swarms, 
the  earlier  through  Melanesia,  the  latter  not  yet  discovered  on  the 
face  of  the  trackless  sea — The  double  migration  track  in  the  western 
Pacific — The  problem  of  the  Melanesians  has  been  considered  only 
in  so  far  as  they  have  been  affected  by  the  wandering  Sawaiori — End 
of  the  classification  which  has  joined  Malay  and  Polynesian — The  be- 
ginning of  the  great  Polynesian  race  is  lost  in  westward  and  empty  sea. 

As  in  the  earlier  chapters,  we  provide  a  check-list  of  the  various 
Semitic  identifications  sought  to  be  established  by  Dr.  Macdonald 
in  the  data  here  collated.  Thus  those  still  curious  in  the  further 
examination  of  the  theme  may  follow  the  topic  back  to  the  several 
languages  which  he  has  involved  in  the  elucidation  of  his  theory. 

Arabic.  13  17  18  19  21  22  23  25  26  29  30  31  32  34 

35  36  37  38  42  43  44  45  4»  47  80  83  84  85 

86  88  89  90  91  92  93  97  98  99  100  101  102  103 

104  105  106  107  108  no  in  112  114  116  117  120  133  135 

136  137  138  139  140  142  143  144  145  146  150  151  152  153 

154  156  158  160  162  164  165  166  168  170  171  172  173  174 

175  176  178  180  181  182  183  184  185  186  187  188  189  192 

193  194  195  196  197  198  199  200  202  205  206  207  210  211 

212  220  221  222  224  225  226  227  228  229  231  232  234  235 

236  237  238  239  240  241  242  243  244  245  246  247  249  250 

251  252  253  254  255  256  257  258  259  260  262  263  264  265 

266  267  268  269  270  271  272  273  274  275  276  277  278  279 

280  281  282  283  284  285  287  288  289  295  296  297  298  299 

301  303  304  305  306  309  311  312  313  314  315  316  317  3i8 

319  321  322  323  324  325  326  327  328  329  330  331  332  333 

334  335  336  337  339  340  34 1  342  343  344  345  346  34§  349 

350  35i  352  353  354  355  356  358  359  3&i  363  3&4  365 

Hebrew,  n  14  15  19  20  21  27  28  32  38  42   46  81  82 

86  90  91  95  96  98  106  118  134  141  145  146  147  '48 

156  157  161  163  171  177  179  181  188  189  190  193  198  201 

203  204  208  209  211  212  218  219  223  224  225  233  235  236 

239  242  248  253  269  271  276  279  282  286  288  289  291  292 

293  294  298  300  301  303  304  307  308  310  311  314  3 '5  317 

319  320  321  326  331  333  336  338  340  343  344  347  350  356 

357  358  360  364 

Ethiopic.  11  12  27  44  87  98  113  115  119  J36  149  J56  160  173 

189  191  230  243  248  261  264  276  287  291  294  303  308  3" 

321  333  342  358  362 

Syriac. ..  16  94  101  106  159  171  '77  '79  188  248  267  282  298  302 

317  321  33i  333  340  343  35o 

Chaldee..  33  160  303  321  350 

Aramaic.  203  208  338  360 

Amharic.280  329  363 

Mahri...i67  312 

Sokotra  .312 

Tigre....ii9  175 


176  THE   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 

Beyond  this  we  may  not  venture.  The  effort  has  been  made  to 
tabulate  for  each  of  these  languages  a  scheme  of  consonant  mutation, 
and  the  effort  has  proved  vain.  The  trouble  begins  even  earlier  than 
the  tabulation  of  variant  forms. 

There  are  cases  in  which  there  is  a  resemblance  of  form  between 
some  Semitic  vocable  and  some  vocable  in  Efate"  and  Melanesia  and 
Polynesia.  If  to  the  form  resemblance  were  added  correspondence 
in  signification,  then  we  should  not  truly  in  any  one  instance  have 
proof  that  though  widely  separated  in  space  they  are  homogenetic. 
A  single  instance  will  suffice  as  well  as  a  thousand  to  show  the  utter 
lack  of  evidential  value  in  such  a  case.  The  Hawaiian  like  means, 
to  resemble,  to  be  like,  yet  no  one  has  yet  arisen  to  predicate  upon 
the  double  identity  of  form  and  sense  a  theory  that  Hawaiian  and 
English  derive  from  the  same  source,  except  in  so  far  as  Fornander's. 
project  might  be  susceptible  of  extension  to  such  an  absurdity. 

A  long  catena  of  such  dual  resemblances  of  the  common  element 
in  Melanesian  and  Polynesian  with  a  Semitic  parent  speech  would 
add  confirmation  with  each  new  link  as  welded  to  the  chain.  Yet 
the  weakness  of  any  chain  is  in  its  weakest  link ;  that  weakness  meas- 
ures its  utmost  strength.  Many  of  these  links  have  been  vitiated 
by  the  falsity  in  definition  hitherto  animadverted  upon.  We  have 
pointed  out  instance  upon  instance  in  which  through  ignorance,  some 
through  manifest  design,  the  definition  of  Efate"  vocables  has  been 
distorted  for  the  clear  purpose  of  establishing  a  sense  resemblance 
where  a  form  resemblance  has  already  been  noted,  either  by  eyesight 
or  in  a  rather  fertile  imagination.  Losing  our  faith  in  this  link  and 
in  that  we  can  place  no  trust  at  all  in  the  chain.     So  much  for  that. 

We  find  Semitic  triliterals  proposed  as  the  parents  of  vocables  in 
our  Pacific  islands  in  which  the  consonantal  skeleton  consists  of  but 
a  single  consonant,  or  of  two.  We  find  island  vocables  having  a 
skeleton  of  three  consonants  proposed  as  in  direct  descent  from 
Semitic  stems  in  which  it  is  impossible  to  discover  a  trace  of  more 
than  two  consonants,  sometimes  not  even  two.  We  find  some  Sem- 
itic triliterals  identified  with  triconsonantal  stems  in  island  languages, 
in  which  the  order  of  the  consonants  is  deranged.  We  find  some 
Semitic  triliterals  identified  with  triconsonantal  island  stems  in 
which  the  first  Semitic  element  has  vanished,  the  second  and  third 
are  respectively  first  and  second  in  the  island  stem,  to  which  is  added 
a  third  which  corresponds  to  nothing  in  the  Semitic;  expressed  dia- 
grammatically  it  is  sought  to  establish  ABC  as  equal  to  BCD. 

In  vain  we  strive  to  unravel  Dr.  Macdonald's  attempts  at  con- 
sistent explanation.  These  things  remain  a  tissue  of  irreconcilables, 
and  the  explanation  but  serves  the  more  to  confound  them. 

Pretermitting  as  hopeless  the  task  of  comprehending  these  anoma-  - 
lies  so  gravely  proposed  and  so  argued  with  what  must  be  regarded 


THE  SAWAIORI  BEGINNING  RESTS  UNKNOWN.  177 

as  fabrications  which  will  stand  under  no  law  of  evidence,  assuming 
that  these  obliquities  can  be  made  straight,  we  are  to  encounter  a  new 
jungle  of  difficulties  in  the  examination  of  phonetic  mutation. 

We  have  been  able  to  develop  for  the  Polynesian  a  very  simple 
system.  In  the  primary  and  even  in  the  secondary  Melanesian 
borrowings  of  Sawaiori  loan  material  we  have  developed  a  system 
that  seems  to  hold  good  as  far  as  it  can  be  put  to  the  test,  and  this 
despite  the  confusions  of  the  attempt  of  the  Melanesians  to  catch 
in  unaccustomed  ears  and  to  reproduce  with  untrained  organs  of 
speech,  above  all  the  lips,  sounds  unfamiliar.  We  have  subjected 
the  diffusion  of  these  elements  in  various  Indonesian  languages  to 
the  same  analysis. 

What  principle  or  principles  of  mutation  have  we  been  able  to 
discover  in  this  trine  examination  as  a  factor  common  to  the  three 
families  which  use  this  common  stock  of  vocables  and  which  possess 
them  in  fee  or  as  bailee?  They  are  but  few,  these  principles;  corre- 
spondingly they  are  simple : 

i.  The  nasals  tend  toward  a  mutation, if  any,  backward  in  the  direc- 
tion of  the  glottis.  Less  frequent  is  variety  in  the  series  to  which 
each  belongs.     The  mutation  is  horizontal  rather  than  vertical. 

2.  The  consonants  in  each  of  the  series  tend  normally  to  mutation 
downward  in  the  series. 

3.  At  the  foot  of  each  series,  palatal,  lingual,  labial,  the  mutes 
tend  to  mutation  upward  in  the  series,  surd  mute  to  sonant  mute, 
mutes  to  spirants. 

4.  Mutation  extra  seriem,  horizontal  mutation,  is  rare  outside  of 
the  nasals,  most  such  cases  being  explicable  as  mutation  to  the  aspi- 
ration in  the  first  instance  and  then  secondarily  from  the  floating 
aspiration  to  some  adjacent  series. 

How  far  do  the  proposed  Semitic  identifications  conform  to  these 
broad  principles  which,  in  the  intricate  detail  of  the  study  put  upon 
them  in  the  foregoing  chapters,  have  been  established  as  perspicu- 
ously as  simply? 

It  would  be  idle  to  attempt  to  list  all  the  concordances  and  equally 
the  discrepancies  of  the  Semitic  offered  in  identification  when  meas- 
ured by  these  established  principles.  We  note  from  the  Arabic, 
from  which  Dr.  Macdonald  has  drawn  most  largely,  the  proposed 
mutations  in  but  two  of  the  representative  Polynesian  consonants, 
t  as  being  central  in  the  diagram  and  f  as  representing  the  labial 
series  and  with  it  the  maximum  mutability.  For  each  mutation  we 
note  but  a  single  instance  in  reference;  it  seems  that  there  will  be 
no  lively  desire  to  seek  out  more. 

Polynesian  t  may  become  in  Arabic:  t  (107),  t  (44),  d  (38),  s  (35), 
s  (160),  s  (267),  h  (36),  to  (37),  gr  (247),  rd  (306),  '(356). 


178  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Polynesian  f  may  become:  /  (86),  b  (83),  m  (93),  n  (170),  w  (296), 
y  (296). 

We  fail  to  see  how  such  movement,  even  if  established  on  far 
better  ground  than  we  have  here,  can  be  brought  into  harmony  with 
the  foregoing  briefly  stated  principles. 

These  principles  are  fundamental  in  the  three  speech  families 
which  share  the  possession  of  this  common  element  in  the  vocabu- 
lary. A  fourth  family,  claiming  admission  to  the  clan  yet  showing 
so  plainly  that  it  fails  to  conform  to  the  law  of  the  household,  must 
knock  long  at  the  door  and  long  in  vain. 

One  more  point  and  we  are  done  with  Dr.  Macdonald  and  his 
Semitic  origins.  If  he  has  proved  his  thesis  his  proof  must  exclude 
all  use  of  the  same  materials  to  prove  some  other  origin.  There  is 
another  Richmond  in  the  field,  long  earlier  in  the  field,  and  he  has 
been  just  as  substantial  and  just  as  stout  in  defense  of  his  theory 
that  the  Polynesians  stem  in  the  pre-Sanskrit  Aryans.  In  the  third 
volume  of  Judge  Fornander's  "Polynesian  Race"  will  be  found 
dozens  of  instances  in  which  he  uses  the  same  Polynesian  and  the 
same  Indonesian  material  that  Dr.  Macdonald  groups  about  his 
Melanesian  data  for  the  proof  of  Semitic  origin.  Yet  employing  the 
same  material  Fornander  sees  naught  but  Aryan  source. 

Let  us  compare  the  two  lines  of  argument  in  but  a  single  instance 
to  serve  as  illustration.  Brevity  will  best  be  conserved  by  pinning 
such  comparison  on  243.  In  this  Dr.  Macdonald  carries  the  Samoan 
fili,  to  plait,  through  Melanesian  and  Indonesian  to  the  Arabic  fatala 
and  fatl'  and  the  Ethiopic  fatlat,  to  twist,  to  spin.  Hear  now  Judge 
Fornander  as  champion  of  the  other  cause :  * 

Greek,  etXw,  to  roll  up,  to  press  together,  pass  to  and  fro,  to  wind,  turn 
round;  iXiatrm,  turn  round  or  about,  roll,  whirl ;  eh£,  twisted,  curled ;  s,  any- 
thing of  a  spiral  shape,  twist,  curl,  coil ;  tXXm,  to  roll,  of  the  eyes,  to  squint, 
look  askance;  lXX6<s,  squinting;  IXAdg,  a  rope,  band;  Mtyg,  a  whirlpool. 

Sanskr.,  vel,  vekl,  to  shake,  tremble;  vellita,  crooked;  anu-vellita,  a  band- 
age. To  this  Sanskrit  vel  Benfey  refers  the  Greek  sIXiu,  the  Latin  volvo, 
and  the  Gothic  walojan.  Liddell  and  Scott  also  incline  to  connect  ecXu>  and 
volvo  with  the  same  root.  To  me  it  would  seem  as  if  the  Sanskrit  vrij, 
whose  "original  signification,"  Benfey  says,  is  "to  bend,"  and  the  Sanskrit 
vrit,  whose  "original  signification,"  Benfey  says,  is  "to  turn,"  were  nearer 
akin  to  the  primary  form  from  which  the  Greek  dXw,  UXw,  and  the  Poly- 
nesian hilt,  wiri,  descend:  that  primary  form  being  vri,  now  lost  to  the 
Sanskrit,  with  a  primary  sense  of  to  bend,  twist,  turn  over,  braid,  and  of 
which  vel,  veil,  or  vehl,  is  possibly  another  secondary  and  attenuated  form. 
With  such  a  Sanskrit  vri,  surviving  in  vrij  and  vrit,  the  derivation  of  the 
Latin  filum,  thread,  as  twisted,  spun;  of  the  Latin  varus,  bent  asunder, 
parting  from  each  other,  varix,  crookedness;  of  the  Saxon  wile,  deceit; 
of  the  Swedish  willa,  confusion,  error,  wilse,  astray,  becomes  easy  and 
intelligible. 

*3  Polynesian  Race,  117. 


THE   SAWAIORI  BEGINNING  RESTS  UNKNOWN.  179 

It  is  impossible  that  each  can  be  right  in  his  deduction.  To  those 
who  have  followed  thus  far  this  review  of  the  data  it  will  seem  far 
from  impossible  that  each  is  in  equal  error. 

In  summation  we  are  to  consider  what  facts  are  established  in  our 
knowledge  of  the  earlier  history  of  the  Polynesians. 

A.  In  Polynesia. 

We  have  the  excellent  authority  of  concurrence  of  tradition,  and 
to  those  who  can  bring  themselves  into  harmony  with  the  Poly- 
nesian manner  of  thought  their  tradition  has  the  validity  of  history. 
We  shall  find  this  history  most  succinctly  set  forth  in  the  volume  of 
"Hawaiki"  to  which  reference  has  been  made  earlier  in  this  work, 
and  we  shall  find  its  several  incidents  as  derived  from  diverse  sources 
most  satisfactorily  synchronized  and  intelligently  discussed  in  the 
same  work.  We  have  in  the  foregoing  pages  and  in  the  data  upon 
which  they  are  based  a  very  considerable  mass  of  language  history. 
Fortunately  we  are  not  under  the  necessity  of  estimating  the  com- 
parative moment  of  each  of  these  sources  of  information.  That 
would  be  a  problem  as  interesting  as  intricate  in  case  of  conflict. 
In  our  studies  they  run  in  confirmation  and  reciprocal  corroboration. 
For  every  inference  to  which  the  philological  line  may  lead  us  we 
find  support  in  this  fragment  or  that  of  some  tradition;  for  every 
statement  set  down  in  the  tradition  we  find  such  corroboration  in 
the  philological  analysis  that  the  legend  handed  down  in  memory 
is  proved  to  have  the  value  of  history. 

Confirmed  and  upheld  thus  doubly  at  every  point  we  are  assured 
of  the  following  facts  in  Polynesia : 

i.  Nuclear  Polynesia  (Samoa  the  nucleus  and  Niue,  Tonga,  Viti, 
describing  the  perimeter)  was  under  settlement  by  Polynesians  from 
a  date  so  remote  that  they  had  lost  all  direct  memory  of  an  anterior 
movement  thither.  They  held  themselves  autochthons,  and  in  the 
greater  groups  had  creation  myths  in  which  land  first  emerged  from 
the  tireless  sea,  their  own  the  first  of  lands  and  they  upon  it  the 
first  of  men.  These  we  style  the  Proto-Samoans.  The  indirect  tra- 
dition of  a  former  home  told  no  rearward  tale  to  them.  It  is  only 
by  inference  and  through  digestion  of  many  such  traditions  that  we 
are  able  to  read  into  the  consistent  belief  in  the  westward  home  of 
the  spirit  a  dim  record  of  an  earlier  abiding-place.  The  dead  go 
home,  home  to  a  home  that  the  living  have  long  ceased  to  remem- 
ber ;  blessed  are  the  dead  in  their  direction  sense. 

2.  Upon  this  Proto-Samoan  settlement  came  a  later  wave  of 
migration  of  the  same  race.  This  second  migration  held  its  footing 
upon  Nuclear  Polynesia  through  a  period  whose  duration  we  are 
quite  without  the  data  to  estimate.  In  general  the  later  migrants 
behaved  so  harshly  to  the  original  inhabitants,  albeit  of  their  own 


180  THE   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 

race  and  almost  word  for  word  of  the  same  speech,  as  to  provoke 
reprisals.  For  these  later  migrants  we  have  adopted  the  name  by 
which  they  are  known  in  Samoan  history,  the  Tongafiti,  it  being 
understood  that  the  present  names  of  the  archipelagoes  of  Tonga 
and  Fiji  (Viti  or  Fiti)  did  not  supply  the  name,  but  are  derived  there- 
from. From  skirmish  to  pitched  engagement  these  reprisals  grew 
as  the  Proto-Samoans,  driven  from  the  shore  to  inner  recesses  of 
their  islands,  recovered  strength  in  resistance.  At  last  came  the 
critical  battle  of  Matamatame,  somewhere  about  1200  of  our  era  or 
a  little  earlier.  The  Tongafiti  were  expelled  from  Samoa  and  began 
their  eastward  wanderings  as  far  as  Hawaii  and  New  Zealand,  the 
era  of  the  great  voyages. 

3.  Nowhere  in  the  present  data  are  we  able  to  pick  up  the  track 
of  the  Tongafiti  prior  to  their  descent  upon  Nuclear  Polynesia.  We 
have  made  it  clear  that  they  did  not  follow  the  Melanesian  route 
between  Indonesia  and  Polynesia.  It  must  remain  for  the  students 
of  the  Tongafiti  collaterals  to  discover  their  route;  our  concern  in  this 
study  has  been  to  identify  the  migration  that  did  sweep  along  the 
Melanesian  chain. 

At  this  point  it  is  profitable  to  add  the  comment  of  S.  Percy  Smith 
upon  a  syllabus  of  my  reasons  for  rejecting  the  Tongafiti  migration 
from  the  Melanesian  area : 

The  Solomon-New  Hebrides  is  not  the  only  route  open  to  them ;  they 
may  have  stretched  across  from  the  north  shore  of  New  Guinea,  or  even 
from  the  northern  Solomons,  to  the  Gilbert,  Ellice  or  Phoenix  Group  and 
so  down  to  Viti.  But  for  all  that,  until  I  see  your  argument,  I  must  at 
present  think  they  came  by  way  of  the  Solomon  and  Santa  Cruz  groups 
to  Futuna.  The  specimens  I  have  seen  of  the  dialect  of  Sikayana  show 
a  close  connection  with  Maori  and  Rarotongan.  Just  consider  this  case: 
the  Tongafiti  came  by  the  north  of  New  Guinea  following  the  first  Samoan 
route,  and  as  they  came  across  their  own  people  in  various  places  along 
this  route,  such  as  in  the  Solomons,  Santa  Cruz  and  elsewhere,  they  would 
learn  of  former  migrations  having  gone  farther  south  and  followed  without 
delay,  leaving  none  of  their  dialect  behind  among  their  fellow-countrymen 
they  fell  in  with  en  route. 

The  general  argument  has  already  been  advanced  at  length.  Spe- 
cifically I  note  in  comment  on  the  foregoing  interesting  note,  as 
follows.  Our  data  in  Melanesia  show  a  marked  absence  of  traces  of 
the  vocables  and  mutation  forms  which  characterize  the  Tongafiti 
in  distinction  from  the  Proto-Samoan.  Furthermore  the  Tongafiti 
have  left  abundant  traces  of  their  passage  through  Nuclear  Poly- 
nesia and  all  the  more  on  that  account  is  it  inconceivable  that  they 
should  have  quite  failed  to  affect  their  congeners  in  Melanesia  if 
they  had  passed  that  way.  I  feel  confident  that  a  similarly  careful 
examination  of  the  islands  along  the  Line  will  disclose  the  Tongafiti 
track. 


THE  SAWAIORI  BEGINNING  RESTS  UNKNOWN.  181 

B.  In  Melanesia. 

From  the  Isle  of  Pines,  which  at  the  bottom  of  New  Caledonia 
sets  the  full  stop  to  Melanesia,  to  the  Admiralty  Islands,  which  draw 
the  northern  line  of  that  island  province  around  and  overlapping 
eastern  New  Guinea,  we  find  three  classes  meeting  our  investigation. 

In  the  first  is  grouped  the  islands  of  Polynesia's  western  verge  in 
which,  ethnically  and  philologically,  we  are  dealing  with  Polynesians 
as  surely  as  if  we  were  in  Samoa  or  Te  Pito  te  Henua  at  the  eastern 
limit ;  with  this  class,  and  because  of  its  established  Polynesian  posi- 
tion, we  have  little  concern  in  the  present  series  of  studies. 

The  last  class  contains  all  those  islands,  if  any  there  be,  which 
represent  Melanesia  uncontaminated  by  a  Polynesian  influence  even 
at  second  or  third  remove.  This  class  also  is  removed  from  our 
present  study. 

The  central  class  is  that  with  which  we  concern  ourselves  here, 
those  many  Melanesian  lands  in  which  the  language  record  enables 
us  to  trace  a  Polynesian  connection  in  speech,  the  amount  and  the 
quality  of  such  contamination  varying  largely  from  group  to  group 
and  from  island  to  island  and  from  the  shore  to  the  interior  of 
an  island.  It  is  upon  this  class  that  our  attention  is  fixed  in  this 
inquiry.  It  has  been  our  task  to  analyze  and  identify  each  item 
of  the  contamination  in  so  far  as  we  possess  the  record  with  which 
to  study  it.  It  has  been  our  duty  to  pass  definitely  upon  each  such 
item,  to  reject  or  to  admit  it  to  Polynesian  kinship  as  the  facts  may 
seem  to  warrant.  From  the  items  so  admitted  we  have  sought  to 
comprehend  the  system  of  variation  from  the  true  Polynesian  form  to 
which  they  have  been  subjected  in  passing  into  alien  use.  We  have 
massed  these  items  to  the  proof  that  they  are  loan  words  borrowed 
by  Melanesia  from  Polynesians.  We  have  sought  to  account  for  the 
contactof  the  two  races  in  this  area.  In  following  up  and,  it  is  hoped, 
plainly  establishing  the  overrunning  of  Melanesia  by  a  Polynesian 
migration  swarm,  we  have  essayed  to  direct  attention  upon  two  par- 
allel tracks  of  swarming,  parted  far  to  the  west  and  destined  not  to 
reunite  until  a  long  eastward  traverse  has  been  concluded. 

With  the  Melanesians  themselves  we  have  nothing  to  do  save  in  so 
far  as  we  find  them  recording  the  passage  of  the  Proto-Samoans,  a 
passage  as  to  which  the  Polynesians  have  retained  no  direct  memory. 
It  suffices  here  to  state  that  the  students  best  acquainted  with  them 
regard  them  as  a  mixed  race,  the  Polynesian  admixture  in  blood 
being  more  a  matter  of  inference  than  a  result  of  anthropometrical 
investigation.  There  seems  good  reason  to  believe  that  under  the 
Polynesian  admixture  there  is  not  one  but  several  races.  Up  to  the 
present,  on  rather  better  grounds  now  than  could  be  the  case  in  even 
the  recent  past,  there  seems  to  be  a  line  of  demarcation  quite  sharply 
drawn  between  the  Melanesians  of  the  islands  and  the  Papuans 


182  THE;   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

of  New  Guinea.  To  this  conclusion  point  the  brilliant  studies  of 
Sidney  H.  Ray  upon  the  Melanesian  population  of  Torres  Straits. 
The  same  divergence,  even  within  the  most  narrow  limits,  is  pointed 
out  by  Pastor  Hanke  as  existing  on  the  shores  of  Astrolabe  Bay  on 
the  northern  coast  of  New  Guinea;  the  map  accompanying  his  Bongu 
dictionary,  unfortunately  without  a  scale  for  the  measurement  of 
distances,  shows  Melanesian  languages  upon  the  offshore  islands, 
on  the  coast  Melanesian  languages  in  three  areas  abruptly  separated 
by  two  Papuan  areas.  It  answers  our  purpose  in  these  studies 
to  observe  that  the  languages  of  Melanesia  are  not  Polynesian,  no 
matter  how  much  they  may  differ  the  one  from  the  other. 

In  general,  and  this  note  must  be  understood  as  of  equal  appli- 
cability to  the  Indonesian  division  of  the  topic,  the  culture  plane  of 
the  peoples  is  the  predeterminant  factor  in  regulation  of  the  nature 
and  amount  of  the  loan  material  which  they  may  assume,  the  pho- 
netic system  of  their  own  speech  functions  in  the  degree  of  the 
assimilation  to  which  they  may  subject  the  matter  thus  assumed. 
In  this  work  I  have  refrained  from  consideration  of  the  former  factor. 
The  data  here  presented,  offering  a  record  of  probably  very  nearly 
all  the  loan  material,  should  readily  provide  the  stuff  from  which 
the  student  of  manners  might  construct  the  history  of  the  difference 
in  the  arts  which  marked  the  Melanesian  as  lower  than  the  race  of 
hardy  and  brilliant  adventurers  who  swept  past  his  islands  these 
ages  ago  and  brought  to  him  a  glimpse  of  a  world  where  achievement 
ran  higher. 

So  far  as  relates  to  the  modification  of  the  loan  material  in  the 
process  of  assimilation  by  the  borrowing  races  I  have  been  careful 
to  draft  a  table  of  such  modification  for  every  one  of  the  languages 
of  which  we  have  sufficient  record,  and  in  many  cases  I  have  supple- 
mented this  with  a  fuller  discussion  in  the  notes. 

The  conclusion  to  which  I  am  led  is  that  the  element  common  to 
Melanesian  and  Polynesian  is  Polynesian  material  directly  impressed 
upon  the  Melanesian  by  borrowing  under  stress  of  the  lack  of  name 
for  a  new  object  or  a  new  idea,  or  by  the  influence  of  some  quirk 
of  fashion,  a  principle  no  less  operative  in  primitive  man's  mental 
equipment  than  it  remains  to  the  highest  culture  attainment  of  the 
summit  races. 

C.  In  Indonesia. 

When  we  enter  upon  the  island  world  to  which  New  Guinea  stands 
as  the  eastern  barrier  we  find  an  immediate  and  a  great  decline  in 
the  element  which  has  been  found  common  to  Melanesia  and  Poly- 
nesia. Only  a  few  of  the  vocables  in  Melanesia  for  which  we  have 
discovered  Polynesian  affinities  are  found  to  carry  that  affinity  back 
to  Indonesia.     Still  fewer  are  the  words  which  display  an  affinity 


THE   SAWAIORI  BEGINNING  RESTS  UNKNOWN.  183 

between  Polynesia  and  Indonesia  without  having  left  a  record  of 
their  passage  through  Melanesia. 

The  presence  of  these  double  and  of  these  more  common  triple 
affinities  has  served  as  the  basis  for  the  erection  of  the  Malayo-Poly- 
nesian  speech  family.  That  family  was  created  by  great  scholars 
and  has  been  supported  by  their  followers  no  less  great.  One  hesi- 
tates to  deviate  from  the  conclusions  upon  which  there  is  substantial 
agreement  of  Humboldt,  Bopp,  Friedrich  Miiller,  Max  Miiller,  Whit- 
ney, and  the  generality  of  students  of  systematic  philology. 

Yet  now  I  have  the  less  hesitation.  In  preceding  works,  where 
topically,  however,  I  was  dealing  only  with  the  Polynesian,  I  found 
myself  forced  to  set  aside  the  earlier  estimate  of  the  character  of  the 
languages  of  the  Pacific  and  to  establish  them  as  of  the  isolating 
class,*  a  position  in  which  I  am  more  and  more  confirmed  as  my 
studies  go  more  deeply  into  the  matter.  Therefore  I  am  ready  to 
pronounce  the  decree  of  divorce  upon  Malay  and  Polynesian.  Lan- 
guages of  different  classes,  of  uncoordinate  syntax,  of  irreconcilable 
vocabularies — too  long  have  they  been  unequally  yoked.  In  the 
present  collection  of  data  there  is  not  a  single  item  which  is  not  most 
readily  explicable  as  loan  material,  there  is  not  one  in  which  there 
can  be  mustered  any  proof  that  its  source  was  Indonesian. 

D.  The  Old  Home. 

The  material  with  which  we  have  so  long  been  engaged,  and  it  is 
hoped  not  without  profit  and  interest,  leads  us  from  Polynesia  back- 
ward along  Melanesia  and  to  many  a  remote  shore  of  the  Malay 
Archipelago.  Did  the  Polynesians  have  no  earlier  history?  Was 
it  in  these  warm  islands  that  they  became  man  and  slowly  acquired 
that  control  over  certain  muscles  susceptible  of  high  specialization 
in  function  which  gave  them  speech  ? 

A  most  interesting  speculation.  It  has  engaged  the  zeal  of  all  such 
as  have  felt  the  attraction  of  this  least  contaminated  of  the  races 
of  men.  Every  shred  of  tradition  has  sedulously  been  studied  for 
such  record  as  it  might  reveal.  The  interpreters  of  these  tradition- 
histories  have  been  led  back  to  Indonesia  as  distinctly  as  this  mass 
of  linguistic  material  has  led  us  who  have  been  studying  it  together. 
All  paths  lead  to  Indonesia  as  an  early,  a  very  early,  home  of  the 
Sawaiori. 

But  backward? 

Dr.  Macdonald  has  toiled  for  a  lifetime  to  prove  a  Semitic  origin, 
a  yet  eastern  home  in  the  region  to  which  the  Bab  el  Mandeb  is 
indeed  a  gateway.  I  can  not  find  that  his  theory  stands  the  test 
of  examination. 


♦27  American  Journal  of  Philology,  380. 


184  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Myself,  I  have  fancied  that  from  the  inner  content  of  many  of  the 
elemental  words  of  the  language  I  might  reconstruct  a  vision  of  the 
geophysics  of  the  earliest  home,  ancestral  Hawaiki  in  the  great  sea 
of  Kiwa.  It  was  a  pleasant  speculation ;  almost  I  could  see  the  old 
home.  In  casting  about  for  a  terrain  which  would  in  some  sort 
correspond  to  this  artificial  cloudcuckooland  I  was  led  to  pitch  upon 
the  Hadramaut,  close  to  Dr.  Macdonald's  seat  of  origin.  I  have 
found  pleasure,  better  yet  it  has  been  given  me  to  find  enduring 
profit  in  great  joy,  sweeping  concentric  circles  of  study  upon  the 
languages  that  ring  about  the  Hadramaut  in  Arabia  and  across  the 
straits  in  Africa.  Yet  nowhere  have  I  found  so  much  as  a  single 
word  upon  which  I  might  rely  in  confirmation. 

Fornander,  with  much  labor,  has  sought  to  find  the  origin  of  the 
Polynesians  in  the  origin  of  our  own  speech  family.  It  has  not 
seemed  to  any  Polynesian  student  necessary  to  enter  upon  a  detailed 
disproof  of  his  argument ;  every  item  sufficiently  disproves  itself  by 
the  discovery  of  his  complete  lack  of  philological  training  and  the 
language  instinct. 

The  school  of  students  of  Polynesian  origins,  that  unanswered 
"whence  of  the  Maori,"  which  has  grown  into  enthusiastic  existence 
in  New  Zealand,  has  been  sedulous  in  this  study,  at  times  almost 
inspired.  At  present  they  are  in  general  accord  in  regarding  the 
Polynesian  ancestral  home  as  somewhere  in  the  Indian  peninsula, 
either  in  its  great  valleys  of  the  Ganges  and  the  Panjab,  or  else  upon 
the  heights  rising  farther  to  the  north.  The  best  statement  of  this 
opinion  is  most  lucidly  and  most  compellingly  set  forth  in  Percy 
Smith's  "Hawaiki." 

I  wish  that  I  might  take  my  stand  with  that  rich  scholarship  which 
has  proved  such  an  inspiration  to  me  in  my  work.  In  following  out 
the  only  method  which  I  feel  sure  in  handling  I  can  not  go  farther 
than  the  material  in  my  hand  will  lead  me.  At  Java,  or  thereabout, 
the  last  thread  slips  past.  Up  to  that  point  I  have  followed  the 
leading  toward  Pulotu  whither  the  dead  go,  toward  Hawaiki  whence 
the  living  come,  always  westward  with  the  words  to  go  with  me 
from  land  to  land — now  at  last  the  tale  of  the  words  is  done. 

I  may  go  no  farther.  In  Java  I  halt,  and  Java  may  be  in  itself 
a  Hawaiki.  There  is  no  further  leading.  Out  yonder  beyond  my 
sight,  out  yonder  over  the  unended  sea  and  the  sun  going  down,  out 
and  away  whither  my  eyes  tire  with  the  strain  of  unavailing  seeing, 
somewhere  lies  the  Hawaiki  of  our  vain  search.  There  I  would  that 
I  might  see  the  canoes  setting  bravely  forth  with  the  rhythm  of  song 
and  the  pulse  of  paddles,  bravely  out  on  the  great  sea  of  Kiwa,  their 
crews  the  forebears  of  that  race  of  men  who  beyond  all  others  made 
the  sea  their  own,  even  to  its  uttermost  islands. 


APPENDIX  I. 
DATA  AND  NOTES. 


EFATE-VITI. 
i. 


baso,  to  pierce. 

Viti:  veso-ka,  id. 

2. 

bei,  preposition  connecting  verbs  with  their  objects ;  the  final  i  belongs  to 

the  pronoun  of  the  third  person. 

Viti :  vet,  to,  from ;  used  only  before  personal  pronouns  and  personal 

names. 

3. 
kilakila,  to  be  shy. 

Viti:  kila,  to  be  wild  (of  animals),  suspicious. 

4- 
malua,  mailua,  malilua,  malulu,  to  do  anything  gently,  to  be  in  no  hurry, 
to  do  after  a  time,  by-and-by. 
Viti:  malua,  to  go  gently,  to  be  in  no  hurry,  by-and-by;  vakamalua, 
gently. 
This  ma}-  be  found  associable  with  malum  316. 

masere,  to  be  torn. 

^fc-»s    Viti:  kasere,  broken,  loosed. 

This  falls  more  properly  under  note  21. 

6. 
mutrei  (given  as  a  variant  of  mitei  232),  breadfruit  fermented  and  preserved. 
Viti:  mandrai,  bread,  i.  e.,  a  cake  of  preserved  breadfruit. 

7- 
sanga,  senga,  a  crotch,  a  fork  made  by  two  branches;  sanga  fi,  to  take 
hold  of  with  a  crotch  or  forked  stick. 
Viti:  sanga,  a  crotch,  the  thighs,  a  pair  of  tongs;  sanga-va,  to  take 
hold  of  with  tongs. 

8. 
toki,  to  gather  up  one's  things  or  pack  up  preparatory  to  flitting. 
Viti:  toki,  to  remove  one's  goods  and  residence. 

EFATE-VITI-MALAY. 

9- 
bara-ti,  to  bind  together ;  farati,  sticks  fastened  above  and  upon  the  rafters 
*■-"'      of  a  house. 

Viti:  vorati,  the  wind  beams  or  upper  small  cross-beams  of  a  house. 
Malay :  barot,  to  gird,  to  bind  around ;  baroti,  rafters. 

185 


186  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

10. 

buta,  blind  (in  meta-buta,  lit.  eye-dark). 

Viti :  mbutb,  dark,  darkness ;  matambuto,  to  become  dizzy  and  fall, 

lit.  eye-dark. 
Malay:  buta,  blind. 

EFATE-VITI-SEMITIC. 


ba,  ba-si,  fa,  va,  to  come,  to  enter,  to  tread  (to  go  upon),  to  tread  upon. 
Viti:  va-tha,  to  tread  upon. 
Hebrew :  bo,  ba.         Ethiopic :  bawi,  to  come,  to  enter. 

This  naturally  suggests  an  association  with  bano  (147)  to  go.  The  Efatd 
ba-si  implies  a  final  ^-radical,  which  implication  is  further  hinted  by  Viti 
vatha,  for  s-th  is  a  not  infrequent  mutation.  In  bano,  however,  the  radical  n 
is  constant  throughout  Melanesia  with  the  exception  of  a  New  Hebridean 
(Mota-Ambrym-Sesake-Eromanga-Pak)  and  a  Solomon  (Nggela-Belaga) 
group,  which  have  va.  In  view  of  the  constancy  of  n  in  bano  and  the  appear- 
ance of  s  in  this  item  it  is  uncertain  whether  to  regard  this  ba  as  a  distinct 
root  and  to  transfer  from  147  the  two  va  groups  to  association  therewith, 
or  to  regard  the  latter  as  mere  coincidences  in  the  result  of  abrasion.  With 
this  ba,  Dr.  Macdonald  associates  as  a  dialectic  form  mat  to  come,  which 
is,  of  course,  nothing  but  the  universal  Polynesian  directive. 

12. 

bila  i,  to  pick  up,  to  gather  up  anything,  as  fallen  leaves,  fruit,  fish  lying 
on  the  ground. 
Viti :  vili,  to  pick  up  fallen  fruit  or  leaves. 
Ethiopic:  'araya,  to  gather,  as  fruit,  herbs;  to  glean. 

13- 
bitelo,  butol,  bitol,  to  be  hungry. 

Viti:  vitolo,  hunger,  to  be  hungry  (an  unusual  dialectic  word). 
Nggela :  vitolo,  to  hunger.         Motu :  hitolo,  hunger. 
Arabic :  talaha,  toliha,  to  have  an  empty  belly. 

The  first  classification  of  these  data  was  based  upon  the  comparative 
material  afforded  by  the  Efate  dictionary.  Later  research  through  other 
sources  of  information  have  in  several  items  brought  to  light  new  data 
which  interrupt  the  applicability  of  the  class  heading,  as  in  this  case.  The 
serial  number  of  the  items,  however,  had  by  that  time  been  so  extensively 
employed  in  many  calculations  that  it  has  seemed  hardly  worth  the  while 
to  recast  the  arrangement  and  to  provide  a  new  notation. 

Peculiar  interest  attaches  to  the  entry  which  conveniently,  yet  inaccu- 
rately, is  credited  to  the  Motu.  It  is  drawn  from  a  vocabulary  of  160 
items  collected  by  P.  R.  Barton  and  included  in  Seligmann's  "Melanesians 
of  British  New  Guinea."  Captain  Barton  designates  this  vocabulary  by 
the  name  "Lakatoi  Language"  and  notes  that  it  is  "the  trading  language 
spoken  by  the  Elema  natives  and  their  visitors."  In  this  remarkable 
lingua  franca  I  have  been  able  to  identify  no  more  than  this  item  as  having 
any  association  with  the  languages  of  our  province.     The  lakatoi  are  the 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  187 

composite  vessels  which  set  out  fromMotu  laden  with  pots  and  sail  westward 
to  the  Papuan  communities  across  the  Gulf  of  Papua,  there  to  barter  their 
wares  at  Elema  and  other  ports  for  the  sago  of  that  country.  This  voyage, 
an  adventure  of  annual  argosies,  is  performed  with  great  ceremony  and' much 
ritual,  not  the  least  of  which  formality  is  the  employment  of  this  language. 

14. 
bure,  fure,  to  wash,  to  rub. 

Viti :  mbore-a,  to  scrape  or  wash  the  dirt  off  a  thing,  to  brighten ;  a 

dialectic  word. 
Hebrew :  marak,  to  rub,  to  polish,  to  cleanse  by  washing. 

15- 
fanau,  bunu,  to  teach,  to  instruct,  to  preach. 

Viti :  vunau,  to  admonish,  to  harangue,  to  preach,  a  speech,  reproof. 
Hebrew :  'anah,  to  harangue,  to  proclaim,  to  preach,  to  admonish. 

16. 
ka,  k',  tense  sign,  past. 
Viti:  ka,  id. 
Syriac:  ka,  ga,  id. 

17- 
kilakila,  knowing,  sagacious. 

Viti:  kiln,  to  know,  to  understand,  to  acknowledge. 
Arabic:  'akala,  'akil',  to  be  intelligent,  prudent,  sagacious. 

18. 

lele,  lili,  to  wind,  to  go  around,  to  turn,  to  curve;  nialele,  to  be  bent  or 
curved,  as  a  branch  of  a  tree  heavy  with  fruit. 

Viti :  lele,  the  end  of  a  branch  farthest  from  the  body  of  a  tree ; 
leletha,  to  bend  a  branch  in  order  to  gather  the  fruit  on  it. 

Arabic:  lawa,  to  wind,  to  bend,  to  turn. 

19. 
lume  aj.to  wash  (immerse),  to  dip. 

"Viti :  lomotha,  to  dip,  to  dye,  to  daub  the  hair  with  ashes,  to  dip  the 
head  into  urine  to  clean  or  stiffen  the  hair. 
Hebrew:  saba'.     Arabic:  sab" a,  to  dip  into,  to  immerse,  to  dye. 

20. 
saf  i,  bisab,  bisif,  to  excel. 

Viti:  sivia,  to  outstrip,  to  exceed,  to  pass  another,  to  get  past  or 

before,  to  surpass;  uasivi,  to  exceed. 
Hebrew:  yasaf,  to  add,  to  increase,  to  surpass,  to  excel. 

21. 
sere,  masere,  to  tear.  ;     « <  ' 

Viti:  sereka,  to  untie,  to  unloose;  kasere,  broken,  undone. 
Arabic :  nasara,  to  tear,  to  rend.      /' 

22. 
seri,  bakaseri,  to  loose  a  tabu. 
Viti :  sereka,  to  untie. 
Hebrew :  sarah,  to  loose. 


188  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

23- 

si,  soi,  to  scrape. 

Viti :  soya,  soi,  to  scrape  off  the  skin  of  yams  for  boiling. 
Arabic :  saha',  to  scrape  off. 

24. 

tefa  ki,  tefa-ngi,  to  put  things  in  a  series,  to  range. 

Viti:  tuva,  to  place  in  regular  order,  to  range. 

Arabic:  saffa,  to  set  or  place  in  order  in  a  series,  to  arrange. 

It  is  at  least  suggestive  of  association  with  Samoan  tufa,  to  divide,  to 
share  out,  to  distribute.     The  Viti  form  readily  consents. 

Tonga :  tufa,  to  divide,  to  portion  out,  to  distribute.  Niue :  tufa- 
tufa,  to  divide,  to  portion  out.  Uvea :  tujaM^  to  distribute, 
to  divide,  a  partition.  Futuna :  tufaki,  to  distribute,  to  divide, 
Fotuna:  no-tufa,  to  give.  Tahiti:  tufa,  to  share  or  divide 
portions.  Marquesas:  tulia,  to  divide,  to  apportion.  Rapanui, 
Mangareva :  tuha,  to  divide,  to  share  out.  Maori :  tuwha,  to 
distribute,  to  apportion. 

Nggela:  tutuva,    to    distribute    (food).  Belaga:   tuva-lisa,    to 

apportion.         Sesake :  cf .  ga  tova  wango,  I  cut  pig. 

In  note  312  I  have  suggested  the  recurrence  of  this  stem  in  the  compound 
numeral  of  the  tavalima  series. 

25- 

tirikit,  to  begin  to  drop  or  spatter,  of  rain  (kit,  small). 
Viti :  tiri,  to  drop,  of  liquids. 
Arabic:  s'als'ala,  to  drip,  to  fall  in  drops. 

This  is  properly  included  in  359. 

26. 
tu  na,  bones  of  fish. 

Viti:  ndua,  bone  (dialectic). 

Arabic:  s'a'a,  to  become  spiky,  to  be  rayed. 

EFATE-VITI-MALAY-SEMITIC. 

27. 

bera,  fera,  to  crumble,  to  fall  to  pieces. 

Viti:  vuruvuru,  a  crumb,  to  crumble. 

Malay:    ambor,    tabur,   to    be    scattered.         Malagasy:    mahavera, 

miveraberaka,  to  crumble. 
Ethiopic:  far  fur,  a  crumb.         Hebrew:  parpor,  a  crumb;  pur,  par 
pirper,  to  break  in  pieces.     Cf.  28. 

28. 
bori,  boriuori-si,  to  break. 

Viti:  vorota,  to  break,  of  brittle  or  thin  things,  as  pots. 

Malagasy:  puritra,  to  break. 

Hebrew:  por,  pur,  to  break  in  pieces.     Cf.  27. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  189 

29. 

lita,  liti,  to  crackle,  to  burst,  to  explode,  as  wood  or  a  stone  in  the  fire; 

lita  nakabu,  a  spark. 
Viti :  lindi,  thalindi,  to  burst  or  explode,  the  report  of  an  explosion 

or  bursting,  as  of  thunder  or  a  stone  in  a  heated  oven ;  lindi  ni 

buka,  a  spark. 
Malay :  latok,  latup,  latub,  to  crackle,  to  crepitate ;  latum,  to  boom, 

to  give  out  a  booming  noise. 
Arabic:  la"ata,  la"t,  Wat,  to  crackle,  as  water  boiling. 

30. 
lubwa,  to  pour  out. 

Viti :  livia,  talivi,  to  pour  gently  or  in  a  small  stream,  to  spill. 

Malay :  tumpah,  manumpah,  to  spill,  to  shed,  to  pour  out. 

Arabic :  sabba,  to  pour  out. 

In  154  the  same  Viti  identification  has  been  employed  in  a  better  set  of 
sense  resemblances. 

31. 
sabe-li,  to  beat,  to  slap. 

Viti:  sambalaka,  to  strike  in  a  certain  way,  to  slap. 

Malay:  tampar,  to  slap.         Java:  tampel,  id. 

Arabic:  safa'a,  to  beat,  to  slap. 

32. 
samit,  samut,  to  beat,  to  chastise. 

Viti :  samuta,  to  beat,  generally  with  a  heavy  stick. 

Malay:  chamiti,  chamati,  a  whip  or  scourge. 

Hebrew:  s'amat,  to  strike,  to  smite.         Arabic:  s'amat,  to  whip. 

The  identification  of  the  Malay  entails  the  s-ch  mutation,  for  which  our 
material  affords  no  confirmation  save  so  much  as  may  lie  in  45. 

33. 
siba,  suba,  to  break. 

Viti :  sovetaka,  to  break  the  head  to  pieces ;  sovuta,  to  break  a  hole 

in  thin  things. 
Malay:  sumba,  simba,  to  break. 
Chaldee :  s'ibeb,  to  break  in  pieces ;  s'iba,  a  fragment. 

We  are  to  meet  with  no  other  instance  of  a  v-mb  mutation  in  Indonesia 
and  only  one  (Malay  310)  of  v-b;  the  identification,  therefore,  lacks  con- 
firmation. 

34- 
son,  to  give. 

Viti :  solia,  to  give,  to  grant,  to  permit. 

Malay:  sarah,  srah,  to  submit;  sarah  kan,  to  give. 

Arabic :  s'ara'a,  to  submit,  to  give. 

35- 
tatalai,  to  warm  oneself  at  the  fire. 
Viti:  tatalai,  id. 
Malagasy:  mitulu,  id. 
Arabic:  sala,  salyy',  to  warm,  to  be  warmed  at  the  fire. 


190  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

36. 
tiro,  to  sink,  to  roll  down. 

Viti:  tiro,  siro,  sisiro,  to  descend,  to  go  down  a  steep  or  hill. 

Malay:  turun,  to  go  down. 

Arabic:  hadara,  hudur',  to  descend,  to  put  down. 

37- 
toto,  tiso,  to  exude,  as  gum  or  juices  from  plants. 

Viti :  ti,  titi,  titiva,  to  ooze,  to  flow  gently  down,  as  gum  from  a  tree. 

Malay:  titik,  to  exude.         Malagasy:  mitete,  mitate,  tetevana,  id. 

Arabic:  nas's'a,  to  exude. 

38. 
trdm,  torn,  turmeric,  a  reddish  curry  powder. 

Viti:  ndamu,  red,  crimson,  brown,  dun. 

Malagasy:  tamutamu,  turmeric;  tumamutamu,  yellow. 

Arabic:  'adoma,  to  be  red.         Hebrew:  'adamdom,  reddish. 

EFATE-  MELANESIAN-VITI. 

39. 
bati,  tooth. 

Viti:  mbati,  tooth. 

Sesake:  mbati,  tooth.  Epi:  bati,  id.  Marina:  peti,  id. 
P  Dr.  Macdonald  has  considered  this  under  two  entries,yet  with  full  appre- 
ciation that  his  nabati  is  this  bati  with  the  article.  It  will  be  found  fully 
discussed  in  259,  where,  however,  the  stem  under  examination  is  that  of  a 
different  word  and  of  much  wider  dissemination.  This  bati  is  confined  to 
Viti  and  the  central  New  Hebrides. 

40. 
bui  na,  bua  na,  backbone,  tail,  rump. 

Viti:  mbui,  tail. 

Sesake:  mbuena,  tail. 

4i- 
mako,  maka,  offspring. 

Viti:  makumbu,  mokumbu,  grandchild  (mbu,  grandmother). 
Tangoan  Santo:  maka  pi,  grandchild,  offshoot  of  pi  (grandfather). 

EFATE-MELANESIAN-VITI-SEMITIC. 

42. 
fara,  a  sprouting  coconut. 

Viti :  vara,  a  coconut  when  filled  with  meat  and  ready  to  shoot. 
Motu:  vara,  to  grow,  to  be  born.         Omba:  kmbwiri,  to  grow. 
Hebrew:  par  ah,  to  burst  forth  (as  the  young  from  the  womb),  to 
sprout;  perah,  a  sprout,  a  shoot.         Arabic:  farh",  offspring, 
sprout,  shoot. 

loa,  black,  dirt.  43' 

Viti:  loa,  black. 

Malekula  Pangkumu :  roro,  dirty. 
Arabic:  lo'wat,  lawla',  blackness. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  191 

taku  na,  the  back. 

Viti:  ndaku,  the  back. 

Epi:  taka,  the  back.         Malo:  tura,  id.        Motu:  ndolu,  id. 
Ethiopic :  dahr,  posterior  part ;  dahari,  the  last ;  dahara,  to  be  after, 
to  be  behind.         Arabic:  t'ahr',  the  back. 

Dr.  Macdonald  finds  kinship  with  Samoan  tua  the  back.  Neither  that 
nor  the  Malo  and  Motu  identifications  can  be  sanctioned. 

EFATE-MELANESIAN-VITI-MALAY-SEMITIC. 

45- 
bisa,  fisa,  basa,  to  speak. 

Nukuoro:  pasa,  to  speak.         Fotuna:  visau,  id. 

Viti:  vosa,  to  speak. 

Sesake:  vasa,  to  speak.         Nggela:  bosa,  id. 

Malay :  bacha,  to  read,  recite,  chant ;  basa,  voice,  speech.     Tagalog : 

basa,  to  speak. 
Arabic:  nabasa,  to  speak,  to  peep  or  chirp;  nabsat',  a  word. 

An  interesting  suite,  all  the  more  because  of  the  sparsity  of  the  occur- 
rence of  the  stem  in  each  of  the  provinces.  The  proposed  Semitic  affinity 
contains  at  least  one  element  which  is  not  found  at  all  in  the  Sawaiori. 

46. 

kan  i,  kanikani,  to  eat ;  kanien,  food. 

Viti:  kana,  kania,  to  eat;  vakania,  to  feed,  to  cause  to  eat; 
veikanikani,  devouring  one  another ;  kani,  laukana,  edible. 

Melanesia,  all  signifying  to  eat — Marina,  Tubetube,  Galavi,  Boniki, 
Mukawa:  kani.  Sesake:  ganikani.  Galoma:  ganigani. 

Belaga,  Sinaugoro:  gani.  Rubi:  gania.  Gog,  Merlav:  gan. 
Nggela:  gana,  ganigi.  Mota:  ganagana.  Retan,  Do,  Mota, 
Maewo:  gangan.  Duke  of  York :  wangan.  Leon,  Sasar:  gen. 
Vuras :  gengen.  Ambrym :  ngene.  Nguna :  ngani.  Ambrym : 
ngene.  Gog:  ngongot.  Buka:  nan,  nanni,  tuanan,  iana 
(restricted  to  cannibal  eating).  Duke  of  York,  Roro,  Uni, 
Pokau,  Kabadi,  Motu,  Hula,  Tavara,  Awalama,  Taupota,Wedau : 
ani.  Mekeo:  angi.  Keapara:  hani.  Sariba:  kai.  Suau, 
Mabuiag:  ai.  Dobu:  e'ai.  Kabadi:  ania.  New  Britain: 
an,  ian. 

Malay:  makan,  to  eat.  Malagasy:  humana,  hanina,  id.  Togean: 
mokonie,  id. 

Arabic:  'akala,  to  eat;  'akiV ,  messmate.       Hebrew:  'akal,  to  eat. 

Although  the  alternative  form  nganikani  points  (see  note  117)  to  a 
Polynesian  stock,  it  is  impossible  to  link  kani  with  the  Polynesian  kai  to 
eat.  While  the  omission  of  a  medial  consonanFiometimes  takes  place,  and 
in  the  tabulation  of  the  phonetic  results  we  have  a  solitary  example  in 
inum  (32 1)  to  drink  Marina  o'omia,  yet  if  it  were  far  more  common  it  would 


192  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

still  remain  impracticable  in  this  instance  for  the  distinct  reason  that  we 
are  quite  unable  to  adduce  a  single  word  in  which  all  Polynesia  has  dropped 
a  medial  consonant  which  all  Melanesia  has  retained. 

Viti  shows  that  a  or  i  may  be  the  final  vowel.  The  i-forms  are  found  in 
Efat6,  Viti,  Marina,  Sesake,  Belaga,  Nggela,  Nguna,  Duke  of  York,  Buka, 
Kabadi;  to  which  may  be  added  an  e-form  in  Ambrym.  The  o-forms 
occur  in  Viti,  Nggela,  Mota.  Terminal  abrasion  is  found  in  Gog,  Merlav, 
Retan,  Lo,  Maewo,  Duke  of  York,  Nguna,  Buka,  Kabadi,  New  Britain, 
Leon,  Sasar,  Vuras. 

The  earlier  vowel  of  the  radical  is  found  as  a  in  Efate,  Viti,  Marina, 
Sesake,  Belaga,  Gog,  Merlav,  Nggela,  Mota,  Retan,  Lo,  Maewo,  Duke  of 
York,  Nguna,  Buka,  Kabadi,  New  Britain.  An  e-form  occurs  in  Ambrym, 
where  it  is  associated  with  final  e,  and  in  Leon,  Sasar  and  Vuras.  If  indeed 
it  be  the  same  radical  an  o-form  is  seen  in  Gog. 

The  initial  consonant  k  occurs  in  Efate,  Viti,  Marina,  Sesake.  It  passes 
from  surd  to  sonant  g  in  Sesake,  Belaga,  Gog,  Merlav,  Nggela,  Mota, 
Retan,  Lo,  Maewo,  Leon,  Sasar,  Duke  of  York,  Vuras,  Ambrym.  It  goes 
still  higher  in  the  palatal  series  to  ng  in  Nguna,  Ambrym  and  perhaps  Gog. 
It  is  abraded  in  Duke  of  York,  Kabadi  and  New  Britain.  The  second 
consonant  remains  n  without  change  in  all  these  cases,  save  again  the  Gog- 
anomaly  and  the  Mekeo. 

We  therefore  diagram  this  radical  thus: 

in    i    n 

I    a  I       | 

g  >       >o  <  e 

I    e  |        | 
ng  J       J        La 

The  anomalies  are  now  to  be  considered.  With  a  vowel  not  elsewhere- 
found,  with  a  change  n-ng  which  the  radical  but  once  elsewhere  exhibits,, 
and  with  the  assumption  of  a  final  t  which  elsewhere  does  not  appear, 
Gog  ngongot  is  not  acceptable  in  this  record.  The  only  way  by  which  it  can 
be  included  is  to  assume  it  to  be  a  composite  form,  ngon-got,  and  this  parting 
of  the  palatal  nasal  would  be  wholly  indefensible.  The  remaining  anom- 
alies, at  the  extreme  north  of  the  Samoa  track,  suggest  an  explanation  by 
a  developmental  series.  Frontal  abrasion  is  sufficiently  well  established  in 
the  Melanesian  handling  of  Polynesian  loanwords  to  admit  Duke  of  York 
ani  to  the  kani  radical.  This  admission  will  naturally  carry  with  it  Kabadi 
ania  (a  the  common  verb  isolating  objective  suffix),  and  by  terminal 
abrasion  New  Britain  an.  This  an  may  be  taken  to  admit  New  Britain 
ian,  and  this  in  turn  carries  with  it  Buka  iana.  The  other  Buka  forms, 
involve  a  further  leap.  Reverting  once  more  to  Duke  of  York  ani,  if  we 
can  regard  nanni  as  in  some  sort  a  reduplication  (which  it  must  be  ac- 
knowledged is  informal)  that  would  carry  nan  with  it  and  for  tuanan  we 
should  have  to  postulate  a  composite  of  this  nan.  This  is  far  too  involved 
to  be  satisfactory. 

Our  Indonesian  material  is  based  on  a  radical  m-k-n  and  the  identifica- 
tion should  be  overruled.    The  Malagasy  is  at  variance  with  Indonesian 
and  Melanesian  alike  and  should  be  rejected.     It  is  impossible  to  see  that, 
the  Semitic  has  anything  to  do  with  the  case. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  193 

47-  u :  * 

^aTnaj/brother's  brother,  sister's  sister. 

The  Proto-Samoan  radical  is  tehi,  as  shown  by  Niue,  Toqgkand  Uvea. 

Samoa:  tei,  younger  brother  or  sister.  Niue:  tSwck  younger 
brother.  Tonga :  tehina,  younger  brother  or  sister.  Uvea : 
tehina,  brother,  sister.  Rarotonga,  Paumotu,  Mangareva, 
Tahiti,  Maori:  teina,  younger  brother  or  sister.  Marquesas: 
teina,  a  younger  brother.  Sikayana :  teina,  brother.  Futuna : 
tdina,  brother's  brother,  sister's  sister.  Hawaii:  kaifadi  the 
younger  of  two  brothers  or  of  two  sisters. 

Viti :  tathi,  a  younger  brother  or  sister. 

Mota:  tasi-k,  brother.  Malo,  Laur,  Lamassa,  Lambell,  Kiriwina, 
Dobu:  tasi,  id.  Epi:  tahi,  id.  Motu:  tadi,  younger  brother 
or  sister  or  cousin.  Malekula:  few,  brother.  King:  dirsi,  id. 
Bauro :  asi,  id.  Santo :  tqgi-na.  his  younger  brother.  Pala : 
tes,  tasi,  brother.  Keapara,  Hula,  Galoma:  ari,  id.  Waima: 
hati,  id.  Kabadi:  kadi,  id.  Misima,  Panaieti:  tari,  id. 
Sinaugoro:  tali,  id. 

Malay:  adik,  brother.         Bugi:  anri,  id.         Malagasy:  zandri,  id. 

Arabic:  rasi',  brother. 

The  initial  consonant  is  t  in  Polynesia  (Hawaii  k),  and  in  Melanesia,  with 
the  single  exception  of  Bauro  asi  where  it  is  dropped ;  this  is  our  only  Bauro 
word,  so  that  we  are  without  information  as  to  the  frequency  of  the  frontal 
abrasion  of  this  mute,  but  it  is  not  unknown  in  Melanesia.  The  change  to 
d  in  King  is  normal. 

The  aspiration  is  found  in  Epi ;  it  undergoes  the  normal  transition  to  the 
sibilant  in  Mota,  Malo,  Laur,  Lamassa,  Lambell,  Malekula,  Bauro,  Santo; 
its  mutation  to  th  in  Viti  is  usual;  the  sound  in  King  is  not  quite  clearly 
identified,  it  was  collected  by  the  same  German  explorer  who  gathered 
Laur,  Lambell  and  Lamassa;  Efate"  alone  drops  the  aspiration;  the  Motu 
d  is  normal  to  that  New  Guinea  settlement;  and  elsewhere  in  Melanesia, 
involving  the  surd  instead  of  the  sonant,  is  found  in  Alite,  Saa  and  Wango. 

The  final  vowel  is  constant. 

Of  the  former  vowel  there  are  two  main  groups.     Polynesia  generally, 
and  Malekula  and  Santo  have  e;  Melanesia  generally,  and  Viti,  Futuna  and 
Hawaii  have  a.     King  again  stands  in  a  class  by  itself  with  i. 
r~Jn  SanirjLthe  wa.is  clearly  possessive  suffix,  such  also  is  the  k  in  Mota. 

The  only  common  element  in  Indonesia  is  a-i  parted  by  a  consonant, 
which  is  not  the  aspiration  or  a  normal  mutation  thereof ;  the  initial  con- 
sonant is  absent.  We  can  not  accept  this  identification.  The  Malagasy 
may  be  associable  with  Bugi,  certainly  not  with  the  Proto-Samoan. 

EFATE-POLYNESIAN. 
48. 
alo,  belly,  abdomen,  the  front,  before. 

Samoa :  ato^the  under  side  (as  of  a  cloth  or  the  belly  of  a  fish),  a 
chief's  belly,  the  seat  of  the  affections.  Tonga:  alo,  the 

abdomen  of  great  personages.     Futuna :  alo,  the  entrails,  in  the 


194  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

presence  of,  before.  Maori  :^arogro,  the  front,  presence,  face. 
Tahiti,  Mangaia:  aro,  id.  Hawaii:  qIo,  id.  Marquesas:  ao, 
before,  in  front.  Rarotonga :  aroaro,  the  presence.  Manga  - 
reva:  aro,  the  presence,  before.     Paumotu:  aronga,  the  visage. 

49- 
bafano,  fafano,  to  wash  the  hands. 

Samoa:  Jalano,  fanofano,  to  wash  the  hands  and  rinse  the  mouth. 
Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea :  fanofano,  to  wash  the  hands. 
50. 

bwefe,  fefe,  oven  cover  made  of  leaves. 

Samoa:  veve,  leaves  covered  over  an  oven  to  keep  in  the  heat. 
Futuna :  veve,  name  of  a  mat  of  leaves  of  coconut  or  other  plant 
placed  on  the  viands  in  an  oven  to  keep  them  from  being  soiled 
by  the  earth  which  covers  them. 
5i- 
boboi,  a  mask,  cover  or  disguise. 

Tonga,  Uvea :  fufu,  to  hide,  to  secrete,  to  conceal.         Futuna,  Niue : 
fufu,  id. 

52. 

bukubukura,  full  of  little  swellings,  pimples. 

Samoa :po'u,  pimple.     Futuna :poku,  id.     Tonga -.bokubaku,  a  scab. 

53- 
fet,  a  bird's  nest. 

Samoa:  fataninga,  a  bird's  nest.      Niue:  fata,  id.      Uvea:  fatai,  id.* 

Tonga :  bununga,  a  nest. 
Nggela :  niku,  a  nest.         Bugotu:  gniku,  id.         Mota :  nig,  to  build 
a  nest. 

54- 
ata,  a  man. 

Samoa  -.jitalti,  (li'i,  small)  son,  lit.  little  man.        Rapanui:  atariki, 
oldest  son.        Nuguria :  atariki,  son-in-law. 

55- 
mafa,  to  be  broken,  cracked. 

Samoa:  mafa,  ora  vaginae  aperta.  Tonga:  mafaa,  to  open,  to 
extend;  mafaafaa,  split,  cracked,  choppy.  Futuna:  mafaa, 
broken,  cracked.  Niue :  mafa,  mafafa,  a  crack,  a  rift.  Hawaii : 
maha,  to  make  a  rent  or  hole  in.  Nukuoro :  mahaa,  to  break. 
Uvea:  mafaafaa,  to  yawn,  to  gape. 
56. 
tnaia,  a  species  of  banana. 

Samoa :  mamae,  one  kind  of  banana.     Tonga :  mamae,  the  plantain. 

57- 
makinikini,  to  be  itchy. 

Samoa:  ma'ini,  to  tingle,  to  smart.        Tonga,  Futuna:  makini,  id. 
Niue:  maeneenei?),  to  tingle. 

The  absence  of  the  k  in  Niue  is  anomalous  and  points  to  an  association 
with  Samoan  eneene  to  tickle.     Cf.  227. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  195 

58. 
tnanu,  a  multitude,  a  very  great  number,  a  thousand. 

Samoa :  memo,  manomario,  10,000,  a  myriad,  a  great  number,  innu- 
merable, the  limit  of  counting.  Tonga,  Nuguria :  mano,  10,000. 
Maori,  Rapanui,  Tahiti:  mano,  1,000.  Hawaii:  mano,  400,000, 
multitudinous.  Mangaia:  mano,  2,000,  innumerable.  Mar- 
quesas :  mano,  4,000,  any  great  number.  Paumotu :  manomano, 
innumerable.  Nukuoro:  mano,  100;  mano-tini,  a  very  large 
number. 

L  59" 

manubunubu,  nobwanobwa,  to  be  soft,  sleek  as  the  skin  of  a  newborn  pig 

or  infant. 
Hawaii :  nojmnopu,  thoroughly  cooked,  soft,  spongy,  large,  plump, 

fat,  swelled  out ;  nopue,  plump,  round,  as  a  well  fed  fat  hog. 
Oiun:  nubanuba,  soft,  as  cooked  food.     Kiviri:  nunubas,  id.     Motu: 

manokamanoka,  id.     I'dkauimanomano, id.    Kabadi:raanow,id. 

60. 
mataisau,  matakseu,  a  carpenter. 

Samoa :  mataisau,  an  honorific  term  for  carpenter. 

The  derivation  from  mata  as  "the  eye  (or  director  or  master)  of  cutting" 
does  not  seem  so  valid  as  that  in  which  I  have  assigned  it  to  the  Samoan 
matai,  one  skilled  as  a  master  of  craft,  and  sau,  a  particularized  cutting  as 
shown  in  saupapa  to  cut  off  the  outer  part  of  a  log  to  make  it  level  and 
smooth.  The  Viti  matai  means  carpenter  and  then  by  extension  a  mechanic 
of  any  craft. 

61. 
mauta,  mautu,  rising  ground. 

Polynesia,  all  signifying  mountain:  Samoa,  Futuna,  Mangaia, 
Maori,  Rarotonga,  Manahiki,  Bukabuka,  Fakaafo:  maunga. 
Paumotu :  mahunga.  Hawaii :  mauyia.  Sikayana :  fakamauna. 
Tahiti:  maua.  Mangareva:  manga.  Tonga,  Uvea,  Niue, 
Rapanui:  mounga.         Nuguria:  mauna,  mouna. 

The  derivation  suggested  as  from  mau  to  remain  firm  does  not  particu- 
larly appeal  to  me,  although  mau-nga  is  in  form  a  typical  noun-making 
from  an  attributive  in  which  the  verb  sense  has  so  strongly  developed  as 
to  call  for  such  differentiation.  I  set  contra  the  note  that  in  the  languages 
in  which  maunga  has  undergone  vowel  change  (mounga,  manga)  the  pro- 
posed radical  mau  as  verb  remains  unaltered. 

62. 
me,  name,  namai,  a  rope,  a  string. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Uvea :  maea,  a  rope,  cord,  cable.     Nuguria : 

maia,  a  band. 

63. 

mitariki,  the  Pleiades. 

Polynesia  names  the  Pleiades  thus:    Samoa:  matali'i.        Futuna, 
Tonga:  mataliki.  Fotuna,  Nuguria,  Maori,  Mangaia,  Ma- 

ngareva: matariki^_        Tahiti:  matarii.  Hawaii:  makalii. 

Marquesas:  mataiki. 


196  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Micronesian  names  for  the  same  constellation :  Ponape :  makeriker. 
Lamotrek :  magarigar.     Yap :  magirigir.     Mortlocks :  marikir. 

EFATE-VITI-POLYNESIA. 
64. 
bule,  a  shell,  lit.  gleaming,  shining,  glittering;  cf.  bila  284. 

Samoa :  pule,  a  white  cowry,  general  name  for  marine  shells ;  pulepule, 
small  shellfish ;  pulei,  to  be  checkered,  to  be  mixed  alternately 
as  different  colored  beads  in  a  necklace;  pulepule,  spotted, 
striped  with  various  colors.  Tonga :  bule,  a  cowry;  bulebule, 
a  shellfish;  bulevaka,  the  white  cowry;  bulebule,  spotted. 
Futuna:  pule,  a  univalve  shell;  pulepule,  striped,  spotted 
with  various  colors.  Niue:  pule,  the  cowry;  pulepule,  striped, 
variegated.  Uvea:  pulepule,  variegated.  Hawaii:  pulepule, 
varicolored,  spotted,  speckled.  Tahiti,  Rapanui:  purepure, 
spotted,  checkered.  Mangareva:  akapurepure,  to  color,  to 
variegate.  Paumotu :  hakapurepure,  to  dye,  to  color.  Maori: 
ojbure,  pied,  variegated.  Rapanui,  Nuguria:  pure,  a  shell. 
Viti :  mbuli,  the  white  cowry. 

Mota:  pule,  a  very  dark  cowry  shell.      Miriam:  ka-(a  shell) -6w2t- 
buli,  a  small  univalve. 

65. 
fiso,  an  annual  reed-like  plant  whose  top  is  used  for  food. 
Samoa  :Jwoi  wild  sugar  cane.         Proto-Samoan :  fiho. 
Viti:  vitho,  wild  sugar  cane. 

Mota:  viso,  a  reed  with  edible  flower  head.         Motu:  hido,  id. 

66. 
ngongo,  an  aquatic  bird,  to  wade. 

Samoa:   ngongo,  the  tern  (Sterna  longipennis) .         Tonga,  Niue: 

ngongo,  the  sea  gull.       Futuna :  ngongo,  the  name  of  a  bird. 
Viti:  ngongo,  a  sea  bird. 
The  proposed  derivation  through  Samoan  'a'au  to  swim  from  Arabic 
hamma  is  not  convincing. 

67. 

kie,  the  plant  whose  leaf  is  baked,  dried  and  split  into  threads  to  be  woven 

into  mats. 

Maori:  kiekie,  the  name  of  a  climbing  plant  (Freycinetia  banksii), 

the  leaves  and  fiber  were  formerly  used  in  making  fine  mats. 

Tonga :  kie,  a  mat ;  kiekie,  a  girdle.       Futuna :  kie,  a  mat ;  kiekie, 

a  species  of  liana.         Rarotonga :  kie,  the  Freycinetia  banksii. 

Marquesas :  kiekie,  moss  resembling  a  fine  beard.     Tongarewa : 

kie,  the  pandanus  leaf,  the  mat  woven  therefrom.     Mangareva: 

ngie,  small  pandanus  leaves  used  in  mat-making.        Samoa: 

lie,,  fine  mats;  'ie'ie,  a  Freycinetia  used  in  making  fish  traps. 

Tahiti :  ie,  a  sail  (of  matting) ;  ieie,  fibrous  roots  used  in  basketry. 

Hawaii  :_igJua  vine  used  in  basketry,  material  braided  into  mats. 

Viti:  kiekie,  fine  mats,  pandanus  whose  leaves  are  used  in  mat 

making. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  197 

68. 

langa-ti,  langa  i,  langai,  to  raise,  to  lift  up. 

Samoa :  langa,  to  raise,  to  rise.  Tonga :  langa,  to  raise  up  the  soil ; 
fdkalanga,  to  raise  up.  Uvea,  Futuna :  langa,  to  raise.  Niue : 
langa,  to  rise  against;  langaaki,  to  raise  up.  Nukuoro:  langa, 
to  float.  Hawaii :  lanaj^.  Maori :  ranga,  to  raise,  to  cast 
up.  Mangareva:  ranga,  to  float  on  the  surface  of  water. 
Paumotu :  fakaranga,  to  raise,  to  lift  up.  Tahiti :  toraaraa,  to 
raise  up.       Marquesas:  aka,  ana,  to  swim  on  the  surface. 

Viti :  langa,  to  be  lifted  up,  said  of  a  brandished  club. 

Mota:  langa,  to  lift  up,  to  turn  up. 

69. 
langilangi,  to  be  proud,  uplifted. 

Samoa :  fa'alangilangi,  to  be  angry  because  of  disrespect.  Tonga : 
langilangi,  powerful,  great,  applied  to  chiefs;  fdkalangilangi, 
to  honor,  to  dignify,  to  treat  with  great  respect.  Hawaii: 
UvnMgni,  to  be  proud,  to  show  haughtiness.  Uvea:  fakalai, 
to  compliment,  to  adulate. 
Viti:  langilangi,  proud. 

70. 
lofa  i,  to  bend. 

Samoa :  loja,  to  cower  down,  to  crouch  as  a  dog.      Tonga :  lofatia, 

obedient,  yielding,  respectful.         Proto-Samoan :  lofat. 
Viti:  lovetha,  to  bend. 

'    7i- 
mono-ti,  munu-ti,  to  close,  to  plug,  to  stop,  to  block  up;  though  given  as  a 
dialectic  form  of  bono-ti  it  is  probably  of  a  different  stem. 
Samoa:  momonp,  to  cork,  to  plug;  monomono,  to  calk.       Tonga: 
mono,  to  squeeze,  to  press  in:  monoji,  to  cork;  monomonoji,  to 
patch,  to  mend.       Futuna:  mono,  to  calk,  to  bung,  to  plug. 
Uvea:  momonono,  to  patch.         Proto-Samoan:  tnonot. 
Viti :  mononotaka,  to  stop  up  sennit  or  other  holes  in  a  canoe  with 
breadfruit  gum,  to  calk. 

72. 

sakau,  a  reef. 

—         Samoa :  a'au,  a  coral  reef.       Tonga :  hakau,  a  sunken  reef  or  rock. 

Maori :  akau,  the  coast.       Mangareva :  akau,  lowland,  shoal,  a 

ridge  of  rocks.    Paumotu :  akau,  a  reef  of  rocks.    Mangaia :  akau, 

a  coral  reef.        Nuguria:  agau,  id.        Proto-Samoan:  hakau. 

Viti :  thakau,  a  reef. 

EFATE-MELANESIAN-POLYNESIAN. 

73- 
ata  na,  spirit,  soul,  shadow,  image. 

Maori :  ata,  morning  personified,  a  reflected  image,  shadow,  spirit, 
souTT"  Samoa:  ata,  shadow,  spirit,  dawn,  reflected  image. 
Tonga :  ata,  a  shadow,  the  dawn,  to  reflect.     Niue :  ata,  shadow, 


198  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

reflected  image.  Futuna:  ata,  shadow,  twilight.  Fotuna: 
ata,  ghost,  shadow,  image.  Tahiti :  ata,  shadow,  twilight. 
Marquesas:  ata, shadow, likeness.  Mangaia:  ata, shadow,  soul, 
dawn.  Mangareva :  a ta,  shadow,  image,  twilight.  Nukuoro: 
ata,  shadow.  Fila :  ata,  the  soul.  Uvea :  aata,  shadow ;  ata, 
image.  Moriori:  ateata,   dawn.  Hawaii:  aha,   shadow, 

likeness,  dawn.       Nuguria :  te  ata  te  mahina,  the  waning  moon. 
Rapanui:  ata,  image,  picture,  dawn,  break  of  day,  close  of  day; 
ataata,  close  of  day. 
Mota :  ata,  soul.         Bierian :  ata  mate,  ghost. 

74- 
ati  na,  nati,  nutu,  child. 

Maori:  ati,  descendant,  a  prefix  to  tribal  names  as  descendants  of 
certain  persons.  Samoa:  ati,  a  particle  denoting  a  number 
of  chiefs  of  the  same  name  or  title.  Tahiti :  ati,  patronymic 
prefix  grouping  the  name  of  an  ancestor  with  the  descendants. 
Mangareva :  ati,  descendant.  Also,  Maori :  ngati,  patronymic 
tribal  prefix,  descendants  of.       Mangaia:  ngati,  a  tribe. 

Omba :  nati,  native  of.  Makura :  nati,  son,  people  of.  Bierian : 
nati,  son.  Makelula:  anati,  netin,  child.  Malo,  Nguna: 
natu,  son.  Baravon:  natu,   son.  Lambell:  natu,  child. 

Wagawaga :  natu,  son,  child  of  a  woman's  sister.  Tubetube : 
natu,  child,  grandchild,  child  of  a  woman's  sister,  child  of  brother 
of  man  or  woman.  Motu :  natu,  son,  daughter,  brother's  son. 
Sinaugoro,  Suau,  Sariba,  Panaieti,  Dobu,  Tavara,  Awalama, 
Taupota,  Wedau,  Galavi,  Boniki,  Mukawa,  Kubiri,  Raqa,  Kiviri, 
Oiun:  natu,  child.  Kabadi,  Pokau,  Doura:  naku,  offspring, 
child.  Roro, Hula:  ndhu, child.  Kiriwina:  latu, id.  Keapara, 
Galoma:  nau,  id.  Mekeo:  ngaunga,  id.  King:  nutu,  child. 
Lamassa:  nutu,  child.  Matupit:  tu,  son.  Duke  of  York, 
Pala,  Moanus:  nat,  child.       Lamassa:  fandt,  child. 

The  existence  of  the  ati-nati  in  Ef  ate  and  Maori  ati-ngati  shows  that  the 
common  Polynesian  forms  are  the  result  of  frontal  abrasion.  The  pre- 
sumably older  complete  form  holds  throughout  Melanesia,  except  as  noted 
below,  and  the  n  undergoes  no  change.  So,  too,  the  second  consonant 
remains  unaltered  except  that  in  Kabadi  t-k  shows  a  far  western  instance 
of  a  change  which  is  resistless  in  parts  of  Polynesia  to-day.  The  former 
vowel  remains  without  alteration  throughout  Melanesia  except  for  the 
it-form  of  King  and  Lamassa  on  the  New  Ireland  coast,  yet  the  presence 
of  the  a  in  Duke  of  York  within  eyeshot  shows  this  a  merely  local  variant. 
The  principal  variation  involves  the  final  vowel.  Polynesia  and  the  central 
New  Hebrides  (Efate,  Omba,  Makura  and  Malekula)  have  i.  Nguna  in 
the  same  tract  of  the  New  Hebrides  has  u,  thence  we  encounter  no  record 
of  the  word  until  we  find  the  w-form  in  the  extreme  north  in  Torres  Straits, 
Baravon,  Lambell,  King  and  Lamassa.  Duke  of  York  and  Moanus  nat 
may  be  an  abrasion  of  nati  or  natu,  but  from  the  fact  that  they  lie  in  the 
natu  region  the  latter  is  probably  their  source.  Matupit  tu  and  Lamassa 
fandt  are  included  more  on  account  of  general  suggestion  of  resemblance 
than  from  established  identification. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  199 

75- 
matulu,  matultul,  matoltol,  to  be  swollen,  thick. 

Samoa :  matolutplu,  matoutou,  thick  (restricted  to  pork).  Nukuoro : 
matolutolu,  thick.  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue :  matolu,  thick.  Uvea : 
matolu,  thickness.         Maori:  maiotoru,  id.  Fotuna,  Tahiti: 

matoru,  thick,  full-fleshed.  Mangareva:  matoru,  fat,  thick, 
heavy.  Rapanui :  matorutoru,  thick,  not  compact.  Hawaii : 
makolu,  wide,  thick,  deep.  Marquesas:  motou,  thickness. 
Epi:  torn,  large.  Norbarbar:  motoltol,  thick.  Mota:  matoltol,  id. 
Nguna:matulu,  id.      Malekula :  mefefo'r,  id.     Baki:  merer olu,  id. 

This  root  is  discussed  under  163. 

76- 
um,  ubu,  oven. 

Samoa,  Maori,  Nukuoro,  Niue,  Tahiti,  Hawaii,  Mangaia,  Marquesas, 
Mangareva,  Paumotu:  wmu^  oven.  Tonga:  ngotoumu,  id. 
Uvea:  ngutuumu,  id.  Futuna:  tcmu-kai,  id.  Fotuna :  amu, 
cooking  place.       Rapanui:  umu,  oven;  humu  hare,  cook  house. 

Motu :  amu,  oven.  Mabuiag :  amai,  id.  Miriam :  ame,  id.  New  Bri- 
tain :ubu, id.  Mota: Mm,  id.  Ponape:wm,id.  Bierian :  baumo, 
id.  Tanna:  noanumun,  oven  stones.  Aneityum:  inmunum, 
oven  (inmun,  an  opening) ;  nehpanum,  a  large  fire  for  cooking. 

The  Polynesian  radical  is  consistently  umu.  Tonga  and  Uvea  compound 
with  it  a  word  which  in  Uvea  is  distinctly  ngutu  mouth  and  in  Tongan  we 
may  feel  that  ngutu  has  been  specifically  differentiated  in  this  composite. 
In  the  Futuna  composite  the  latter  element  is  merely  kai  food. 

The  principle  of  terminal  abrasion  is  sufficient  to  identify  with  this  the 
Efate  and  Mota  um,  and  even  the  remote  and  extralimital  Ponape  um. 
It  is  no  difficult  task  to  find  the  identification  in  Motu  and  Fotuna,  for  the 
u-a  mutation  is  general.  The  fact  that  Efate'  has  ubu  as  well  as  um  serves 
to  link  in  the  New  Britain  ubu.  We  lack  data  on  which  to  discuss  an  m-b 
mutation;  the  nearest  approximation  lies  in  a  single  m-v  instance  in 
masaki  (323)  ill  Nggela  vahagi.  Codrington  (Mota  dictionary)  cites  the 
New  Britain  word  as  umbu.  This  would  correspond  to  the  system  in  Viti 
where  a  b  requires  the  preface  of  an  m.  It  might  be  that  a  people  who 
required  thus  to  preface  a  b  would  by  attraction  add  a  b  to  an  m  in 
loan  material.  Then  when  it  passed  along  in  secondary  borrowing  to 
others  who  could  manage  an  unprefaced  b  the  proper  m  would  be  relin- 
quished in  favor  of  the  intrusive  b.  This  is  purely  speculative,  yet  we 
may  cite  at  least  one  instance  in  which  a  similar  principle  has  been  active 
in  the  borrowing.  We  have  this  on  Dr.  Codrington's  excellent  authority 
(Melanesian  Languages  92) : 

The  formation  of  the  Fagani  figu  (star)  deserves  notice.  In  that  place  the  h  of  Wango, 
three  miles  off,  regularly  turns  to  /,  but  g  represents  the  same  letter  left  out,  perceptibly, 
with  a  gap  in  the  sound,  in  Wango.  The  Fagani  (Ha'ani  at  Wango)  word  figu  ought, 
then,  to  represent  the  Wango  hi'u,  and  in  fact  it  represents  he'u.  But  it  is  very  instruc- 
tive to  observe  that  the  gap  in  the  Wango  word  really  means  t,  not  g,  and  has  been  filled 
up  with  g  in  the  Fagani  word  under  a  misapprehension.  It  is  plain  that  the  Fagani 
and  Wango  words  are  independent,  because  one  comes  from  vitu,  one  from  vetu.  The 
interest  lies  in  the  filling  up  the  gap  with  g  in  Fagani,  because  the  gap  in  Wango  generally 
represents  g,  though  sometimes  it  is  in  place  of  t. 


200  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

_  -    .  77- 

usu,  iu,  u,  a  reed. 

Samoa :  u,  a  reed. 

Malekula:  ui,  a  reed.         Epi:  yi,  id. 

The  community  of  u  in  Samoa  and  Efat6  together  with  the  presence  of 
the  longer  form  usu  in  the  latter  argues  in  favor  of  usu  as  the  earlier  radical, 
which  has  been  preserved  in  Efate.  We  are  not  without  examples  in  these 
comparisons  of  the  possibility  of  a  double  terminal  abrasion,  first  the 
abrasion  of  a  final  vowel,  then  the  abrasion  of  the  consonant  thereby 
exposed,  thus  presenting  a  new  vowel  final.  This  seems  rather  to  have 
been  the  method  than  the  bodily  dropping  of  a  final  syllable.  This  note 
will  be  found  extended  in  98. 

Malekula  and  Epi  are  by  no  means  satisfactorily  identified.  They  seem 
much  more  distinctly  to  be  variants  of  some  radical  of  which  i  is  the  con- 
stant component. 

EFATE-POLYNESIAN-MALAY. 

78. 
ne,  here,  there,  this,  that. 

Samoa :  wgj,  this,  here.  Mangareva,  Aniwa,  Sikayana,  Futuna, 
Uvea,  Nuguria,  Niue:  nei,  this.  Maori:  nei,  denoting  near 
position.  Tahiti:  nei,  here,  now,  this.  Hawaii:  .nei,  this 
(of  place,  time,  person) .  Marquesas :  nei,  here,  now.  Paumotu : 
nei,  here.  Nukuoro:  nei,  now.  Raro tonga:  ainei,  this. 
Tonga:  ni,  this. 
Macassar:  inni,  this. 

79- 
tumatuma  i,  to  knock,  as  at  a  door  as  a  sign  to  open  it. 
Samoa :  tuma,  to  strike  with  the  knuckles. 
Malay :  antam,  to  knock. 

EFATE-POLYNESIAN-SEMITIC. 

80. 
aliali,  taliali,  to  delay,  be  slow. 

Hawaii :  alia,  to  wait,  to  stop  one  when  doing  a  thing,  to  restrain, 
used  imperatively,  stop !  wait !  take  care !  stand  aside !  Tahiti : 
aria,  stop !  hold !  Mangareva :  karia,  an  interjection  used  to 
show  off  a  thing  in  the  sense  "there!  do  you  see!"  Samoa: 
tali,  to  wait  for;  fa'atali,  id.  Futuna,  Uvea:  tali,  tatali,  to 
wait  for,  to  expect.  Maori :  tatari,  to  wait,  to  tarry.  Tahiti  : 
tatari,  to  wait,  to  delay.  Rapanui:  tatari,  to  wait  for. 
Nukuoro :  hakatari,  to  wait.  Hawaii :  kali,,  to  wait,  to  tarry, 
to  stay.  Tonga:  tali,  to  wait  for.  Rarotonga:  tatari,  to 
wait.  Marquesas :  tetai,  to  wait  for,  to  stay  for. 
Arabic:  ala  (alu),  alia',  to  delay,  be  slow. 

Particular  interest  attaches  to  the  synonymy  in  Efate  of  two  forms, 
each  of  which  is  found  in  Polynesia  though  never  again  are  they  brought 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  201 

together  in  the  same  speech.  The  existence  in  Polynesia  of  a  third  form 
in  k  (Mangareva  karia,  but  not  Hawaii  kali)  seems  to  point  out  this  as  an 
instance  in  which  shades  of  meaning  are  communicable  by  the  system  of 
consonantal  modulants  which  I  have  elsewhere  argued  at  length  (27  Ameri- 
can Journal  of  Philology,  392). 

81. 
amos  i,  amo,  amo-taki,  amo-rua,  tak'amo,  amoamo,  to  carry,  to  bear,  to 
carry  on  the  shoulder. 
Samoa,  Maori,  Hawaii,  Marquesas,  Mangaia :  amp,  to  carry  on  the 
shoulder.       Futuna :  amo,  to  carry  a  burden.       Uvea :  amonga, 
a  burden,  carrying  pole.       Tahiti :  amo,  to  carry  on  the  back. 
Moriori,  Nuguria:  amo,  to  carry  on  a  pole.       Aniwa:  amo,  to 
take.        Rapanui:  amo,  to  carry;  amo  mai,  to  bring;  amo,  a 
yoke;  amonga,  a  burden.         Tonga:  hafimo,  to  carry  on  the 
shoulder.         Niue:  hahamo,  to  carry  a  burden  on  a  pole. 
Hebrew :  'amas,  to  bear,  to  carry,  especially  to  lift  up  a  burden  and 
put  it  on  a  beast. 
That  the  Proto-Samoan  radical  is  hatnos  is  established  as  to  the  initial 
aspiration  by  Tonga  and  Niue,  as  to  the  final  consonant  by  Efate. 

82. 
bakateba,  to  watch,  to  look  out  for. 

Samoa:  tepa,  to  look  upward.        Futuna:  tepa,  to  turn  the  head 

or  eyes  in  order  to  look. 
Hebrew:  sapah,  to  look  out  for,  to  view,  to  watch. 

83- 
beingo,  baingo,  a  shell  trumpet,  a  kind  of  flute  (coconut  shell). 

Samoa,  Futuna,  Uvea :  fangufangu,  a  flute.  Tonga :  fangufangu, 
a  flute,  to  blow  through  the  nose.  Uvea:  fangu,  to  blow  the 
nose.  Niue :  fangu  e  ihu,  id.  Hawaii :  hanu,  to  emit  breath 
from  the  lungs ;  hanuhanu,  to  smell,  as  a  dogfollowing  the  track 
of  his  master. 
Arabic:  baka,  to  blow  a  trumpet;  ba'ku,  ba'ko,  a  trumpet. 

The  sense  of  the  Polynesian  will  be  made  satisfactorily  clear  by  the  note 
that  the  flute  is  played  at  the  nostrils.  If  the  coconut  shell  is  really  used 
in  Efate  as  a  musical  instrument  it  has  escaped  my  observation  and  all 
record,  so  far  as  I  have  seen,  and  at  any  rate  it  would  properly  be  classed 
rather  with  the  ocarina  than  with  the  flute. 

84. 
bua,  to  divide. 

Samoa:  vgsxa^ to  divide. 

Arabic:  fa' a,  fa'w',  fa'y',  to  split,  cleave,  to  be  open,  separated. 

If  there  be  any  validity  at  all  in  this  identification  it  must  be  with  the 
element  va  as  meaning  to  have  or  to  be  a  space  between.  It  will  call  for 
bu-v  mutation.  The  only  light  which  our  material  sheds  upon  such  a 
mutation  lies  in  the  similar  pu-v  in  vivini  (242)  to  crow  Malekula  puinpuin 
to  whistle.  On  the  radical  sense  of  va  see  27  American  Journal  of  Phil- 
ology, 387- 


202  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

85- 
bubu,  to  gargle. 

Samoa:  pupu,  to  gargle,  to  rinse  out  the  mouth.        Tonga:  bubur 

to  gargle. 
Arabic:  ba'ba',  ba'ba'u,  gurgling  sound  of  water  flowing  from  a 
bottle. 

86. 

bulifulia,  mabulu,  mafulu,  swollen  here  and  there,  fat. 

Samoa:  fula,  dropsy  of  the  belly,  stout;  fulafula,  swellings  on  the 
body ;  fufula,  to  swell ;  fulafula,  fulanga'i,  to  be  swollen.  Tonga : 
fula,  a  tumor,  a  hard  swelling;  fufula,  to  swell;  bubula,  a  swell- 
ing, protuberance,  to  swell,  to  bloat.  Futuna:  fula,  fufula, 
fulafula,  pula,  to  swell.  Niue :  fufula,  to  swell.  Uvea :  fufula, 
mapula,  id.  Hawaii:  hula,  a  swelling,  a  protuberance  under 
the  arm  or  on  the  thigh.  Fotuna :  no-fura,  to  swell ;  niko-fura, 
swollen. 

Hebrew :  'afal,  to  swell  up,  to  be  tumid.  Arabic :  'afila,  to  have  a 
tumor  or  hernia. 

The  Proto-Samoan  radical  being  fulang  we  should  look  for  the  final  con- 
sonant in  Efate.  Since  it  is  not  found,  since  even  the  vowel  is  different, 
we  are  not  to  accept  this  identification  as  altogether  satisfactory.  The 
labial  uncertainty,  however,  is  perhaps  critical.  The  hesitation  as  to  the 
employment  of  the  spirant  or  the  mute  is  carried  along  into  Nuclear  Poly- 
nesia ;  Tonga  uses  surd  spirant  and  sonant  mute ;  Futuna  and  Uvea  use 
surd  spirant  and  surd  (their  only)  mute. 

The  Semitic  is  still  farther  away  from  the  mark. 

87. 

buri,  biri,  to  pierce,  to  stick. 

Samoa ; velo,  to  cast  a  spear  or  dart,  to  spear.  Tonga:  vela,  to 
dart.  Futuna:  veto,  velosi,  to  lance.  Uvea:  velo,  to  cast; 
impulse,  incitement.  Niue:  -velo,  to  throw  a  spear  or  dart. 
Maori :  wero,  to  stab,  to  pierce,  to  spear.  Tahiti :  vero,  to  dart 
or  throw  a  spear.  Mangaia :  vero,  to  pierce,  to  lance.  Manga- 
reva:  vero,  to  lance,  to  throw  a  spear.  Marquesas:  veo,  to 
lance,  to  throw  a  spear. 
Ethiopic:  barara,  to  stick,  to  stab. 

The  Proto-Samoan  radical  being  velos  brings  this  under  the  same  com- 
ment as  in  the  last  preceding  item. 


elo,  el',  lolo,  sweet,  pleasant,  agreeable. 

Hawaii:  olu,  to  be  pleasant,  agreeable. 
Arabic:  hala',  halw',  to  be  pleasant,  agreeable. 

Without  more  data  we  may  neither  wholly  affirm  nor  quite  deny  this 
identification  as  between  Melanesian  and  Polynesian.  The  sole  point  of 
Semitic  resemblance  lies  in  the  possession  of  I. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  203 

89. 
emai,  jemwai,  in  the  distance,  far  away, 

Samoa,  Nukuoro :  woo^distant,  far.  Samoa,  Uvea,  Fakaafo,  Vate, 
Maori,  Hawaii,  Mangaia,  Manahiki,  Rarotonga,  Paumotu, 
Nuguria:  mamao,   distant,   far  away.  Tonga:  mamao,   id. 

Futuna :  mamao,  id.       Niue :  mamao,  id.       Tahiti :  taumamao, 
to  hang  out  of  reach.       Mangareva:  akamamao,  to  send  away. 
Marquesas :  memao,  distant,  far  away. 
Arabic:  ma' oka,  to  be  far  off,  distant;  ma'k',  distance. 
The  Polynesia  mamao  can  scarcely  be  brought  into  association  with  Efate 
emai,  as  our  author  suggests  without  any  consideration  of  the  difficulties. 
To  me  emai  seems  far  more  likely  to  be  the  widespread  mai,  from,  with  a 
verb-making  prefix.     In  neither  case  can  the  Semitic  be  said  to  have  any- 
thing to  do  with  the  matter. 

90. 
fam  i,  bam  i,  to  eat. 

Samoa :  samusamu,  to  eat  the  remains  of  food ;  samuti,  to  eat  (jocu- 
lar). Tonga:  hamu,  to  eat  food  of  one  kind  only.  Futuna : 
samuko,  id.  Maori:  hamuhamu,  to  eat  scraps.  Tahiti:  amu, 
to  eat;  aamu,  a  glutton;  hamu,  gluttonous;  aihamu,  to  eat 
gluttonously  the  leavings  of  others.  Hawaii:  hamu,  to  eat 
fragments  of  food.  Mangareva:  amu,  to  eat  with  the  mouth, 
not  using  the  hands;  to  eat  scraps  or  leavings. 
Hebrew:  pa' am,  to  have  the  mouth  full,  to  swallow  down.  Arabic: 
fa'ama,  id. 
The  Proto-Samoan  radical  is  samut. 

Against  the  identification  lie  two  objections.  In  my  note  77  I  have 
shown  how  the  abrasion  of  a  final  syllable  may  be  accounted  for  as  the 
abrasion  of  a  vowel  to  a  new  terminal  in  a  consonant  followed  by  a  second 
abrasion  of  the  consonant  to  a  new  terminal  in  a  vowel.  Such  operation  is 
sufficiently  rare  in  our  material ;  far  rarer  would  be  such  a  case  as  this,  the 
abrasion  first  of  consonant,  then  of  vowel,  to  end  upon  a  closed  syllable 
once  more.  The  mutation  s-f,  s-b,  must  be  rare  indeed,  for  these  materials 
show  not  a  single  instance  of  at  all  a  satisfactory  nature,  not  a  single 
instance  in  which  an  s  migrates  to  any  point  in  the  labial  column. 

The  Semitic  identification  is  as  remote  from  Efate  as  it  is  from  Polynesian. 

91. 
fasu,  fasua  na,  a  part,  portion,  member  of  the  body. 

Samoa:  fast,  to  split,  a  bit,  a  piece.  Fotuna:  no-fafasia,  to  split. 
Tonga:  faahi,  a  side,  a  half  of  anything  divided.  Futuna: 
faasi,  a  side,  a  portion.  Niue:  fahi,  a  side,  a  place.  Uvea: 
faahi,  a  side,  a  part,  to  divide.  Nuguria :  te  vahi  mahina,  the 
crescent  moon. 
Viti :  vathi,  to  cut  (chiefly  of  yams) ;  pieces  of  yam  for  planting. 
Hebrew:  basa',  cut  in  pieces.  Arabic:  bas'a'a,  to  cut,  to  cleave; 
bas"at,  a  part,  a  piece. 

The  vowel  change  i-u  is  not  so  rare  as  to  vitiate  this  identification  (see 
17  Journal  of  the  Polynesian  Society,  85). 


204  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

92. 
fonga,  afo,  nafo,  whetstone,  grinding  stone,  and  (because  used  as  a  whet- 
stone) pumice. 
Tonga,  Futuna,  Uvea,  Niue:  fuanga,  a  grindstone.        Tonga:  fuo- 
fuanga,  pumice.     Samoa :  foanga,  grindstone.     Maori :  hoanga, 
grindstone,  whetstone.         Mangareva:  hoanga,  oanga,  a  fine 
volcanic  stone  used  for  whetstones,  a  grindstone.    Hawaii :  hogma, 
a  hone,  whetstone,  grindstone.       Tahiti:  hoaa,  a  whetstone. 
Arabic:  nasfa-t,  whetstone,  pumice. 

The  stem  is  }o  and  fu.  This  surely  can  have  nothing  to  do  with  the 
Semitic  identification  proposed.  There  is  reason  for  doubt  as  to  the  defini- 
tion. It  will  be  understood  that  whetstone  must  be  a  very  modern  sense 
of  the  word  in  the  Pacific,  for  until  the  Europeans  brought  iron  the  islanders 
had  nothing  to  whet,  since  the  process  of  putting  an  edge  on  stone  imple- 
ments is  a  tedious  process  of  grinding.  How  far  pumice  is  susceptible  of 
such  employment  in  whetting  iron  I  am  unable  to  say,  but  in  the  grinding 
of  stone  it  can  have  little  value.  If  it  were  not  for  the  fact  that  the  pumice 
sense  is  recorded  from  Tonga  I  should  incline  to  regard  the  explanation  given 
in  the  Efate  case  as  a  labored  effort  to  produce  harmony  with  the  Arabic. 

93- 
ngafa,  a  fathom. 

Samoa,    Tonga,    Nukuoro:  ngafa,    a   fathom.  Niue:  ofa,    id. 

(Lamotrek:  ngaf,  id.) 
Arabic:  kamat,  a  fathom. 
The  exact  agreement  of  Efate  and  Nuclear  Polynesia  suggests  no  connec- 
tion with  the  proposed  Arabic  source  other  than  that  of  identity  of  meaning. 

94- 
ngaingai,  to  pant,  to  be  out  of  breath. 

Samoa:  nga  (Tutuila  dialect),  nga'e,  to  breathe  hard,  to  pant,  to 
be  out  of  breath.         Tonga:  nga,  to  pant;  ngaaki,  to  cough. 
Futuna :  ngaaki,  to  pant,  to  be  out  of  breath.    Mangareva :  nga, 
to  be  hoarse.        Maori :  nga,  to  breathe ;  tunganga,  to  be  out 
of  breath.     Hawaii:  na,  to  gasp,  to  half -breathe ;  nae,  to  pant. 
Marquesas :  nae,  obstructed  respiration.       Rapanui :  ngaengae, 
shortness  of  breath,  out  of  breath. 
Syriac :  hah,  to  pant. 
The  Proto-Samoan  radical  is  ngak.    The  Efate  is  explicable  as  formed 
from  the  already  abraded  stem  by  the  verb-forming  suffix. 

95- 
ngoko  i,  ngokoi,  ngokei,  ngokai,  to  scrape,  to  mark,  to  paint,  to  smear  (all 
used  in  reference  to  nafona  or  bast  cloth) ;  koko,  reddish  juice 
or  paint  for  bast  cloth  made  from  a  plant  of  the  same  name. 
Samoa:  'q'ai,  to  mark  or  paint  bast  cloth;  'o'a,  the  tree  {Bischoffia 
javanica)  from  which  is  obtained  the  coloring  matter  for  this 
use.  Tonga :  koka,  the  name  of  the  tree  ut  sup. ;  to  paint  cloth. 
Futuna :  koka,  id.  Niue :  koka,  name  of  a  tree  whose  wood  is 
used  for  rafters. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  205 

Hebrew :  hakah,  hakak,  to  cut  into,  to  hack,  to  engrave,  to  carve,  to 
draw,  to  paint,  to  delineate. 

The  identification  involves  none  but  frequent  mutations  as  between 
Eiate  and  Nuclear  Polynesia.  The  verb  may  be  derived  from  the  tree 
name ;  the  tree  may  have  been  named  from  the  purpose  to  which  it  is  put. 
Of  the  two  equal  possibilities  I  incline  to  the  former,  for  the  use  of  the  i 
in  forming  the  Samoan  verb  tends  to  make  it  transitive  and  specific,  literally 
to  put-feofea-on.  If  this  be  so  the  sense  is  one  of  painting  or  daubing. 
Therefore  in  Efate,  where  our  author  specifies  that  it  is  used  only  of  bast 
cloth  as  in  Samoa,  the  sense  "to  scrape"  can  only  be  descriptive  of  the 
motion  of  painting  and  without  signification  of  removing  aught.  He 
has  evidently  relied  upon  that  sense  to  clinch  his  identification  of  meaning 
with  the  Hebrew  word  proposed  as  ancestral.  The  general  quality  of  his 
Semitic  parallels  is  quaintly  illustrated  in  this  Hebrew  word.  He  has  given, 
in  which  I  have  duly  followed  him,  the  emphasis  of  italics  to  the  definition 
hack,  evidently  struck  with  the  resemblance  hakah-hack,  and  not  unwilling 
to  let  the  implication  stand  that  our  hack  is  Yiddish.  Our  Germanic  fore- 
bears had  the  word  long  before  they  acquired  the  raw  material  of  the 
Judenhetze. 

96. 
kaf,  to  be  bent. 

Maori:  kohu,  somewhat  bent,  concave,  warped. 
Hebrew  Ckafaf,  to  be  bent. 
Cf.  kabwe  179. 

97- 
kail,  takari,  to  hasten,  to  go  swiftly. 

Maori:  hsxi.<,  keri,  to  rush  along  violently,  as  wind. 
Arabic :  kara,  to  hasten. 

98. 
kon,  kona,  kokon,  ngkon,  to  be  bitter. 

Samoa :  'ona,  'o'ona,  bitter,  sour,  acid,  poisonous ;  'onasia,  to  be  drunk, 
poisoned.         Tonga:  kona,  konahia,  bitter,  drunk,  poisoned. 
Futuna:  kona,  bitter,  poison.         Niue:  kona,  konahia,  bitter, 
acid, nauseous,  drunk,  poisoned.     Nuguria:  kona,  sour.     Uvea: 
kona,  bitter,  poisoned,  drunk;  konahia,  drunkenness.     Fotuna: 
kona,  drunk.       Hawaii :  ona,  drunk.       Tahiti :  onaona,  sharp, 
disagreeable. 
Mota:  gogona,  bitter.      Santo:  kogona,  id.      Eromanga:  nakan,  id. 
Arabic:  homa-t,  bitter,  heat,  gall,  poison.        Ethiopic:  hama-t,  id. 
Hebrew:  hamah,  id. 
The  Proto-Samoan  radical  is  konas. 

The  Efat6  forms  show  us  still  more  clearly  than  in  77  the  graduation  of 
the  process  by  which  a  final  syllable  is  lost,  not  as  syllable  but  by  successive 
abrasion  of  its  members.  In  kona  we  have  the  transition  form  after  the 
abrasion  of  the  final  s.  In  kon,  kokon,  ngkon  we  find  the  ultimate  result 
upon  the  abrasion  of  the  then  final  vowel.  Thus  it  is  made  clear  that  the 
syllable  does  not  drop  off  as  a  unit. 

The  proposed  Semitic  identifications  accord  with  this  only  in  one  or  in 
two  vowels,  the  consonant  structure  being  wholly  unlike. 


206  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

99- 
leba,  a  species  of  earth,  clay,  mud,  dirt. 

Maori :repo, dirt.    Tahiti:  repo, earth, dirt, mold, dust, filth.    Manga- 

reva :  repo,  dirt,  ordure.      Paumotu :  repo,  dirt,  mire.     Hawaii: 

lepo,  general  name  for  dirt,  dust,  defilement  of  any  sort,  clay. 

soil,  earth,  dung.     Marquesas :  epo,  dust,  dirt,  mire,  mud,  earth, 

Arabic:  tabi'a,  dirty;  tabe',  taba',  dirt,  mud;  tub' an,  clay. 

ioo. 
lifaru,  libuis,  rafalu,  rffalu,  a  part,  some. 

Niue:  }alu,  some,  a  little.        Fotuna:  efaru,  some,  many.       Tahiti: 

farm,  some.       Nukuoro:  harm,  a  little. 
Arabic:  ba's'u,  a  part,  some. 

IOI. 

mak,  to  fall,  become  mild,  gentle,  die  away,  as  the  wind;  mao,  maomao, 
to  be  gentle,  mild. 
Samoa :  mao,  lull  in  the  wind  or  the  waves,  the  lull  in  a  reef  opening. 
Tonga :  maomao,  dry,  applied  to  the  intervals  between  showers. 
Niue :  mao,  fine  after  rain,  to  cease  raining.        Futuna,  Maori, 
Tahiti:  mao,  to  cease  raining.        Hawaii:  mag,  to  pass  away, 
as  fog  or~cToud.       Marquesas :  mao,  dry,  as  land  once  wet. 
Syriac:  mak,  to  be  cast  down,  prostrated,  humble,  mild.       Arabic: 
mahiha,  to  be  mild. 
The  difficulty  here  is  that  mak,  which  has  to  do  with  the  wind,  does  not 
identify  itself  with  the  Polynesian  mao;  and  that  mao,  which  accords  in 
form  with  the  Polynesian,  lacks  accord  in  sense.     Because  we  must  rest 
upon  the  Polynesian  base  of  form  and  signification  we  cannot  accept  this 
identification  with  Efat6  and  therefore  must  decline  the  Semitic  which 
our  author  identifies  with  his  Efate"  material. 

102. 
malei,  to  divorce. 

Samoa :  alei,  to  divorce. 
Aneityum :  arei,  to  drive  away. 
Arabic :  hala'a,  to  divorce. 
If  Melanesia  or  Polynesia  afforded  more  identifications  we  could  pass 
more  confidently  on  this.     If  malei  be  an  older  form  of  the  word  we  then 
have  to  do  with  a  case  of  frontal  abrasion,  not  wholly  unknown  yet  rare, 
as  will  be  seen  in  the  tables  in  the  Melanesian  chapter. 
But  the  Semitic  accords  with  neither. 

103. 
maloi,  buloi,  a  mask,  cover  of  the  face. 

Samoa:  pulou,  a  head  covering,  bonnet,  turban.  Tonga:  bulou,  a 
veil  or  cover  to  conceal  the  face ;  buloa,  a  mask.  Futuna :  pulou, 
to  veil,  to  cover  the  head.  Uvea :  fakapulou,  to  veil.  Hawaii : 
feulou,  to  cover  the  head,  to  blindfold.  Tahiti :  purou,  to  cover 
the  head.  Mangareva :  puroku,  to  cover  the  head,  as  withahat. 
Rapanui:  pud,  to  put  on  a  hat.     Nuguria:  buloo,  a  hat. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  207 

Viti :  vulou,  pulou,  to  cover  oneself  up  face  and  all. 
Arabic:  barka'a,  to  cover  the  face,  to  veil;  burka'o,  burk'u,  a  veil. 

104. 
malofloi,  to  be  feeble,  tottering  from  weakness. 

Hawaii:  foglgg,  maloeloe,  feeble,  faint,  weary. 

Arabic:  la'la'a,  to  be  infirm  and  weak  from  disease  and  languor. 

105. 
masirsir,  to  sob,  as  after  crying. 
Samoa:  masusu,  to  sob. 
Arabic:  zahara,  to  pant  or  gasp  with  vehemence  and  groaning. 

The  equivalence  herein  involved,  sir-su,  is  extraordinary;  and  Dr. 
Macdonald's  grammar  of  Efat6  is  so  completely  devoted  to  the  statement 
of  his  Semitic  theory  that  we  encounter  no  suggestion  as  to  the  pronuncia- 
tion of  sir.  It  may  be  that  he  intends  it  to  be  pronounced  as  the  syllable 
would  be  if  English.  In  that  case  the  vowel  change  is  reasonable  and  the 
identification  excellent. 

The  Semitic,  however,  seems  not  to  fit. 

106. 

(a)  mau,  true;  loamau,  truth,  true. 

Tahiti:  mau,  true.     Mangareva:  mau,  id.     Rapanui:  mau,  certain. 

(b)  mau,  firm,  intrepid,  brave. 

Samoa :  maUjjto  be  firm,  decided,  unwavering.       Tonga :  mau,  fast, 
firm,  constant,  unwavering.         Maori :  mom,  fixed,  steadfast. 
Nuguria:  tamau,  to  bind. 
■(c)  mau,  to  come  upon,  to  obtain,  to  find. 

Samoa:  maua,  to  get,  obtain,  have,  take.  Maori:  mau,  to  take 
up,  lay  hold  of,  seize.  Tahiti :  mau,  to  hold,  to  seize.  Tonga : 
mau,  to  obtain,  possess.  Mangareva :  mau,  to  hold,  to  seize. 
Tongarewa :  mau,  to  possess.  Uvea :  mau,  to  seize,  to  grasp, 
to  hold,  to  contain.  Rapanui:  mau,  to  hold,  to  accept,  to 
acquire;  maua,  to  find;  maoa,  to  hold. 
id)  mau,  very,  indeed,  continually. 

Maori:  mau,  continuing,  lasting.      Samoa:  mau-,  very.      Hawaii: 
mau,  constantly,  continually.    Tonga :  mau,  always,  perpetually. 
Bienan:  lehmau,  truth,  true. 

Hebrew :  'aman,  to  prop ;  'amen,  firm,  unshaken,  faithful.    Arabic : 

'amana,  to  confide  in;  'amuna,  to  be  faithful;  'amina,  to  trust, 

to  be  secure.        Syriac:  'eman,  to  persevere,  to  be  constant; 

'amen,  verily,  truly,  certainly. 

The  Ef  a  t6- Polynesian  identifications  are  satisfactory  in  all  four  groups. 

The  Semitic  is  not  satisfactory  in  form  at  all. 

107. 
mwota,  motamwota,  refuse,  rubbish,  as  fallen  leaves. 

Samoa:  otaota,  rubbish,  filth,  ordure.  Tonga:  otoota,  sweepings, 
rubbish.  Futuna:  btabta,  impurities  in  a  badly  strained  fluid. 
Niue :  otaota,  rubbish,  refuse.  Uvea :  otaota,  excrement,  dung, 
filth,  dirt.     Maori:  ota,  sawdust;  otaota,  weeds,  litter.    Tahiti: 


208  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

ota,    chaff,    refuse.         Paumotu:    ota,    residue.         Rapanui: 
hakaotaola,  to  crumble.         Hawaii:  oka,  refuse;  okaoka,  dust. 
Arabic:  "ota',  rubbish,  refuse. 

Again  we  encounter  what  seems  to  be  a  frontal  abrasion,  and  it  involves 
the  same  consonant  as  in  102.  More  evidence  on  the  Melanesian  side  is 
needed  before  the  identification  will  be  quite  satisfactory.  But  if  the  m  is 
indeed  radical  it  removes  the  resemblance  on  which  the  Semitic  identifica- 
tion is  based. 

108. 

nai,  side  board  of  a  canoe,  defender  of  a  place,  fence. 

Samoa:  a,  ai,  a  fence,  railing.  Tonga:  a,  fence,  hedge;  ai,  to 
surround,  inclose,  defend.  Futuna:  a,  wall,  hedge,  fence, 
anything  which  makes  an  inclosure.  Uvea:  a,  wall,  fence.. 
Tahiti :  nanai,  to  put  in  a  hedge. 

Arabic:  nawa',  naa',  to  guard,  to  protect. 

This  involves  a  frontal  abrasion,  namely  of  n;  but  the  recurrence  of  the 
n  in  Tahiti  nanai  is  very  good  evidence  in  favor  of  the  identification. 

109. 

nobwa,  ob,  naob,  lime  (ashes  of  coral);  nobwanobwa,  to  be  dusty,  to 

become  dust,  to  fly  in  the  air  (dust). 
Samoa :  navu,  lime. 
Pokau:a-y#~lime.     Mekeo :  apu,  id.     Motu:  ahu,  id.     Hula:a&w,  id. 

Galoma:  gabu,  id.  Sinaugoro:  gau,  id.  Rubi:  gou,  id. 

Sariba:  gauarana,  id.      Nada:  pwau,  id.      Kiriwina:  pwak,  id.. 

Wedau:  gabubua,  id.       Panaieti,  Misima:  aru,  id. 
Arabic:  cf.  no. 

The  Samoan  may  be  homogenetic  with  nobwa,  but  it  is  impossible  to 
associate  it  with  ob  and  naob,  unless  the  decrepit  forms  from  Torres 
Straits  are  susceptible  of  interpretation  as  transition  stages.  That  nobwa 
is  not  itself  a  modification  of  ob  with  the  article  is  clear  from  the  fact 
that  nobwa  takes  the  article  and  then  becomes  nanobwa. 

no. 

noba-ni,  tuma-ni,  tumu  na,  tomo  na,  manubunubu,  to  wrap  in  leaves  with 
hot  stones  and  cook;  nobwanobwa,  to  be  cooked,  soft. 
Hawaii:  nopu,  thoroughly  cooked,  soft,  plump,  fat,  swelled  out; 
nopunopu,  to  spring  or  swell  up  (in  the  mind),  to  swell,  to  be 
large,  round,  to  spring  up. 
Arabic:  tabaha,  tabh',  to  cook,  roast,  ripen,  to  grow  up,  to  be  cooked; 
tubbah',  tabih',  fatness;  tabih',  cooked. 

In  the  fact  that  there  may  be  a  satisfactory  sense  identification  of  the 
Hawaiian  with  nobwanobwa  I  see  no  warrant  to  extend  the  identification 
to  the  inclusion  of  nobani  and  manubunubu  where  the  difference  in  significa-  - 
tion  seems  prohibitive.  Granted  that  this  complete  identification  be  valid 
it  can  serve  in  no  way  to  admit  tumani  and  the  other  forms  in  t;  yet  it  is 
upon  the  t  in  these  forms  that  our  author  hangs  his  Semitic  identifications. 
They  bear  no  relation  to  the  Polynesian. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  209 


nu  e  a,  nunu  ea,  to  wipe,  to  rub ;  nunu,  a  wiper,  a  rubber. 

Samoa:  nunu,  to  grate  down,  as  turmeric;  nuanga,  the  grating  of 
arrowroot  and  turmeric.  Futuna :  nu,  nunu,  to  grate  arrow- 
root.        Niue:  nu-pia,  id. 

Arabic :  t'amma,  to  sweep,  to  rub,  to  wipe  off. 

112. 

ofiofi,  ofi,  afi,  to  be  near  to,  alongside  of. 

Tonga:  ofi,  near  at  hand,  nearness.        Futuna:  ofi,   ofiofi,  near, 

close  to.        Uvea:  ovi,  id. 
Arabic:  wahafa,  wahf ,  to  draw  near  to,  to  approach. 

"3- 
rakei,  raki,  to  adorn,  to  dress. 

Samoa:  la'ei,  dracsena  leaves  tied  to  a  stone  to  attract  cuttlefish, 
to  fisJTwith  that  device,  to  wear  a  train,  to  dress  for  a  review 
of  troops;  la'ei'au,  to  exercise  troops  at  a  review,  to  have  all 
ready  for  war.  Tonga :  lakei,  leaves  made  fast  to  the  stone 
used  in  catching  the  catfish  as  an  ornament,  to  fish  therewith. 
Futuna:  lakei,  used  only  of  a  garment,  to  have  a  long  train. 
Nuguria :  lagei,  to  paint  the  body  with  turmeric .  Mangareva : 
rakei,  to  ornament,  to  adorn,  a  garland,  chaplet,  decoration. 
Rapanui:  rakei,  an  ornament,  to  adorn,  to  embellish. 

Fthiopic :  lahaya,  to  adorn,  to  dress. 

114. 

raku  sa,  raraku  sa,  taraku  sa,  taku-ti,  to  bind  up,  to  remove  one's  things 

as  in  a  flitting,  to  remove,  to  carry  away. 
Samoa:  la'u,  to  clear  off,  to  carry  away;  la'u  mai,  to  bring.     Uvea: 

laku,  to  send,  to  throw  into.       Hawaii:  laujg,us  a  bundle,  bag; 

a  wrapper  of  a  bundle,  the  netting  in  which  food  is  carried; 

lalau,  to  seize,  to  catch  hold  of. 
Arabic:  raka,  to  dig,  to  bind  up. 

"5- 
ras  i,  tas  i,  to  shave  the  head,  to  strip  off  fruit  from  a  tree. 
Samoa :  lase,  to  scrape  off  warts. 

Mota :  ras^rasa,  to  scrape,  to  scratch,  to  rub.     Malo :  rosi,  to  scrape. 
Ethiopic:  las'aya,  to  shave. 

116. 

ruru,  a  cluster;  rei,  a  band  of  men,  a  clump  of  trees. 

Maori :  ruru,  to  tie  together.  Tonga :  lulu,  the  reeding  of  a  house. 
Tahiti:  ruru,  to  congregate.  Mangareva:  rurue,  to  bring 
together  a  crowd ;  ruruku,  to  head  up  leaves.  Paumotu :  ruru, 
a  coop,  a  cage;  ruruhanga,  an  assembly,  to  collect  an  assembly. 

Arabic:  ra'a,  to  grow,  luxuriate,  be  congregated;  ri'at,  a  band,  a 
crowd. 


210     .  THE  POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 


h  • 


r!  117. 

siuer  (siwer),  suara,  suuara,  surata,  to  walk,  proceed,  go  away;  sisiuer, 
susuara,  to  walk  about. 
Samoa:  savali,  savavali,  to  walk. 
Arabic :  safara,  sifar',  to  make  a  journey,  to  go  away. 

The  identification  is  not  wholly  satisfactory  nor  yet  to  be  set  aside,  for 
we  have  no  such  chain  of  data  as  would  enable  us  to  make  a  sure  determi- 
nation. The  v-u(w)  mutation  is  sufficiently  frequent  to  call  for  no  remark; 
thus  siuer  and  suuara  are  accounted  for  and  suara  is  but  a  slight  and  single 
step  removed.  But  surata  is  not  by  any  means  in  the  same  line  and  is 
impossible  of  association.  In  the  reduplicated  forms  lies  the  strongest 
argument  against  identity;  it  will  be  observed  that  while  Samoa  duplicates 
the  latter  member,  savavali,  Efate  duplicates  the  former,  sisiuer.  In  the 
discussion  of  a  single  item  in  the  great  topic  of  duplication  (Duplication  by 
Dissimilation,  30  American  Journal  of  Philology,  173)  I  have  presented  the 
argument  in  proof  of  the  determination  of  the  relative  importance  of  the 
two  parts  of  a  composite  word  as  revealed  in  the  duplication.  It  is  here 
seen  that  in  Samoa  the  latter  element,  bearing  the  duplication,  is  of  the 
more  importance.  We  can  scarcely  believe  it  possible  that  this  assignment 
of  importance  is  but  a  modern  development  in  Polynesia;  it  surely  must 
have  been  even  better  recognized  in  the  earlier  phase  when  they  were  migrant 
through  Melanesia.  If  siuer  be  a  Polynesian  loan  word,  and  I  have  already 
remarked  (1.  c.  180)  upon  the  fact  that  wherever  the  words  which  undergo 
duplication  in  Efate  are  susceptible  of  identification  they  are  uniformly  of 
Polynesian  stock,  it  seems  strange  that  in  adopting  the  Polynesian  mech- 
anism of  duplication  these  Melanesians  should  have  misapplied  it.  Of  the 
twenty-five  identifiable  duplications  in  that  paper  thirteen  correspond 
exactly  with  the  Samoan  duplicated  forms;  eleven  are  not  comparable 
because  of  the  absence  of  duplication  in  these  words  in  Samoan ;  one  only 
is  at  variance  with  the  Samoan  duplication,  and  in  this  case  the  Samoan 
has  two  words  of  the  same  sound  but  of  different  sense,  only  one  of  which 
is  duplicated,  and  the  duplicated  Efate  form  corresponds  with  the  form 
of  the  duplicated  Samoan,  but  with  the  sense  of  the  unduplicated,  and  it 
would  seem  that  the  Samoan  had  but  specialized  to  avoid  the  chance  of 
error.  We  may,  then,  accept  the  general  principle  that  Efate"  duplicates 
the  same  elements  as  Samoan.  This  determination,  and  I  must  regard 
it  as  based  on  good  grounds,  militates  against  this  identification. 

The  Semitic  identification  proposed  is  altogether  too  good  in  form  when 
we  regard  the  length  of  their  separation  from  the  putative  common  stock. 
The  Samoan  has  but  the  single  sense  of  walking,  the  act  of  such  locomotion 
with  no  slightest  suggestion  of  either  terminus.  The  sense  of  the  Arabic 
bears  no  relation  to  the  Samoan.  It  is  only  in  Efate  that  the  two  signifi- 
cations are  brought  together  so  that  a  transition  might  be  possible.  If 
the  two  words  are  formally  identifiable  Efate"  has  the  walking  sense. 
Unfortunately  our  author's  propensity  to  make  out  his  case  at  any  cost 
is  now  so  well  comprehended  that  little  dependence  can  be  placed  in  his 
ingeniously  devised  transition  through  "proceed"  to  "go  away." 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  211 

118. 

suli  na,  shoot  (as  of  a  banana),  offspring  (of  man) ;  sulia,  to  have  shoots. 

Samoa :  suti^  shoot  of  a  banana,  son  of  a  chief.  Tonga :  huli,  a 
plant,  a  sapling,  a  shoot  (as  huli  }uji,  the  shoot  of  the  banana). 
Niue:  huli,  young  seed  plants  of  the  taro.  Hawaii:  huli,  the 
name  of  taro  tops  for  planting.  Maori :  huri,  seed.  Rapanui : 
huri,  a  stalk.        Mangareva :  huri,  banana  shoot. 

Viti :  suli,  a  banana  sucker. 

Mota  Maligo:  suliu,  a  sucker  from  roots,  a  shoot  from  tubers. 
Mota  Veverau:  sului,  id.,  and  children,  offspring. 

Hebrew :  neser,  a  sprout,  shoot,  offspring. 

119. 

tafa,  a  hill,  lit.  that  which  goes  up  or  is  high;  high,  above. 

Samoa ijajia,  the  side  of  a  hill.       Rapanui:  taha,  to  lean,  to  incline; 
tahataha,  boundary,  frontier;  hakataha,  to  turn  aside,  to  decline, 
to  be  on  the  side. 
Tigre :  day  aba,  to  go  up.        Fthiopic :  diba,  above. 

A  squinting  etymology. 

120. 
tera,  to  be  quick,  swift. 

Samoa :  telea'i,  to  run  quickly;  teletele,  to  be  quick,  step  out;  televave, 
telelise,  to  be  very  quick.  Futuna :  telekaki,  to  rim  swiftly, 
to  go  with  speed ;  televave,  one  who  goes  swiftly.  Mangareva : 
tere,  to  go  well,  to  sail  well.  Maori :  tere,  to  move  swiftly,  to 
be  quick.         Sikayana:  tere,  to  rim.  Fotuna:  no-tere,  id. 

Rapanui:  tere,  id.;  hakatere,  to  urge  to  haste. 

Arabic :  darra,  to  run  vehemently  or  swiftly,  to  turn  a  spindle  very 
swiftly. 

EFATE-MELANESIAN-VITI-POLYNESIAN. 

121. 

barab,  baraf,  barau,  baram,  long,  high  (as  a  hill). 
Tonga:  baleva,  tall,  long,  overgrown. 
Viti:  mbalavu,  long,  generally  of  space. 
Malo:  barauo,  long,  wide.  Makelula  Uripiv:  periv,  id. 

Our  author's  association  of  this  with  laba  (307)  expresses  his  curiosity 
rather  than  his  acumen.  The  identification  as  here  set  down  seems  excel- 
lent ;  it  certainly  bears  very  prettily  upon  the  Viti  track  and  its  extension 
to  Nuclear  Polynesia  in  Tonga  rather  than  in  Samoa. 

122. 

bi,  fi,  reflexive  preformative. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea :  fe,  reciprocal  prefix.     Cf .  Maori 

■wheia.  wheanganga. 
Viti:  vet,  reflexive  prefix.        Rotuma:  hoi. 


212  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Arag,  Nggela,  Vaturanga,  Bugotu:  vei,  reflexive  prefix.  Wango, 
Saa:  hei.  Ulawa:  hai.  Fagani:  fat.  Roro:  bai.  Kabadi: 
vai.  Sinaugoro,  Keapara,  Kabadi,  Hula :  ve.  Galoma :  be. 
Pokau :  vi.  Duke  of  York :  we.  Motu :  he.  Nengone :  e. 
Mota,  Merlav,  Retan:  var.  Pala:  har.  New  Britain,  Bara- 
von:  war.  Kabakada:  wara.  Lakon:  va'.  Motlav,  Pak, 
Leon,  Vuras,  Mosin,  Alo  Teqel,  Gog,  Norbarbar,  Lo :  ver.  Volow : 
vear.  Omba:  vui.  Maewo:  vagal. 
We  have  several  elements  in  this  problem  which  detailed  examination 
will  tend  to  simplify. 

(i)  The  Nuclear  Polynesian  type,  fe.  In  Melanesia  this  is  found  in 
Efat6  hi,  fi;  in  Duke  of  York  we;  in  several  variants  in  Torres  Straits; 
and  as  an  attrition  fragment  probably  in  Nengone  e. 

(2)  The  Viti  type,  vei.  This  I  regard  as  the  same  as  fe  but  representing 
a  later  development,  for  the  t'-suffix  is  well  marked  as  verb-formative  when 
the  language  is  beginning  to  feel  the  need  of  specification  in  the  use  of  the 
much  including  attributive  (27  American  Journal  of  Philology,  378). 

Its  fullest  form  is  in  Viti,  Arag,  Nggela,  Vaturanga,  Bugotu,  vei;  thence 
to  Wango,  Saa,  hei. 

A  second  series  is  Fagani  fai,  Ulawa  hai. 

With  the  single  exception  of  Arag  in  the  New  Hebrides  to  serve  as  a 
link  these  forms  are  all  from  the  Solomons,  with  New  Guinea  offshoots  of 
Kabadi  vai,  and  Roro  bai. 

Rotuma  hoi  is  the  second  element  in  yet  a  third  series,  the  spirant  form 
with  this  vowel  nowhere  appearing. 

(3)  We  now  have  a  widespread  suite  with  a  second  consonant.  For 
this  reason  we  must  dissociate  it  from  the  foregoing.  It  does  not  come 
over  into  Polynesia  with  the  slightest  trace  of  the  second  consonant.  Yet 
it  is  possible  that  it  represents  an  original  from  which  the  foregoing  derive 
by  abrasion. 

Its  fullest  form  is  in  New  Guinea  in  Kabakada  wara. 

With  abrasion  of  the  final  vowel  we  have  Mota,  Merlav,  Retan  var;  New 
Britain,  Baravon  war;  Pala  har.  In  Volow  it  is  a  characteristic  peculiarity 
to  introduce  e  before  a  in  a  closed  syllable ;  its  vear  serves  as  a  transition 
form  to  Motlav,  Pak,  Leon,  Vuras,  Mosin,  Alo  Teqel,  Gog,  Norbarbar,  Lo, 
ver.  The  Lakon  va'  is  a  degeneration  of  var,  dependent  on  the  language 
peculiarity  which  Dr.  Codrington  records  "at  the  end  of  words  r is  not  trilled 
and  sometimes  with  abrupt  pronunciation  is  not  heard;"  it  may  be  taken 
as  the  transition  stage  from  the  forms  with  two  consonants  to  the  Poly- 
nesian type.  This  suite  is  found  in  the  Banks  Group,  New  Britain  and 
New  Guinea. 

Omba  vui  is  not  explained  in  our  vocabularies.  If  it  be  permissible  to 
regard  the  u  as  functioning  as  semivowel  w,  then  vwi  might  be  regarded  as 
associable  with  Efate"  bi,  fi,  which  also  shows  an  uncertainty  in  striking  the 
exact  sound  of  the  labial.  From  its  close  neighborhood  to  Arag,  which  has 
vei,  Omba  might  be  expected  to  show  some  form  of  this  type. 

The  Maewo  vagal  seems  an  utter  anomaly.  Dr.  Codrington  says  "it  is 
not  clear  what  vagal  may  be."  It  will  be  seen  that  va-ga-l  suggests  the 
common  Banks  Group  type  var  with  an  infix;  but  we  have  no  authority 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  213 

to  assume  that  infixation  is  a  formative  principle  so  remote  from  Indonesia. 
I  note  one  more  statement  by  Codrington :  "the  syllables  are  mostly  open; 
indeed,  though  it  is  common  to  close  a  syllable,  it  is  hardly  looked  upon  as 
correct."  If  this  has  any  bearing  on  the  problem  it  may  serve  to  indicate 
a  probability  that  vagal  is  loan  material. 

123. 

lalo  na,  lalu  na,  the  belly,  the  front,  the  under  side  (as  of  cloth). 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea,  Hawaii:  lalo,  below,  beneath, 
under,  down.  Nuguria:  hakalalo,  south.  Maori,  Tahiti, 
Rarotonga,  Tongarewa,  Bukabuka,  Mangareva,  Paumotu,  Sika- 
yana,  Aniwa,  Fotuna,  Nukuoro:  raro,  id.  Rapanui:  raro, 
under, leeward.  Aniwa :  iraro, iroro, under,  below.  Nukuoro: 
kiraro,  below ;  kailalopoli,  mean,  stingy.  Marquesas :  ao,  below, 
beneath,  under,  down.         Moiki:  ngango,  id. 

Viti:  ira,  kira,  maira  (ra),  below. 

Mota:  lalangai,  the  under  side;  alalange,  ilalange,  talalange,  under. 
Motlav,  Volow,  Pak,  Mosin,  Alo  Teqel:  lalange,  id.  Lakon: 
lalnga,  id.  Vuras:  alalnge,  id.        Retan,  Sasar:  lalange,  id. 

Leon :  lalanga,  id.     Merlav,  Gog :  lang,  id.     Vaturanga :  i  lao,  id. 

While  I  have  followed  our  author's  suggestion  of  identification  and  have 
carried  it  out  to  the  limit  of  my  material  I  remain  quite  unconvinced  that 
there  is  anything  valid  in  the  Efate  identification.  To  begin  with,  the  Poly- 
nesian material  all  means  below,  the  Fijian  below,  the  Melanesian  under, 
except  that  in  Mota  appears  also  the  signification  of  the  under  side  which 
Dr.  Macdonald  ascribes  to  his  Efate.  Next,  so  far  as  concerns  lalo  the 
belly  we  shall  have  no  hesitation  in  bringing  it  into  association  with  Samoa 
alo  belly  in  the  courtesy  speech,  for  not  only  have  we  elaborated  the  prob- 
abilities of  frontal  abrasion,  but  in  Efate  we  have  also  alo  (48)  belly  as  a 
variant  of  lalo. 

Assuming  that  Efate  has  a  lalo  which  has  so  much  of  the  "below"  sense 
as  is  suggested  by  "the  under  side  (as  of  cloth)"  we  now  proceed  to  the 
examination  of  its  identification. 

The  identification  in  that  sense  is  satisfactory  so  far  as  relates  to  the 
Polynesian.  In  Melanesia  it  will  be  found  in  Vaturanga  lao,  for  an  inner 
/  is  frequently  dropped  in  that  speech  in  words  where  Nggela  retains  it,  a 
statement  by  Dr.  Codrington  which  may  lead  to  the  assumption  of  Nggela 
lalo,  although  my  material  is  empty  at  that  point. 

The  Viti  forms  are  all  compounds  on  the  base  ra.  This  at  best  is  but 
a  half  of  lalo,  and  we  do  not  claim  the  identification  as  more  than  a  sug- 
gestion.    The  Viti  form  is  not  identified  in  Melanesia  either. 

The  remaining  Melanesian  forms  are  all  from  the  Banks  Group  and  are 
clearly  variants  of  one  stock.  The  fullest  forms  are  Mota  lalangai,  lalange; 
Leon  lalanga;  Retan,  Sasar  lalange.  The  second  group  is  characterized  by 
obliteration  of  the  second  vowel — Lakon  lalnga;  Motlav,  Pak,  Volow,  Mosin, 
Alo  Teqel  lalnge;  Vuras  alalnge  of  the  latter  type.  If  we  regard  Merlav, 
Gog  lang  as  a  decrepit  form  of  this  stock  we  leave  this  collection  a  com- 
pact group  identifiable  with  nothing  in  sight.  It  resembles  lalo  only  in  the 
possession  of  two  l's  and  the  a,  it  nowhere  suggests  the  o  on  which  Poly- 


214  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

nesia  is  united,  and  it  leaves  final  nga  or  ng  unrepresented  in  any  region 
beyond,  unless  the  ephelkustic  na  of  Efate  lalo  na,  which  our  author  does 
not  explain,  is  really  radical,  in  which  case  laloiia  represents  the  transition 
type  from  lalanga  to  lalo. 

Another  explanation  is  equally  considerable.  Assume  that  Merlav  lang 
is  not  a  broken-down  form  but  the  simple  stem  lal.  The  l-ng  mutation  is 
represented  in  our  material  solely  by  this  possible  instance.  The  mutation, 
however,  occurs.  It  is  found  in  two  languages  and  both  in  this  region, 
although  they  are  Polynesian  inclusions  or  verge  islands  be  it  said,  namely 
in  Aniwa  (though  not  in  this  word)  and  in  Moiki.  The  Moiki  word  is 
ngango,  as  cited  above.  To  be  sure  Merlav  employs  the  ng  change  for  but 
one  of  its  l's.  If  this  be  considered  reasonable  lalanga  and  its  devolved 
forms  are  then  reduplications.  This  explanation  is  deficient  in  regard  of 
the  characteristic  Polynesian  o. 

Neither  suggestion  is  one  to  be  held  satisfactory.  The  identification 
is  sadly  imperfect. 

124. 

mabwe,  the  chestnut  tree  and  its  fruit. 

Tahiti:  mape,  the  chestnut  {Inocarpus  edulis.)       Maori:  cf.  mapau, 

mapou,  mapauriki,  tree  names. 
Viti :  mamba,  the  name  of  a  tree,  fruit  edible. 
Aneityum:  mop(o),  the  chestnut.         Malo:  mabue,  id. 

125- 

tobu  na,  grandfather,  ancestor. 

Samoa :  tujtvjnga,  ancestor.  Tonga :  tubunga,  tubuanga,  ancestor. 
Futuna:  tupuna,  grandparents.  Tahiti:  tupuna,  ancestor, 
grandfather.  Mangareva :  tupuna,  grandparents,  great  uncle, 
great  aunt.  Niue,  Mangaia,  Marquesas,  Paumotu:  tupuna, 
ancestor.  Rapanui:  tupuna,  tapuna,  id.  Hawaii:  kupuna, 
ancestor,  grandparent.  Uvea:  tupuanga,  parent.  Fotuna: 
bua,  maternal  grandparent ;  rufeitupuna,  grandfather  and  grand- 
son.        Nuguria:  tipuna,  mother-in-law. 

Viti:  tumbuna,  ancestor,  grandmother. 

Motu:  tubuna,   grandparents,   ancestor.  New  Britain:  tubuna, 

ancestor.  Tanna:  tupuin),  grandparent.  Mota:  tupui, 
one  of  the  second  generation  in  the  ascending  or  descending 
line,  ancestor  or  descendant.  Malo:  tubu,  maternal  grand- 
parents, paternal  grandfather.  Baki:  kumbuo,  id.  Aneityum: 
etpon,  grandparents,  ancestor.  Malekula :  apu,  grandparents. 
Pala :  tubu,  grandfather.      Tubetube:  tubu,  grandparents. 

The  identification  is  good  throughout.  In  the  Polynesian  languages 
which  employ  both  ng  and  n  the  form  in  n  is  used  except  in  Samoa,  Uvea 
and  Tonga  tupunga,  etc.,  which  are  in  form  derivative  verbal  nouns  from 
tupu  to  grow  but  otherwise  are  anomalous.  The  same  suggestion  appears 
in  Mota,  Malo,  Baki,  Pala  and  perhaps  Malekula.  Efate"  falls  in  with  the 
w-forms,  provided  that  the  na  be  radical. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  215 

126. 
tokalau,  an  easterly  wind. 

Samoa :  t&elau,  the  northeast  wind.  Futuna,  Niue,  Tonga :  tokelau, 
the  north.  Nuguria:  tokerau,  southeast,  the  trade  wind. 
Maori:  tokerau,  eastern.  Mangaia:  tokerau,  the  northwest 
wind.  Bukabuka:  apatokerau,  north.  Paumotu:  tokerau, 
the  north;  patokerau,  the  northeast.  Rapanui:  tokerau,  air, 
wind,  fresh  breeze,  a  squall,  the  noise  of  the  wind,  a  season, 
south ;  tokerau  aho,  west.  Tahiti :  toerau,  the  west  or  north- 
west. Tonga:  apatoerau,  the  south.  Mangareva:  tokorau, 
the  north.  Moriori :  tokorau,  a  wind  name  of  uncertain  appli- 
cation. Marquesas :  tokoau,  the  north  or  northeast.  Hawaii: 
koolau,  the  east.        Fakaafo :  Tui-Tokelau,  a  divinity. 

Viti:  tokalau,  the  east  wind;  tokalaulutu,  north  or  northeast;  toka- 
lauvualiku,  north  or  northwest. 

Aneityum:  na-tokarau,  the  northwest  wind.  Moanus:  tolau,  the 
north  wind.         Santo:  tokalau,  northeast  wind. 

Our  author  proposes  the  derivation  tok  (toko)  to  remain,  alau  on  the  sea. 
These  respective  elements  have  the  assigned  meanings  in  his  Efat6  diction- 
ary. From  the  Efate  point  of  view  it  is  a  definition  even  if  it  does  not 
particularly  define.  So  far  as  I  know  it  is  the  only  definition,  for  the  word 
is  quite  incomprehensible  in  its  Polynesian  elements.  On  his  element  tok 
consult  357,  where  it  will  be  seen  that  in  Polynesian  it  may  very  doubtfully 
be  recognized  in  Samoan  and  in  a  sense  that  would  in  no  way  fit  this  wind 
or  compass  rhumb,  and  that  in  Viti  it  is  primarily  a  posture  in  sitting. 
His  element  a-lau,  lau  the  sea,  he  identifies  in  Malo  a  lau,  Epi  lau  and 
Malay  laut  the  sea.  To  which  I  may  add  that  in  Viti  lau  is  the  designation 
of  the  windward  islands  opposed  to  ra  (ra  down)  the  leeward  islands,  on 
either  side  of  the  central  part  of  the  archipelago  which  bears  in  that  sense 
the  name  Lomaiviti.  The  word  lau  in  the  sea  sense  does  not  occur  in 
Polynesia,  nor  do  I  recall  it  elsewhere  in  Melanesia. 

If  the  derivation  of  the  word  lies  in  mystery,  so  is  its  use  lacking  what 
we  should  call  precision. 

But  first  the  mutations,  the  second  vowel  being  critical. 

Forms  in  a:  Viti,  Efatd,  Aneityum,  Santo — all  Melanesian. 

Forms  in  e:  Samoa,  Futuna,  Niue,  Tonga,  Maori,  Mangaia,  Bukabuka, 

Paumotu,  Tahiti,  Fakaafo,  Nuguria,  Rapanui. 
Forms  in  0:  Mangareva,  Marquesas,  Moriori,  Hawaii. 
(Moanus  irregular.) 

Now  we  shall  examine  the  sense,  whether  of  wind  or  of  direction  in 
general. 

North  quadrant  (from  northeast  to  northwest  by  the  north) :  Viti, 
Samoa,  Futuna,  Niue,  Tonga,  Mangaia,   Bukabuka,  Paumotu, 
Tahiti,  Mangareva,  Marquesas. 
East  quadrant:  Maori,  Efat£,  Hawaii. 

South  quadrant :  Tonga,  for  comparison  with  Bukabuka  and  Paumotu 
shows  that  the  prefix,  of  wholly  uncertain  signification,  does  not 
avail  to  establish  the  direction  within  1800;  and  Rapanui. 


216  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

West  quadrant :  Tahiti,  and  Rapanui  with  a  determinant  word. 
Moriori  uncertain. 

The  only  deduction  we  can  draw  from  this  is  that  the  two  extremes  of 
Polynesian  settlement  are  in  accord  in  fixing  the  sense  in  the  east.  Yet 
the  accord  is  only  a  seeming  one,  as  we  shall  next  see. 

In  all  the  South  Sea  islands  we  find  four  cardinal  points :  uta,  shoreward ; 
tai,  seaward ;  sake,  up ;  lalo,  down.  The  latter  pair  are  used  in  two  dimen- 
sions: in  a  vertical  plane  their  directions  are  absolute,  up  and  down;  in 
a  horizontal  plane  their  directions  fluctuate,  for  sake  is  always  up  the  wind 
and  therefore  windward  no  matter  how  the  wind  may  chop  and  change, 
and  lalo  is  leeward.  The  ida-tai  direction  may  vary  through  opposite 
semicircles  beginning  at  any  point  and  with  a  range  of  1800.  We  may  not 
quite  say  that  it  adjusts  itself  always  to  the  position  in  reference  to  the 
nearest  visible  sea  of  the  speaker  in  each  act  of  speaking,  although  it  very 
frequently  does  so  adjust  itself.  But  for  every  little  village  community 
it  does  establish  itself  with  reference  to  its  own  cove  and  there  is  no  com- 
pass agreement  on  even  the  smallest  island.  The  locus  of  the  maximum 
discordance  would  be  a  town  built  on  the  center  of  a  circular  island,  in 
which  case  every  direction  would  be  tai  and  there  could  be  no  uta.  Thus 
it  will  be  seen  that  tai  and  uta  may  under  certain  conditions  coincide  with 
sake  and  lalo,  yet  on  the  opposite  shore  of  the  same  island  they  would  be 
in  diametric  disagreement.  This  digression  is  introduced  to  make  it  clear 
that  we  have  no  positive  direction  sense  by  which  to  rate  a  norm  for  the 
tokelau  sense  of  direction. 

I  incline  to  the  opinion  that  the  solution  will  be  found  to  lie  somewhere 
in  relation  to  the  one  fixed  index  of  direction  in  the  tropical  Pacific,  the 
trade  wind.  This  is  seen  in  the  Samoan  name  of  the  fair  weather  season, 
the  Vaito'elau,  the  "time  of  tokelaus,"  namely,  the  months  in  which  the 
trade  blows  regularly  every  day  long  from  east-southeast.  Let  us  note  in 
how  many  instances  we  can  see  an  easterly  sense:  Efate,  Samoa,  Maori, 
Paumotu  with  a  qualification,  Marquesas,  Hawaii.  In  the  Marquesas,  Samoa 
and  the  Paumotu  this  is  clearly  not  the  trade  wind  but  at  right  angles 
thereto,  yet  such  breezes  are  rare  in  the  trade  wind  season.  This  makes 
it  appear  that  the  direction  is  not  the  wind's  eye,  yet  that  it  is  in  some  way 
associated  therewith  as  a  departure.  The  Maori  must  owe  its  easterly 
sense  to  the  signification  brought  with  the  word  from  its  earlier  home,  for 
New  Zealand  lies  outside  the  trades  and  in  the  region  of  the  westerly  vari- 
ables. I  can  not  pretend  to  solve  the  problem.  But  I  am  sure  that  the 
solution  will  be  found  to  lie  in  the  identification  of  the  tokelau  direction  in 
some  angular  displacement  or  departure  from  the  prevailing  trade  wind  in 
each  group — or  in  some  point  from  which  its  people  migrated  with  the  word 
already  oriented — and  this  angle  most  probably  has  to  do  with  the  sailing 
quality  of  their  canoes,  in  other  words,  the  number  of  points  by  which  they 
can  lie  the  wind. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  217 

EFATE-VITI-POLYNESIAN-MALAY. 

127. 
alialia,  insane;  lala,  an  idiot,  a  fool,  one  demented. 

Samoa :  lielievale,  to  boast  without  reason.     Niue :  lialiapou,  giddy. 

Uvea:  fakalialia,  deformed. 
Viti :  lialia,  foolish,  absurd,  crazy,  out  of  one's  mind,  an  idiot. 
Malagasy :  adala,  foolish,  infatuated,  a  lunatic,  a  fool. 

The  identification  is  quite  satisfactory  so  far  as  it  has  to  do  with  Italia 
forms.  I  can  not  see  that  Efat£  lala  belongs  here,  and  certainly  the  mere 
I  is  not  sufficient  to  establish  a  Malagasy  relationship.  i 

128.  ,      s  /U:-      " 

bwelii  ki,  bwelu,  beluuelu,  to  fold,  to  double. 

Samoa:  mapjlu,  to  bend,  to  stoop,  to  bow  down,  persons  stooping 
with  age,  housebeams  sagging  under  weight.         Tonga:  pelu, 
bebelu,  to  fold,  to  crease.     Futuna :  pelu,  peluki,  to  fold.     Uvea : 
pelu,  id.,  mapelu,  to  bend,  to  bow.        Hawaii:  pelu^  to  double 
over,  to  bend,  to  fold.         Rapanui:  peu,  axe,  adze. 
Viti:  tnbeluka,  kambelu,  to  bend,  to  curve. 
Malay:  valuna,  folded,  doubled. 
The  Proto-Samoan  radical  is  peluk. 

The  Samoan  mapelu  is  pelu  with  the  condition  prefix;  pelu  is  found  in 
use  in  the  sense  of  bent,  crooked.  Pratt  indicates  pelu,  a  sword,  as  intro- 
duced ;  I  incline  to  the  opinion  that  it  is  not  the  word  but  the  specific  appli- 
cation which  has  been  introduced,  for  my  Samoan  instructors  told  me  that 
the  first  swords  ever  seen  were  curved  {pelu)  on  the  edge  and  hence  the 
name.  But  as  the  first  swords  seen  were  undoubtedly  cutlasses  and  not 
scimitars  an  armorer  will  have  to  pass  on  the  question  of  fact.  Pelu'i, 
also  introduced,  is  wholly  introduced,  word  as  well  as  meaning,  for  it  is 
clearly  a  transliteration  of  the  English  word  billhook.  Samoa  and  Viti 
lack  the  precise  signification  of  pelu  as  it  elsewhere  occurs,  yet  not  on  that 
account  is  the  identification  at  all  doubtful. 

The  Malay  identification  shows  that  the  word  had  already  been  abraded 
before  the  Indonesians  took  it  from  the  Polynesian  remnant,  for  only  in 
this  state  could  the  Malay  treat  it  in  accordance  with  his  own  methods  of 
word  formation  and  add  the  -na. 

129. 
bungafunga,  fungafunga,  bungo-ni,  to  be  awake,  to  awaken. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Uvea,  Futuna:  fafangu,  to  rouse  from  sleep,  to 

awaken.         Fotuna:  no-fagona,  to  awaken,  to  be  awake. 
Viti :  vangona,  to  rouse,  to  awaken. 
Mota :  vangvangov,  vavangov,  to  waken. 
Malagasy:  fuka,  awake;  mifuha,  to  awaken. 
In  view  of  the  fact  that  nowhere  in  the  Pacific  areas  do  we  find  a  ng-h 
mutation,  and  in  the  utter  absence  of  possibly  intermediate  Indonesian 
forms,  we  are  not  warranted  in  accepting  the  proposed  Malagasy  identi- 
fication. 


218  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

130- 
fai,  the  skate. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Tahiti:  fai,  the  sting  ray  (genera:  Disco- 
batis,  Dasyatis,  Taniura,  Himantura,  Hypolophus,  sp.  pp. ;  the 
type  in  Samoa  is  Himantura  fai).  Marquesas:  hai,  fai,  the 
sting  ray.  Maori :  what,  id.  Nukuoro :  haimanu,  uruhai- 
pokorua,  id. 
Viti :  vai,  the  sting  ray. 
Malay:  pari,  the  sting  ray.         Tagalog:  pagi,  id. 

We  can  not  accept  the  Indonesian  identification  on  account  of  the  intru- 
sive consonants. 

The  Nukuoro  haimanu  is  especially  interesting  in  connection  with  the 
fact  that  in  Polynesia  passim  manu  means  bird  and  beast  but  not  fish,  for 
haimanu  must  here  of  marine  necessity  mean  hai-Rsh.  Dr.  Codrington  has 
pointed  out  (Melanesian  Languages,  56,  69)  that  Lakon  mah  means  both 
bird  and  fish  and  that  in  Maewo  and  Vanua  Lava  as  masi,  mes,  the  same 
word  is  in  use  for  fish  but  not  for  bird.  Of  course  it  is  not  to  be  understood 
that  he  implies  that  masi  is  a  manu  variant.  I  note,  however,  Aneityum 
numu,  Tanna  namu,  Eromanga  nomu,  the  same  word  and  all  meaning  fish, 
which  it  would  be  no  straining  of  metathesis  to  associate  with  manu.  Nuku- 
oro has  the  warn*- fish  again  in  manumangamanga,  starfish. 

131- 
fakau,  fikau,  a  message,  messenger,  ambassador,  agent  sent  to  do  something 
for  a  chief  or  community;  kau,  to  carry. 
Samoa :  'au,  to  send ;  fe'au,  a  message,  to  send  for.         Tonga :  fekau, 
a  command,  an  order.         Niue:  fekau,  a  message.         Uvea: 
fekau,  a  servant,  a  messenger,  to  send.         Fotuna :  kau,  to  send. 
Viti :  kauta,  to  carry. 

Java :  panggawa,  a  noble,  title  of  one  of  the  five  chief  councillors  of 
state ;  gawa,  to  bear,  to  carry,  to  convey,  to  bring. 

While  Java  gawa  does  not  quite  accord  with  the  Polynesian  it  agrees 
with  Viti  and  Efate\  But  panggawa  seems  not  to  be  fekau,  for  the  term  is 
menial  in  the  Pacific  and  honorific  in  Java;  furthermore  in  122  we  find  no 
evidence  that  fe-  appears  at  all  in  Indonesia. 

132. 
sera,  a  comb. 

Samoa,  Futuna,  Nukuoro:  selu,  a  comb.  Tonga,  Uvea:  helu,  id. 
Nukuoro:  seru,  id.  Niue:  hetu  (anomalous),  id.  Fotuna: 
seru,  id. ;  ko-seserua,  to  comb. 

Viti:  seru,  a  comb. 

Malay:  sisir,  garu,  a  comb. 

Note — Marquesas:  heu,  to  scratch  the  ground  with  the  hands. 
Mangareva :  heru,  to  reject  with  hands  and  feet ;  pahere,  pahore, 
a  comb.  Paumotu :  heru,  to  brush  with  the  hands.  Rapanui : 
heruheru,  a  rake.  Tahiti:  heru,  to  scratch  as  a  hen;  pahere, 
pahoro,  a  comb.  Hawaii  -.Jidu^to  scratch  the  earth  as  hens. 
Aneityum:  ero,  to  scratch  as  a  fowl. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  219 

Tregear  (Maori  Comp.  Diet.  s.  v.  weku)  points  out  a  probable  inosculation 
of  roots  in  a  series  veku-veu-heu-heru-huru.  It  is  to  note  that  the  oceanic 
comb  is  not  used  to  smooth  the  hair  but,  without  disarranging  the  some- 
what intricate  coiffure,  to  scratch  the  scalp  and  vex  its  population.  There 
is  nothing  in  Polynesian  which  sheds  any  light  upon  the  l-t  mutation  in 
Niue,  if  indeed  it  be  permissible  to  associate  hetu  with  the  selu  stock.  In 
the  dissection  of  the  Melanesian  material  a  very  few  instances  are  recorded 
of  l-t  mutation,  but  they  are  so  poorly  supported  as  to  afford  little  base 
for  the  opinion  that  such  a  change  has  any  real  standing. 

EFATE-VITI-POLYNESIAN-SEMITIC. 

133- 
bwase,  bwasu,  to  break  off  with  a  snap  or  jerk. 

Samoa,  Futuna,  Niue,  Tahiti,  Paumotu :  fati,  to  break,  to  break  off 
as  twigs  or  pieces  of  wood.  Fotuna,  Tonga :  faji,  id.  Nukuoro, 
Rapantii:  hati,  id.  Maori:  whawhati,  id.  Hawaii:  haki,  id. 
Mangareva:  ati,  id.  Mangaia:  aati,  id.  Marquesas :  fati, 
hati,  id. 
Viti :  mbasuka,  mbasuraka,  to  break. 
Arabic:  fas' s' a,  to  break  off;  fassa,  to  detach,  shiver  off. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  of  identity  in  Efate"  and  Viti,  an  identity  which 
holds  in  respect  of  each  of  the  four  root  sounds. 

On  the  other  hand  we  have  substantial  unity  in  Polynesia  and  the  only 
sound  in  which  there  is  identity  with  Efate-Viti  is  the  former  vowel.  We 
have  no  supporting  instance  to  establish  a  mutation  of  the  series  Polynesian 
/  Viti  mb  Efate  bw  or  b,  and  little  more  for  the  mutation  t-s.  The  identi- 
fication is  therefore,  not  cordially  accepted.  If  the  Polynesian  fast  is 
regarded  as  homogenetic  with  fati  I  do  not  look  upon  it  as  a  t-s  mutation 
but  rather  regard  fa  as  the  stem  modulated  by  each  consonant  in  turn  with 
substantial  sense  agreement. 

134- 

fira-ni,  bifira,  to  supplicate,  to  pray. 

Futuna :  pule,  to  pray.        Tahiti,  Hawaii,  Rarotonga,  Mangareva, 
Paumotu:  pure,  to  pray,  worship,  prayer.         Maori:  pure,  to 
utter  incantations  to  purify. 
Viti:  mbure,  a  temple,  house  for  the  gods. 
Hebrew :  fatal,  to  supplicate,  to  pray. 

135- 

ngl,  ngkl,  ngiki,  to  creak,  to  squeak,  to  moan. 

Samoa :  \i,  to  cry,  as  a  fly  or  a  bird.  Rapanui :  hi,  to  say.  Tonga, 
Futuna:  ki,  kiki,  to  squeak,  a  sharp  cry  or  squeal.  Niue: 
kikii,  to  squeak.  Uvea:  ki,  a  cry.  Fotuna:  noh-ki,  to 
whistle  (bird). 

Viti :  ngi,  to  squeak,  to  make  a  shrill  noise. 

Arabic:  nakka,  nakik',  to  creak. 


220  Tun  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

136. 

(a)  ngor  i,  kor  i,  to  enclose  or  surround  with  a  fence  (nakoro). 

Samoa :  'do,  a  fort,  stronghold.  Tonga :  kolo,  a  fort,  a  town,  cloth 
hung  around  a  house  in  which  a  corpse  lies.  Futuna,  Niue, 
Uvea :  kolo,  a  fort,  tower,  citadel,  castle. 

Viti :  koro,  a  town,  village,  settlement. 

Arabic :  higr',  hogr',  a  fence.         Ethiopic :  hagar,  a  town,  village. 
(6)  koro,  a  halo  around  the  moon. 

Maori :  aokoro,  pukoro,  a  halo  around  the  moon. 

Viti:  virikoro,  a  circle  around  the  moon. 

Arabic:  hagar  a,  to  have  a  halo. 

There  is  complete  accord  from  Efate"  through  Viti  to  Polynesia  in  the 
main  use  of  this  stem  and  in  the  particular  use  which  is  set  to  itself  apart. 
In  Efat6  koro  answers  equally  well  for  fence  and  for  halo.  In  the  marked 
advance  which  characterizes  social  life  in  Viti  and  among  the  Maori  the 
need  has  been  felt  of  qualifying  koro  in  some  distinctive  manner  when  its 
reference  is  celestial.  In  Viti  virimbai  has  the  meaning  of  putting  up  a 
fence  (mbai  fence) ;  viri  does  not  appear  independently  in  this  use,  but  it 
is  undoubtedly  homogenetic  with  Samoan  vili,  which  has  a  basic  meaning 
of  going  around ;  virikoro  then  signifies  the  ring-fence- that-goes-about,  sc. 
the  moon.     In  the  Maori,  aokoro  is  the  cloud-fence. 

The  Semitic  here  is  trilateral.  While  the  sense  concord  is  notable,  the 
form  resemblance  involves  only  the  second  and  third  Semitic  consonants 
and  we  are  left  without  explanation  of  the  first,  no  shadow  of  which  appears 
in  our  Pacific  areas. 

137- 
kabu,  koau,  the  native  pudding,  tied  up  in  a  bundle  and  cooked  in  the  oven ; 
kofu  sa,  to  wrap  up  or  enclose  (as  a  pudding  in  leaves  to  be  put 
in  the  oven).  The  pudding  koau  is  laid  on  amass  of  leaves 
very  wide  and  long  which  are  rolled  up  or  over  it  all  around 
completely  enclosing  it  and  then  tied  up. 

Samoa :  'ofu,  food  tied  up  in  a  leaf  ready  to  cook.  Tonga :  kofu, 
to  wrap  up.  Niue:  kohukohu,  to  enclose,  wrap  up  as  in  a 
taro  leaf.  Maori :  kohu,  to  cook  in  an  oven  any  article  con- 
tained in  a  hollow  vessel.  Tahiti:  ohu,  food  tied  up  and 
cooked  in  a  bundle.  Uvea :  kofu,  clothing.  Rapanui :  kahu, 
clothing,  cloth. 

Viti :  kovu,  banana  leaf  in  which  puddings  are  done  up. 

Arabic:  kabba,  to  make  food  into  balls  for  cooking;  kobbat,  kabab', 
food  so  cooked ;  kabkaba,  to  be  wrapped  up,  enveloped. 

Our  author  cites  koau  as  a  dialectic  form  of  his  theme  kabu,  which 
hardly  seems  likely.  The  identification  eastward  with  kovu  and  kofu  is 
satisfactory.  The  clothing  signification  in  Viti  and  Polynesia  is  derivative, 
and  since  that  secondary  sense  does  not  appear  in  Efat£  it  has  not  seemed 
necessary  to  give  it  extended  consideration. 

The  Arabic  certainly  shows  resemblance  in  form  and,  so  far  as  is  admis- 
sible in  a  different  practice  of  kitchen  mechanics,  in  sense  also. 


!) 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  221 


(  138. 

lako,  loko,  laku,  loku,  roko,  nrok,  to  stoop,  to  be  curved. 

Samoa:  lolo'u,  to  bend  down  or  around.  Tonga:  loku,  to  draw 
together,  to  gather  in  sewing,  to  pucker  in  a  heap.  Futuna, 
Niue :  loloku,  to  bend,  to  curve.  Hawaii :  lou,  to  bend  around ; 
loulou,  to  bend  down.  Maori:  roku,  to  be~weighed  down,  to 
decline. 
Viti :  roko,  a  bowing  posture,  bent  like  a  bow ;  rokota,  vakarota,  to 
bend  a  bow ;  rokova,  to  pay  respect  to ;  vakaroko,  to  bow  down 
with  weakness,  to  go  stooping. 
Arabic:  raka'a,  roko',  ruku',  to  stoop,  to  be  curved  or  bent,  to  bow 
or  be  bent  down. 

139- 

(a)  nab  wo,  nabwoa,  tamo,  to  smell  (intransitive).        Cf.  221.  , 

Samoa:  namu,  odor,  to  have  a  bad  smell.  Tonga:  namu,  to 
smell;  namuaa,  namuku,  bad  in  smell.  Futuna:  namuku,  to 
smell  bad.  Niue :  namu,  a  smell;  namua,  bad  smelling.  Uvea : 
namu,  nanamu,  odor;  namuku,  a  stench.  Tahiti :  naminami, 
stinking;  namurea,  savor.  Nukuoro:  namu,  namo,  a  scent, 
a  smell.         Fotuna :  ehnamu,  to  stink. 

(b)  bwoa,  bwon,  odor,  to  emit  odor. 

Samoa:  poapoa,  fishy  smelling.  Tonga:  boa,  the  smell  of  fish; 
tauboa,  to  scent  the  water  with  fish  to  catch  others.  Futuna : 
poa,  popoa,  to  smell  fishy.  Maori :  poa,  to  allure  by  bait,  to 
chum.  Tahiti:  parupoa,  to  bait  for  fish.  Hawaii :  po,  puia, 
to  emit  odor.  Mangareva:  poa,  bait,  oil  cast  on  the  water 
to  attract  fish ;  akapoa,  to  communicate  a  smell  of  flesh  to  the 
water  to  attract  fish. 

Viti :  mboi,  to  smell,  to  yield  a  perfume. 

Arabic :  faha,  to  emit  odor. 

In  comparing  bwoa  and  nabwoawe  suspect  the  na  to  be  verb-formative  in 
much  the  same  use  as  the  no  thus  employed  in  neighboring,  but  far  more 
distinctly  Polynesian,  Fotuna.  Thus  there  can  be  no  association  of  nabwoa 
with  Polynesian  namu.  As  relates  to  tamo,  clearly  not  of  the  same  stem 
as  nabwoa,  Nukuoro  with  two  forms  might  seem  to  provide  the  transition, 
but  this  affects  only  the  unaccented  final  vowel,  the  least  important  detail. 
This  leaves  us  the  far  more  difficult  problem  of  establishing  a  t-n  mutation. 
This  does  not  exactly  appear  in  the  Efat6  material,  the  nearest  approach 
being  t-ng  found  in  mauta-maunga  (61)  as  this  instance  is  solitary.  So,  in 
the  wider  Melanesian  field  we  find  but  a  solitary  instance,  namu  (328) 
mosquito  Alo  Teqel  torn.    The  identification  is  not  established. 

The  formal  identification  of  bwoa  with  the  poa  of  the  eastern  islands  is 
satisfactory.  We  are  to  note  that  in  Polynesia  the  sense  is  highly  special- 
ized except  in  Hawaii,  which,  with  Viti,  is  identical  with  Efate. 

140.  ■'-"  .     '■; '   ■'  :  ' 

nasu  na,  juice,  that  which  flows  out  or  exudes. 

Samoa:  su,  ngasu,  wet;  sua,  juice.  Futuna:  su,  watery;  sua,  juice. 
Nukuoro:  suisui,  wet.       Tonga:  huhu,  wet;  hua,  kuhua,  juice ; 


222  THE)   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 

huai,  to  pour  out;  ngahu,  damp,  moist.  Niue:  huhua,  liquid. 
Uvea:  huai,  to  pour;  huhua,  sap.  Nuguria:  hua,  coconut 
water.      Hawaii :  hu,  to  overflow.     Tahiti :  u,  to  be  damp,  wet. 

Viti:  suasua,  wet,  moist. 

Arabic :  nazza,  to  exude ;  nizu,  flow,  water. 

While  there  is  a  close  association  in  all  the  material  here  collected  we 
are  to  observe  that  in  the  Polynesian  three  forms  exist,  that  Samoa  and 
Tonga  possess  all  three,  that  Futuna  alone  has  two.  These  three  forms 
are  su,  sua,  ngasu. 

su:  In  the  sense  of  wet  this  is  found  in  Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Tahiti. 
The  Hawaiian  hu  is  in  form  a  variant  of  su,  but  while  the  sense  has  to  do 
with  liquids  it  does  not  conform  to  the  meaning  of  this  stem  as  elsewhere 
found.  Nukuoro  suisui  I  regard  as  a  derivative  of  su  by  means  of  the 
verb-formative  i. 

sua:  Isfound  in  Samoa,  Futuna, Tonga  as  juice ;  in  Uvea  specialized  as  sap; 
in  Niue  as  liquid  or  as  juice;  in  Nuguria  still  more  highly  specialized  as 
the  water  of  the  coconut.  The  Tonga  and  Uvea  huai,  a  verb -derivative 
of  the  sua  stem,  means  to  pour;  this  is  comparable  with  the  Hawaiian  hu 
as  showing  probably  the  coming  up  to  the  surface  of  a  primordial  general 
signification  which  elsewhere  does  not  break  through  the  highly  particular 
sense,  and  this  will  be  taken  to  include  the  Niue  in  the  sense  of  liquid. 

ngasu:  This  is  confined  to  Samoa  and  Tonga  and  has  the  particular 
meaning  of  su,  wet,  damp,  moist. 

The  Viti  is  of  the  sua  form  but  of  the  su  sense. 

The  Efate  is  of  the  ngasu  form  but  of  the  sua  sense. 

The  manner  of  the  interrelation  of  these  three  forms  is  by  no  means  simple. 
If  su  meant  wetness  then  sua  would  follow  in  the  adjectival  sense  of  being 
wet,  in  the  common  Samoan  system  of  formation.  We  see  here  the  oppo- 
site movement,  which  is  anomalous;  yet  it  will  serve  to  fix  the  position 
of  Viti  as  regular.  Su  is  clearly  the  basic  element  of  all  these  words  which 
carry  the  common  sense.  I  am  not  familiar  with  any  use  of  a  prefixed 
nga  which  has  but  the  object  of  forming  merely  ornamental  compounds, 
for  ngasu  equals  su,  and  in  Tonga  ngahu  equals  huhu.  In  Efat6  nasu  we 
note  that  it  is  impossible  that  it  is  na-su,  for  na  is  expressly  not  the  article. 
We  have  but  one  other  instance  (125)  of  the  Efate  n  representing  a  Poly- 
nesian ng. 

The  Samoan  suati  is  the  equivalent  of  this  Tonga-Uvea  huai.  The  form 
of  the  Viti  vakasuasuataka,  to  wet,  gives  ground  for  the  impression  that  the 
t  is  radical,  vanishing  somewhat  unusually  from  huai.  We  should  then 
have  the  stem  suat  and  by  progressive  degradation  reach  sua  and  su. 

Provisionally  we  may  hold  nasu  to  be  the  remnant  of  a  parent  nasuat 
which  has  undergone  in  general  an  abrasion  at  each  end.  In  this  view  it 
seems  particularly  difficult  to  understand  how  the  Semitic,  instinct  with 
the  zeal  for  triliteralism,  should  have  come  to  sacrifice  the  already  existing 
third  consonant  and  then  have  reached  exactly  the  same  stage  of  demoli- 
tion as  in  Efate  and  the  heart  of  Nuclear  Polynesia,  and  all  this  without 
having  left  a  trace  in  crowded  Melanesia  and  Indonesia  which  intervene. 
A  resemblance  rather  than  an  identification. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  223 

141. 

(a)  rat  i,  tat  i,  nrat,  to  loosen,  to  unite. 

Samoa:  tala,  tatala,  to  loosen,  to  untie.  Tonga:  tatala,  to  tear 
off,  to  separate  what  adheres,  to  open,  to  rend.  Futuna: 
tala,  tatala,  to  loosen,  to  untie,  to  disunite.  Hawaii:  kala,  id. 
Maori:  tatara,  loose,  untied.  Tahiti:  tatara,  to  loosen,  to  untie. 
Nuguria:  taraki,  to  open.  Marquesas:  taataa,  separated, 
loosened. 

Viti:  ndala,  to  be  open  (of  a  shellfish);  ndalanga,  to  open  one's 

;        mouth. 

(b)  mirati,  minratinrat,  to  be  loose,  untied. 

Samoa:  matala,  to  be  open  (as  a  leaf),  untied,  unloosed.  Tonga: 
matala,  open,  expanded  (as  a  leaf  or  flower),  free  from  restraint. 
Futuna:  matala,  open,  untied.  Niue:  matala,  to  open,  as  a 
flower  or  leaf.  Hawaii :  makala,  to  open,  to  untie,  to  unloose. 
Maori:  matara,  untied,  untwisted.  Tahiti:  matara,  untied, 
disentangled,  loosened.  Rapanui:  matara,  polar  a,  to  untie,  to 
acquit,  to  clear;  patala,  to  let  loose.  Mangareva:  akamakara, 
to  cut  the  first  thread  so  as  to  unravel  anything.  Mangaia : 
matara,  to  be  loosened.     Paumotu :  hakamataratara,  to  unloose. 

Viti :  mathala,  clear,  plain,  understandable,  to  be  unfolded  as  a  leaf. 

Hebrew:  nat'ar,  hitir,  to  loose. 

The  metathesis  is  evident. 

As  between  the  groups  of  words  here  assembled  the  Efat£  mi  is  the 
equivalent  of  the  general  ma  of  condition.  In  the  Polynesian  of  each 
group  we  find  no  further  evolution  of  meaning  than  will  readily  be  reducible 
to  the  basic  signification  upon  which  Efate  and  Samoa  are  in  exact  accord. 

The  Viti  merits  consideration.  We  have  instances  in  which  the  Poly- 
nesian t  becomes  the  Viti  nd;  we  have  instances  of  the  t-th  mutation;  this 
so  far  as  I  can  recall  is  the  only  instance  in  which  t  becomes  both  nd  and  th. 
From  the  instances  presented  in  this  work  we  might  be  led  to  the  conclusion 
that  i-initial  becomes  nd  and  ^-medial  becomes  th.  That  this  is  not  the 
case  is  doubly  instanced  in  words  not  included  within  the  essential  limit 
of  this  work ;  for  example,  tea-thea,  mutu-mundu,  fiti-vindi.  We  can  but 
note  the  anomaly. 

The  final  vowel  is  weakened  in  Efate  and  tends  to  vanish.  In  the  dia- 
lectic forms  we  see  a  tendency  toward  nasal  reinforcement  of  the  l-r,  which 
is  unusual.  The  dialectic  form  tati  may  indicate  an  /-/  mutation  from  the 
tala  stem  or  it  may  be  an  r-t  mutation  from  the  metathetic  Efate  rati  stem. 
We  have  no  record  of  such  l-t  mutation  between  Polynesia  and  Efat6;  in 
the  wider  Melanesian  field  we  find  it  in  but  a  solitary  instance  sala  (339) 
path  Bugotu  hatautu.  I  incline,  therefore,  to  consider  it  due  to  merely 
local  variation. 

142. 

;  ror,  lor,  the  oily  juice  of  grated  coconut  used  to  moisten  or  fatten  puddings. 

Samoa:  lolo,  oil,  the  coconut  prepared  for  making  scented  oil;  loloi, 

a  dish  of  taro  and  coconut  juice.      Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea, 

Nukuoro,  Nuguria:  lolo,  oil.        Hawaii:  lolo,  brains,  marrow. 


224  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Maori :  roro,  id .  Tahiti :  roro,  the  brains  of  mankind .  Mangaia : 
roro,  brains.  Mangareva :  roro,  soft,  pure  milk  from  the  breast 
or  from  coconuts,  the  skull,  the  head.  Paumotu:  takaroro^ 
headache.         Rapanui:  roro,  brain,  skull. 

Viti:  lolo,  milk  of  the  coconut  squeezed  from  scraped  kernel. 

Arabic:  ra'a,  to  moisten  bread  with  fat. 

In  Efate  and  Nuclear  Polynesia  we  find  complete  accord  upon  the  par- 
ticular signification  of  the  word.  In  the  Polynesia  of  the  Tongafiti  swarm 
we  find  the  word  identical  in  form,  but  in  sense  in  complete  accord  upon  a 
different  signification,  to  which  brain  meaning  the  ultimate  migrations  have 
added  in  Hawaiian  and  Maori  the  meaning  of  marrow.  Along  the  Tonga- 
fiti track  the  word  for  oil  is  sinu,  which  appears  in  Nuclear  Polynesia  con- 
currently with  lolo,  and  in  the  western  verge  in  Ticopia.  Now  in  Nuclear 
Polynesia  the  word  for  brain  is  derived  from  the  coconut  but  from  another 
part,  the  spongy  substance  (uto)  which  in  an  old  nut  occupies  the  space 
where  the  water  has  been :  Tonga,  Uvea,  uto ;  Niue,  uhoniu  o  he  ulu  (coconut 
sponge  of  the  head) :  Samoa,  uto,  the  head  as  a  term  of  abuse,  while  for  brains 
yet  another  coconut  product  is  employed,  one  advanced  in  manufacture,. 
fai'ai  the  cooked  juice,  which  in  Futuna  faikai  is  restricted  to  the  literal 
sense.     This  uto  also  signifies  marrow  in  Tonga,  Uvea,  Viti  {uto  ni  sui). 

We  next  pass  to  the  southeastern  terminus  of  all  possible  migration, 
Mangareva  and  the  Paumotu.  Here  we  pick  up  once  more  the  coconut 
milk  in  Mangareva  roro  and  find  it  extended  to  the  human  breast.  Con- 
joined with  this  we  find  a  strange  variation  from  the  Tongafiti  sense,  a 
passage  from  the  soft  parts  to  the  hard,  from  the  contents  to  the  calvaria. 
Here  the  word  uto  means  marrow,  utuhupoko  brains.  Altogether  a  strange- 
fact  and  remote  spot  in  which  to  find  an  inosculation  of  Proto-Samoan  and 
Tongafiti.     Rapanui  unites  the  soft  and  the  hard  parts  in  this  word. 

The  lolo  reappears  in  such  parts  of  Nuclear  Polynesia  as  have  the  animal 
as  a  component  of  Samoa  palolo,  Tonga  balolo,  Viti  mbalolo.  I  cite  a  note  on 
this  subject  which  I  wrote  out  for  Dr.  William  McMichaelWoodworth.who. 
identified  the  palolo  as  the  posterior  epitokal  part  of  Eunice  viridis  (Gray) : 

Stair's  derivation  from  pa'a-lolo,  luscious  crab,  is  out  of  all  consideration;  it  is  on  all 
fours  with  the  classic  definition  of  a  crab  as  a  small  red  fish  that  walks  backward,  for 
pa'a  (paka)  could  not  in  the  Samoan  system  of  word  structure  undergo  such  a  syncopa- 
tion as  to  cut  itself  in  two.  As  the  bit  beastie  is  in  no  sense  a  crab,  and  I  must  claim 
for  my  islanders  that  their  intelligence  is  sufficiently  high  to  prevent  them  from  putting 
two  such  dissimilar  animals  together,  so  in  turn  is  lolo  not  luscious.  The  organs  of 
sense  perception  by  which  the  Samoan  apperceives  lolo  lie,  not  in  the  peripheral  nerve 
endings  of  the  tongue,  but  of  the  fingers ;  it  is  a  matter  of  touch  and  not  of  taste  such  as 
luscious  principally  connotes.  I  got  a  very  instructive  glimpse  at  this  word  from  my 
cook  boy  and  a  dish  of  vermicelli  soup.  After  it  had  served  my  uses  the  tureen  went 
back  to  the  kitchen.  I  found  the  servitor  dabbling  his  fingers  in  the  dish,  which  he- 
pronounced  to  be  ja'alolo.  I  regard  the  primal  signification  as  one  of  consistency,  some- 
what custardy,  a  substance  partially  solid  that  may  to  a  certain  extent  be  grasped  in 
the  fingers  yet  which  seems  to  slip  out  and  elude  the  grasp.  That,  it  will  be  noticed, 
is  a  thread  that  can  be  run  through  all  the  significations.  It  applies  equally  to  the- 
palolo  as  you  feel  it  in  the  water  on  the  great  day  of  its  appearance.  In  the  slightly 
specialized  sense  of  slippery  it  applies  similarly  to  its  other  two  compounds  in  the 
Samoan,  ngalolo  and  umelolo,  both  being  fishes  and  the  latter  a  variety  of  Naseus- 
lituratus  or  unicornis. 


DATA   AND   NOTES.  225 

H3- 
suki,  to  stick,  to  stab. 

Samoa :  su'i,  to  sew,  to  stitch.  Nukuoro :  suki,  to  pierce,  to  stab. 
Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea :  huki,  to  pierce,  to  prick,  to  punc- 
ture, to  lance.  Maori:  hubi,  pierced.  Marquesas:  huki,  a 
small  stick  used  to  strengthen  thatch.  Rapanui:  huki,  to 
transpierce.  Mangareva :  huki,  to  pierce  (said  of  lightning) ; 
ukiuki,  piercing,  lancing.  Paumotu:  hukihuki,  to  bore,  to 
perforate.  Tahiti :  hui,  to  pierce,  to  prick,  to  lance.  Hawaii : 
Jmiuna,  a  seam,  a  uniting  by  sewing  together. 

Viti :  thuki,  a  digging  stick. 

I/ambell,  King,  I^amassa :  suki,  to  sew.  Lambell,  Lamassa :  suki, 
to  prick.        Moanus :  susiii,  to  sew. 

Arabic :  s'akka,  to  transfix  with  a  spear. 

The  root  suk  retains  its  k  except  in  Tahiti  and  Hawaii,  where  this  loss 
is  normal,  and  in  Moanus.  Our  data  instance  two  stems  in  Moanus  involv- 
ing k;  in  this  instance  fe-medial  vanishes;  in  305,  there  initial,  it  remains; 
of  course  these  two  instances  are  not  sufficient  to  establish  the  usage. 

144. 
takutaku,  to  speak. 

Samoa :  ta'u,  to  tell,  to  mention,  to  announce,  to  certify,  to  acknowl- 
edge.     Tonga :  taku,  to  call  by,  to  designate ;  takua,  to  mention, 
to  call  by  name .    Rapanui :  taku,  to  predict .    Maori :  takutaku,  to 
threaten,  to  recite  imprecations.     Fotuna :  no-tukua,  to  confess. 
Viti:  tukuna,  to  report,  to  tell. 
Arabic :  nataka,  to  speak. 

The  Fotuna  word  is  no  more  divergently  specialized  away  from  the  plain 
sense  of  Ffate"  and  Viti  than  is  the  Tonga  or  the  Maori;  it  is  particularly 
interesting  because  it  confirms  the  Viti  vowel  plan. 

In  the  proposed  Semitic  identification  a  syllable  is  supposed  to  have  been 
worn  away  by  frontal  abrasion  in  passing  from  a  common  parent  to  the 
Pacific,  or  the  Arabic  has  picked  up  a  syllable.  Without  confirmatory 
evidence  of  intermediate  forms  this  assumption  is  too  violent. 

H5- 
tui,  a  chief. 

Samoa:  tui,  a  chief,  king.    Tonga :  tu'i,  a  king,  a  governor.     Futuna: 
tui,  god,  supreme  ruler,  king  (of  god  only).     Niue:  tui,  a  high 
chief.        Uvea:  tui,  king. 
Viti :  tui,  king  or  principal  chief. 

Arabic:  waddu,  watadu,  watada,  to  fix,  stake,  make  firm.       Hebrew: 
yated,  a  pin,  a  nail,  a  prince. 

No  explanation  is  offered  of  the  anomalous  '  in  Tonga  tu'i.  The  char- 
acter is  seldom  used  in  Tongan  and  is  not  noted  at  all  in  Shirley  Baker's 
grammar  of  the  language.  How  inconsistent  with  himself  he  is  in  regard 
of  this  character  in  the  dictionary  is  exhibited  in  this  suite :  ma'u  to  get 


226  THE   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 

(Samoa  maua),  maugataa  hard  to  get,  ma'ugofie  easy  to  get.  It  seems  to 
me  that  he  has  inserted  '  into  tu'i  in  order  to  differentiate  that  word  to  the 
eye  from  five  other  meanings  of  tut.  Those  of  us  who  had  the  pleasure  of 
knowing  Tonga  under  that  polemical  missionary-statesman  will  have  no 
difficulty  in  comprehending  why  he  should  see  fit  to  accentuate  the  ruling 
power.  Other  than  this  slight  visible  but  inaudible  deviation  the  word  is 
identical  throughout  Nuclear  Polynesia  and  in  Efate,  to  which  it  is  limited. 
It  can  have  no  possible  connection  with  Semitic  words  for  stake. 

146. 

tuku,  to  go  down,  to  sink  down,  to  lower. 

Among  the  many  uses  of  the  apparently  cognate  Polynesian  tuku  I  select 
only  such  as  concord  with  the  Efate  tuku,  for  a  close  study  of  the  Samoan 
tu'u  (yielding  no  selection  for  this  purpose)  leads  to  the  feeling  that  it  is 
the  remnant  of  several  dissimilar  stems. 

Maori:  tuku,  to  subside,  to  settle  down.  Tahiti:  tuutuu,  to  slacken 
or  ease  a  rope.  Hawaii :  kuu,  to  let  down,  to  slacken.  Tonga : 
tuku,  to  slacken,  to  let  go  as  a  rope;  tukutuku,  to  sink  in  the 
sea.  Futuna:  tuku,  to  put  down.  Niue:  tuku,  to  bury. 
Rarotonga :  tuku,  to  let  down,  to  let  out,  to  drop  down.  Manga- 
reva :  tuku,  to  throw  the  fishing  net  or  fillet.  Paumotu :  tuku, 
to  lay  down.  Sikayana :  tuku,  to  put  down.  Nukuoro :  tuku, 
to  permit,  to  allow.  Manahiki,  Fakaafo:  tuku,  to  place. 
Nuguria:  tuku,  to  set.         Rapanui:  tuku,  to  give,  to  accord. 

Viti :  tukutha,  to  let  go,  to  slacken  a  rope ;  vakatukutha,  to  let  down 
in  a  basket. 

Hebrew:  s'uah,  to  sink  down.     Arabic:  sah'a,  sah'a,  tah'a,  t'ah'a,  id. 

EFATE-MELANESIAN-POLYNESIAN-SEMITIC. 

H7. 
bano,  to  go,  to  go  off  or  away. 

Samoa :  fano,  passing  along.  Tonga :  fano,  to  go,  used  in  reference 
to  small  fish  going  in  shoals.  Futuna :  fano,  to  go,  to  depart. 
Niue :  fano,  to  go,  to  walk ;  fenonga,  a  journey.  Tahiti :  fano, 
to  set  sail,  to  depart.  Paumotu :  fano,  to  set  sail.  Aniwa, 
Sikayana,  Vate:  fano,  to  go.  Nukuoro:  hano  atu,  to  go,  to 
depart;  hano  saine,  to  go  around.  Nuguria:  uhano,  to  go. 
Maori :  whano,  to  go  on.  Tongarewa :  hana,  to  go.  Mangareva : 
ano,  to  appear.  Uvea :  fangona  (metath.  fanonga)  road,  path, 
to  go  a  journey.  Fotuna :  no- fano,  to  walk,  to  go. 
Bald,  Fpi:  mbano,  to  go.  Meli,  Fagani:  fano,  id.  Maewo,  Malo, 
Baki,  Mota  Veverau,  Motlav,  Vuras,  Merlav,  Gog,  Eakon,  Santo, 
Vaturanga,  Bugotu:  vano,  id.  Volow:  vono,  id.  Malekula, 
Marina,  Omba,  Arag,  Mota  Veverau,  Volow,  Leon,  Sasar,  Mosin, 
Alo  Teqel,  Norbarbar,  Maewo:  van,  id.  King:  van-win,  to 
come.  Lo:  ven,  to  go.  Bierian  Epi:  mbene,  id.  Tanna: 
(t)uven,  id.         Eromanga:  ve,  id.  Mota  Maligo,  Ambrym, 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  227 

Sesake,  Nggela,  Belaga,  Pak:  va,  id.  Aneityum:  apan,  han,  id. 
Pala:  han,  id.  Duke  of  York,  Matupit:  wan,  id.  Kabakada, 
Matupit,  Baravon:wa»a,  id.  Lambell:/km,id.  King :  ivuan,  id. 
Norbarbar:  vana,  a  going.  Vuras,  Gog,  Lakon:  vanog,  id. 
Motlav:  navnog,  id.  Tangoan  Santo:  thano,  to  go. 
Hebrew :  panah,  to  turn  the  back,  to  turn  to  go. 

See  note  1 1 . 

With  the  readily  adjustable  exception  of  the  metathetic  form  in  Uvea  the 
Polynesian  is  a  unit  and  in  perfect  identification  with  Efate  bano.  Other 
Ef at£  forms  are  banomai,  banamai,  banimai,  compounds  with  directive  mai ; 
banbtu,  binoti,  bariats,  bindts,  compounds  with  directive  ate,  with  which  our 
author  most  cryptically  includes  binen,  baina,  nbtu,  net;  ba-ki,  which  he 
says  is  "contracted  for"  ban,  bano,  while  ba  (n)  is  not. 

In  considering  the  word  in  Melanesia  we  observe  that  there  is  a  partition 
into  two  markedly  unequal  areas  according  as  the  radical  vowel  is  a  or  e, 
to  which  is  to  be  added  the  single  instance  of  Volow  which  has  o  for  a 
(neutral  vowel). 

The  a-series  has  a  wide  range  among  the  labials  from  b  to  v,  but  the  forms 
in  v  are  far  the  most  widely  spread.  The  only  exception  to  this  vertical  muta- 
tion is  the  Tangoan  Santo  involving  a  f-th  or  horizontal  mutation,  that  is 
from  labial  to  lingual,  a  change  of  which  we  have  no  other  example,  yet  in 
this  case  it  seems  quite  correct.  Aneityum,  Pala,  Lambell  han,  according  to 
myprinciple  of  the  aspiration,  is  a  vertical  mutation.  It  maybe  that  in  this 
we  see  a  transition  form  to  Tangoan  Santo  thano;  a.  labial  h  reached  verti- 
cally would  in  no  way,  save  with  the  resources  of  comparative  philology, 
be  distinguishable  from  a  lingual  h,  and  for  the  change  from  this  h  vertically 
downward  to  th  we  have  abundant  evidence  (17  Journal  of  the  Polynesian 
Society,  1 60) .  The  mutation  to  w  is  abundantly  supported  and  is  all  but 
vertical;  it  is  found  only  in  the  gate  by  which  the  Samoa  track  leaves 
Indonesia,  and,  disregarding  the  extra  prefix,  which  is  probably  formative, 
I  incline  to  regard  the  vu  of  King  ivuan  as  but  a  reinforced  w.  In  Kaba- 
kada, Matupit,  Baravon  wana  we  shall  best  regard  the  final  vowel  as  an 
o-a  change  within  the  triangle  of  the  neutral  vowel ;  the  a-final  in  Norbarbar 
vana  is  formative  and  establishes  the  verbal  noun  of  van  to  go,  as  appears 
above.  In  Vuras,  Gog,  Lakon,  Motlav  the  final  g  is  formative  of  the  verbal 
noun;  the  Motlav  is  na-vno-g,  article-stem-suffix.  There  remain  for  con- 
sideration a  few  irregular  forms.  Aneityum  apan  we  include  because  our 
author  includes  it  as  an  identification,  which  it  is  not.  Apan  means  to  go, 
apam  means  to  come ;  the  merest  tyro  should  recognize  the  common  stem 
as  apa,  far  removed  from  vano  and  further  exhibited  in  apahai  to  go  land- 
ward and  apaahni  to  go  everywhere.  He  quite  overlooked,  or  did  not  know 
where  to  look  for  han,  which  is  the  true  identification.  The  King  vanwin 
contains  the  vano  stem  together  with  an  extra  element  which  in  the  paucity 
of  our  material  from  that  center  of  New  Ireland  culture  we  may  not 
comprehend. 

The  smaller  e-series  runs  through  its  simple  course  of  mutation  and  abra- 
sion and  calls  for  no  more  extended  comment  than  to  call  attention  to  Tanna 
(t)uven  as  a  mixed  form. 


228  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

We  have  now  left  for  consideration  the  va  and  the  ve.  In  each  case 
we  have  a  record  of  the  abrasion  of  final  vowel  and  then  of  the  consonant 
left  final,  thus  there  is  no  reason  in  etymology  why  we  should  not  regard 
them  as  regular  mutations  of  the  fano  stem.  Since  Mota  shows  vano  in 
Veverau  and  va  in  Maligo,  where  the  differences  are  no  more  than  dialectic 
and  of  neighbor  dialects  at  that,  we  are  forced  to  the  conclusion  that  va  is 
from  the  fano  stem  despite  the  efforts  of  our  author  to  confuse  the  record 
as  shown  in  1 1 . 

We  are  not  left  to  the  compelling  power  of  resemblance  visualized  to 
comprehend  Dr.  Macdonald's  indentification  of  the  fano  stem  with  the 
Hebrew  panah.  Here  is  his  extended  argument  in  full  as  spread  upon  the 
record  under  the  classification  of  "triliterals  doubly  weak,  that  is,  with 
two  weak  letters  or  quiescents." 

' '  Efate  bano-mai  or  bana-mai,  to  come ;  banats,  i.e.,  ban  ats,  to  go ;  Maori 
whanatu;  Efate  bano,  to  go;  Maori  whano,  to  verge  toward,  to  go  on, 
proceeding  toward;  Hebrew  panah,  to  turn,  to  turn  oneself,  to  turn  the 
back,  to  turn  in  order  to  go  anywhere.  Thus  banotu,  whanatu,  equals  to 
turn,  going  away,  or  outward,  and  bano-mai,  bano-be,  equals  to  turn 
coming,  to  come."  Any  person  who  can  find  herein  the  common  term 
wherein  to  turn  equals  to  go  will  have  no  greater  difficulty  in  finding  in  fano 
a  triliteral,  even  though  two  of  its  letters  are  "weak  or  quiescent." 

148. 

batu,  bate,  to  close  up  the  roof  by  weaving  thatch  on  the  ridgepole. 

Samoa:  falu,  to  commence  plaiting.  Tonga:  fatu,  to  tie  rafters, 
to  commence  plaiting.  Futuna :  fatu,  fetu,  to  plait.  Uvea : 
fetufetu,  id.  Niue:  fatufatu,  to  fold;  fatunga,  a  rafter.  Tahiti: 
fatu,  to  plait,  to  braid.  Paumotu:  pifalufatu,  to  fold. 
Rapanui :  haatu,  to  plait ;  hahatu,  a  plait.  Hawaii :  haku,  to 
braid  a  wreath;  hakuhaku,  to  fold  up.  Maori:  whatu,  to 
weave.         Mangareva :  atu,  to  fold  up. 

Epi:  bofungo,  to  close  up  the  roof  by  weaving  thatch  on  the  ridgepole. 

Hebrew:  'abat,  to  interweave;  'abot,  wreathen  work. ''•■  &i*  •     iif 

So  far  as  it  is  given  us  to  follow  out  the  tangles  of  some  of  these  definitions 
it  appears  that  Dr.  Macdonald  has  sought  to  draft  a  statement  which  should 
allow  him  to  incorporate  fatu  the  ridgepole  with  this  batu. 

The  Polynesian  has  a  word,  stem  fatu,  which  signifies  to  plait  or  braid 
or  weave  or  in  some  such  way  with  deft  fingers  to  reduce  a  tangle  of  shreds 
to  order.  In  Niue,  Mangareva  and  the  Paumotu  the  sense  is  restricted  to 
one  of  the  incident  operations  in  this  broader  meaning.  In  Hawaii  we  find 
the  two  senses  side  by  side,  thus  linking  the  two  groups  of  meaning.  With 
this  Efate  batu  is  in  accord  so  far  as  relates  to  the  matter  of  weaving  which 
our  author  has  distinguished  by  italics.  This  stem  in  Polynesia  is  nowhere 
particularly  applied  to  thatching,  this  roof  covering  being  put  on  by  imbri- 
cation and  not  by  interlacing. 

But  Tonga  fatu  to  tie  rafters,  Niue  fatunga  a  rafter,  are  distinctly  roof 
words.  That,  while  they  are  identical  in  form  with  the  weaving  fatu,  they 
are  not  homogenetic  therewith  is  apparent  in  the  existence  of  Efat6  fatu 
a  ridgepole.     In  Samoa  the  roof  fatu  is  found  in  fatu'ulu  the  thatch  next 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  229 

the  ridgepole,  and  in  fatulau  old  thatch,  and  in  fatunga  the  timbers  to  which 
the  purlins  are  fastened.  The  ridgepole  fatu  is  continued  in  the  same  sense 
to  Tangoan  Santo  papatu,  Malo  uobatu,  Malekula  Uripiv  uobut,  and  Bierian 
botqu. 

The  Epi  word  Dr.  Macdonald  notes  as  identical  in  sense  with  batu,  it 
seems  in  no  other  wise  related. 

149. 
iki,  kiki,  riki,  small. 

The  following  words  all  mean  small : 

Maori:  riki.  Samoa:  li'i.  Tonga:  iki,  liliki,  likiliki.  Uvea: 
liliki.  Nuguria:  likiliki.  Futuna:  ikiiki,  liki.  Niue: 
ikiiki.  Tahiti :  rii.  Hawaii :  Hi.  Rotuma :  lilii.  Marquesas : 
iki.  Mangareva:  rikiriki.  Paumotu:  rikiriki.  Mangaia: 
rikiriki.  Sikayana:  likiliki.  Samoa,  Tahiti,  Rarotonga, 
Manahiki,  Rapanui,  Maori:  iti. 

Duke  of  York:  lik.  Baki:  teliki.  Maewo:  riki.  Nifilole:  laki. 
Motu :  malaki.  Kabadi :  mara'i.  Guadalcanar,  Pokau :  kiki. 
Tubetube:  kikiu.  Nada,  Kiriwana:  kikita.  Murua:  kakiti. 
Oiun:  kafakiki.  Galavi:  berokikina.  Bougainville:  kekereke. 
Aneityum :  tintin.  New  Georgia :  kikina.  Pak,  Leon :  tiktik. 
Vuras:  netui,  menet.  Merlav:  wirig.  Mota:  rig.  Sasar: 
wogrig.  Alo  Teqel :  wowrig.  Gog :  weskit,  wesekit.  Nor- 
barbar:  sosogul,  sosogot.  Retan:  seget,  sogot.  Lo:  ririg. 
Omba :  mbiti.  Ararg :  tirigi.  Sesake :  kiki,  ngiki.  Fagani : 
kikirii.  Wango:  kekerei.  Nggela:  kikia.  New  Britain: 
ik.  Baravon :  ik,  ikilik.  Buka :  kekereke,  kikerei.  Lambell : 
liklik.  Hula,  Galoma:  kirikiri.  Keapara:  kiri.  Suau: 
gagiri.         Sariba:  gagirini. 

Ethiopic :  dawik,  to  be  small. 

In  the  three  Efate  words  for  small  the  common  element  is  ki.  The 
simplest  form  is  the  reduplicated  kiki.  With  a  vowel  prefix  we  find  iki, 
and  when  that  in  turn  is  modulated  by  a  liquid  coefficient  we  find  riki. 

Two  of  these  forms  appear  in  Polynesian,  kiki  not  having  survived  that 
far: 

iki:  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Moiki,  Tongarewa./  fi&.  U  ^t< 
"fiia:?Maori,  Samoa,  Tonga,  Uvea.Tahiti,  Hawaii,  Rotuma,  Mangareva, 
"Paumotu,  Mangaia,  Sikayana. 

In  Melanesia  we  find  all  three  forms,  distributed  as  follows : 

kiki:  Guadalcanar,  New  Georgia,  Sesake,  Nggela,  New  Guinea. 

iki:  New  Britain,  Baravon. 

liki:  Maewo,  Baki,  Nifilole,  Motu,  Duke  of  York,  Lambell,  Arag,  Mota, 

Merlav,  Lo,  Sasar,  Alo  Teqel. 
kiki  and  liki:  Bougainville,  Buka,  Fagani,  Wango. 
iki  and  liki:  Baravon. 

Not  immediately  referable  to  the  three  forms  in  Efate  our  Melanesian 
studies  afford  us  the  following  forms: 


230  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

kit.  This  may  be  the  basic  ki  with  a  persisting  radical  final  consonant, 
or  the  t  maybe  an  irregular  accretion ;  it  is  impossible  in  the  paucity  of  data 
to  come  to  a  conclusion.  If  Pak,  Leon  tiktik  be  kit  under  metathesis  this 
is  the  simplest  form.  In  Norbarbar  and  Retan,  with  floating  vowel,  we 
have  this  stem  with  a  prefix  se,  so,  common  to  both.  In  Gog  I  see  such 
resemblance  to  Retan  that  I  diagram  its  composition  as  we-s-kit. 

From  this  stem,  by  a  common  frontal  abrasion,  we  may  perhaps  derive 
the  common  word  of  Polynesia  for  small;  Samoa,  Tahiti,  Marquesas, 
Rapanui,  Mangareva  iti;  Tonga  jii  (metathetic),  Moiki  itiiti  by  and  by, 
and  Hawaii  iki  (a  kappation  of  radical  t  and  not  to  be  confounded  with 
the  stem  iki).  This  would  restore  to  Polynesia  the  possession  of  the 
third  Efate  stem,  and  it  now  seems  to  be  proved  by  Rarotonga  ngiti. 

Omba  mbiti  we  lack  data  to  coordinate.  The  first  impression  that  this 
is  iti  with  a  prefixed  modulant  will  hardly  stand  against  the  fact  that  iti 
is  an  eastern  form  nowhere  found  in  the  west,  and  the  other  fact  that  we 
know  of  no  well  attested  instance  in  which  a  stem  which  has  had  its  head 
rubbed  off  acquires  a  new  one  by  random  selection. 

We  now  are  left  with  Vuras  and  Aneityum,  which  have  the  common 
element  net  or  tin  according  as  we  consider  the  metathesis  to  have  been 
applied  to  one  or  to  the  other.  If  we  regard  net  as  primal  and  as  equivalent 
to  nit  we  shall  find  any  attempt  to  associate  it  with  iti  by  frontal  accretion 
blocked  by  the  same  bar  as  at  Omba,  and  this  somewhat  considerable 
array  of  data  affords  no  example  of  a  k-n  mutation  by  which  we  might 
account  for  it. 

Uvea  sii,  with  Aniwa  auhi,  may  open  for  us  a  small  group  of  Melanesian 
relationships  in  Aneityum  sisi,  Efat6  ses,  sos;  Epi  takisi,  Lakon  sik,  Volow 
siwi,  Motlav  su,  and  thus  connect  with  the  se,  so,  element  of  the  compound 
forms  of  Norbarbar,  Retan  and  Gog.  It  should  be  observed,  however, 
that  Uvea  sii  devolves  normally  through  Tonga  jii  from  iti. 

Dr.  Codrington  (Melanesian  Languages,  81)  comments  "as  is  the  case 
with  most  adjectives  there  is  but  scanty  agreement  in  the  words  meaning 
little."  I  think  that  in  working  over  his  material  quite  another  conclusion 
has  been  reached  and  that  the  Polynesian  content  is  distinctly  marked 
from  end  to  end  of  Melanesia. 

Indonesian  affiliations  are  rare.  We  find  Wahai  kiiti,  Bouton  kidikidi, 
Salayer  kedi,  and  beyond  these  three  we  may  scarcely  venture,  perhaps 
not  even  so  far. 

In  none  of  the  foregoing  is  there  aught  which  points  to  the  Semitic 
identification. 

150. 
kiat,  the  sticks  which  cross  from  the  canoe  to  the  outrigger. 

Samoa:  'iato,  the  outrigger  struts.  Tonga,  Nuguria:  kiato,  id. 
Futuna:  kiato,  id.  Fotuna:  akiato,  id.  Maori:  kiato,  the 
thwart  of  a  canoe.  Tahiti :  iato,  the  transverse  beamsTwhich 
connect  the  outrigger  to  the  canoe.  Hawaii :  iako,  the  arched 
sticks  which  connect  a  canoe  with  its  outrigger.  Mangareva : 
kiato,  a  large  raft.  Mangaia :  kiato,  the  outrigger.  Paumotu : 
kiato,  to  pierce  and  cross  for  joining. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  231 

Tanna:  nikiatu,  the  outrigger  bars. 

Arabic :  h'ata,  h'iato,  to  sew,  to  join  together. 

151- 
kubenga,  a  fish  net. 

Samoa :  'upenga,  a  net,  not  restricted  to  fishing.  Tonga,  Futuna, 
Niue,  Uvea,  Nukuoro,  Maori,  Rapanui,  Rarotonga:  kupenga, 
id.  Nuguria:  kupena,  id.  Aniwa :  kowpenga,  id.  Marquesas: 
upea,  upeka,  upena,  id.  Hawaii:  upena,  id.  Tahiti:  upea,  id. 
Mangareva,  Paumotu :  kupenga,  a  thread,  a  filament.  Fotuna: 
kaupenaua,  the  neck. 

Sesake:  kupenga,  a  net.  Mota:  gape,  id.  Merlav:  gambe,  id. 
Gog:  gamb,  id.  Lambell,  King:  mbene,  id.  Lamassa:  mbane, 
id.  I,aur:  mb'dn,  id.  Motlav:  kmbweng,  id.  Volow: 
nggmbweng,  id.         Pala:  w&e»,  id. 

Arabic:  kiffat,  a  net,  from  fea^a,  to  wrap  around. 

In  form  the  Polynesian  word  has  the  appearance  of  a  verbal  noun  from 
some  verb  stem  kupe  which  we  do  not  identify,  for  Tregear's  suggestion  of 
Viti  kumbe  to  catch  hold  of,  to  cleave  or  cling  to,  does  not  commend  itself 
in  signification.  Against  this  idea  militates  the  fact  that  the  word  has 
been  preserved  in  Efate  and  Sesake,  termination  and  all.  The  sense  is 
always  and  everywhere  a  net  or  meshed  fabric,  except  in  Mangareva  where 
it  has  become  limited  to  that  of  which  nets  are  made.  The  Fotuna  form  is 
clearly  a  composite  of  kupenga  and  ua  the  neck,  but  its  precise  explanation 
is  not  clear. 

In  Melanesia  we  find  two  groups  of  identifications  after  passing  Sesake 
as  an  unchanged  loan  word. 

In  the  first  group  we  have  the  languages  which  have  assimilated  a 
putative  stem  kupe.     These  are  Mota,  Merlav,  Gog. 

In  the  second  group  are  the  languages  which,  while  abrading  the  first 
syllable,  have  used  as  their  stem  penga  and  have  preserved  more  or  less  of 
the  seeming  noun-formative  termination.  In  the  order  of  their  strength 
these  are  Motlav,  Volow  and  the  New  Ireland  group.  The  Pelion  on  Ossa 
of  the  Motlav  and  Volow  forms,  it  must  be  remembered,  are  each  a  single 
sound ;  therefore  these  do  not,  as  might  seem,  reproduce  the  full  kupenga; 
it  is  just  the  Melanesian  clumsiness  in  compassing  a  Polynesian  p  with  lips 
which  play  havoc  with  the  fine  precision  of  labials. 

In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  palatal  nasal  is  most  probably  radical  we  may 
scarcely  accept  the  Semitic  identification. 

152. 
lafi,  to  take  up,  to  carry. 

Samoa :  lavea,  to  be  removed,  of  a  disease.  Tonga :  lavea,  to  bite, 
to  take  the  hook,  as  a  fish.  Futuna:  lave,  to  comprehend, 
to  seize.  Niue:  laveaki,  to  convey.  Rarotonga:  rave,  to 
take,  to  receive.  Tahiti :  rave,  to  take.  Mangareva :  rave, 
to  take,  to  take  hold;  raveika,  fisherman.  Maori:  rawe,  to 
take  up,  to  snatch.  Hawaii :  lawe,  to  take  and  carry  in  the 
hand.  Marquesas:  ave,  an  expression  used  when  the  fishing 
line  is  caught  in  the  stones. 


232  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Mota,  Omba:  rave,  to  catch  (of  fish),  Eo:  rav,  id.  New  Britain: 
rapa,  to  take  by  force.  Nggela,  Belaga :  lavi,  to  take.  Maewo : 
lailai,  id.         Arag:  lai,  id. 

Arabic:  rafa'a,  to  take  up,  to  carry. 

Samoan  lave  has  a  line  of  significations  none  of  which  is  found  outside 
its  immediate  vicinage  in  Nuclear  Polynesia.  The  nearest  approach  to  the 
Efate  signification  is  in  lavea,  and  that  is  not  to  be  supported  against  the 
first  objection  that  may  suggest  itself. 

The  sense  of  taking  extends  from  Efate  to  Fotuna  and  thence  eastward 
to  Rarotonga,  Tahiti,  Mangareva,  Maori.  The  carrying  sense  is  found  in 
Niue.     The  two  come  together  no  nearer  than  Hawaii. 

The  specialized  use  in  relation  to  fishing  is  absent  from  Ef  at6 ;  but  its 
presence  in  Tonga,  Mangareva  and  the  Marquesas  of  Polynesia,  and  in  Mota, 
Omba  and  Lo  of  Melanesia  is  amply  suggestive  of  a  common  source.  The 
other  Melanesian  identifications  call  for  no  comment,  except  that  in  Arag 
and  Maewo;  if  this  identification  be  acceptable,  we  have  no  other  example 
in  all  this  material  of  the  vanishing  of  a  v.  These  two,  therefore,  remain  a 
little  more  than  doubtful. 

153- 
leo,  le,  lo,  lu,  voice,  speech,  word. 

Samoa:  leo,  voice,  sound,  noise.  Tonga:  le'o,  voice.  Futuna: 
leo,  id.  Uvea,  Nuguria,  Niue:  leo,  voice,  sound.  Hawaii: 
leo,  voice,  sound,  speech,  language.  Maori,  Tahiti,  Mangareva : 
reo,  id.  Rarotonga :  reo,  voice.  Paumotu :  reko,  voice,  speech ; 
reo,  the  air  of  a  song.  Rapanui :  reo,  voice,  language,  air  of  a 
song,  a  tale;  hakareoreo,  a  story,  to  tell.  Aniwa:  noreo,  voice. 
Marquesas:  eo,  eeo,  id.  Uvea:  lea,  to  say,  to  speak  to,  to 
accost,  to  address.  Tonga :  lea,  speech,  language.  Niue:  lea, 
to  speak.         Rotuma:  lio,  voice. 

Sesake,  Arag,  Mota,  Omba,  Maewo:  leo,  the  voice.  Mota:  lea, 
speech.         Maewo:  leo,  law.         Santo:  liona,  the  voice. 

Arabic:  la" a',  to  speak;  la"w',  sound,  voice;  lo"at,  word,  language, 
dialect. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  leo,  an  open  form  and  thereby  readily  distin- 
guishable from  leo  (311)  to  watch,  which  stems  in  leos. 

The  general  sense  is  the  sound  of  the  voice  in  speech  or  in  song,  and  to 
this  signification  the  word  is  confined  in  Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Uvea, 
Niue,  Aniwa,  Rarotonga,  Paumotu  and  the  Marquesas,  that  is  to  say  all 
of  Nuclear  Polynesia  with  three  tongues  of  the  eastward  migration ;  and  the 
same  is  true  of  the  occurrence  of  the  word  in  the  New  Hebrides  except 
Efate.  If  Paumotu  reko  be  really  referable  to  this  stem  the  interpolation 
of  the  k  is  anomalous.  To  this  idea  of  the  sound  of  the  voice  is  added  a 
connotation  of  the  product  of  the  voice,  and  we  find  the  signification  of 
speech,  language,  in  Hawaii,  Maori,  Tahiti,  Mangareva,  in  the  Paumotu 
subject  to  the  doubt  already  noted  as  to  reko,  and  in  Efate.  In  the  latter 
we  pass  still  farther  into  particulars  with  leo  meaning  a  word.  In  Maewo 
the  secondary  meaning  leo  law  receives  no  confirmation  elsewhere.  On 
Tonga  le'o  see  note  145. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  233 

In  four  languages,  one  of  Melanesia  and  three  of  Polynesia,  we  find  a 
different  yet  appreciably  similar  word  for  the  expression  of  this  latter  sense 
in  differentiation  from  the  former.    These  are : 

Uvea:  leo,  voice,  sound;  lea,  to  say,  to  speak  to. 
Niue:  leo,  voice;  lea,  speech. 
Tonga:  le'o,  voice;  lea,  speech,  language. 
Mota:  leo,  voice;  lea,  speech. 

We  are,  therefore,  abundantly  warranted  in  predicating  two  parallel 
stems  of  which  lea,  by  sense  similarity  and  by  reason  of  carrying  its  form 
and  sense  distinction  nowhere  else  than  in  an  unaccented  final  vowel, 
always  a  weak  spot,  has  become  assimilated  to  leo,  this  being  particularly 
true  in  the  regions  covered  by  the  Tongafiti  swarm.  Efate'  we  find  in 
possession  of  leo  voice;  it  has  not  now  lea  speech;  we  are  not  justified  in 
the  statement  that  it  never  had  the  latter,  for  the  form  le  might  survive 
just  as  well  from  lea  as  from  leo. 

154- 
lingi-si,  malingi,  malingsi,  to  pour  out,  to  spill. 

Samoa,  Tonga:  lingi,  to  pour.  Niue:  lingi,  to  pour  in  or  out. 
Uvea :  lilingi,  to  sprinkle.  Futuna,  Nuguria :  lilingi,  to  pour 
out.  Maori  :ringi,  id.  Rarotonga :  riringi,  to  pour.  Paumotu: 
riringi,  to  pour  from  one  vessel  into  another.  Tahiti :  ninii, 
to  pour  out.  Hawaii :  nini,  to  spill,  to  pour  out.  Rapanui : 
nininini,  to  pour,  to  shed ;  hakanininini,  to  water.  Marquesas : 
iki,  to  pour  out;  iniu,  teat. 

Samoa,  Tonga:  malingi,  spilled.  Rarotonga:  maringi,  to  spill. 
Paumotu:  maringi,  to  suppurate.  Mangareva:  meringi,  to 
trickle,  to  flow.  Hawaii:  manini,  to  spill  or  spatter  out. 
Tahiti :  manii,  to  overflow,  to  be  spilling. 

Viti:  livi,  to  pour  gently  or  in  a  small  stream. 

New  Britain:  ligire,  to  pour  out.  Motlav,  Volow,  Merlav,  Gog: 
ling,  id.  Mdsin:  lenglengir,  fluid.  Mota:  ligligira,  ligiu,  id. 
Aneityum :  aijangjing,  to  pour  out. 

Arabic :  raka,  to  pour  out. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  lingis. 

Efatd  has  the  simple  stem  and  at  least  the  form  of  the  conditional  deriv- 
ative in  ma.  These  two  there  will  be  no  difficulty  in  tracing  through  the 
Polynesian. 

I  have  given  room  to  Viti  livi  because  of  sense  identity.  Superficially 
itfis  in  form  a  three-quarters  identification.  In  all  my  close  study  of  the 
Polynesian  content  of  Viti  this  is  the  only  case  in  which  the  leaping  muta- 
tion ng-v  at  all  suggests  itself,  and  there  is  not  a  single  confirmatory  instance 
in  this  study  of  the  broader  field  of  Melanesia. 

In  the  unlocalized  New  Britain  instance  collected  by  Trfegear  we  are 
uncertain  whether  this  g  is  really  g  or  represents  ng,  a  common  device  in  the 
writing  of  South  Sea  languages.  However  this  may  be,  in  Mota  there  can 
be  no  doubt  that  g  is  g  and  represents  a  not  infrequent  ng-g  mutation.  In 
the  other  New  Hebridean  languages  where  the  word  occurs  it  has  undergone 


234  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

no  change  more  serious  than  terminal  vowel  abrasion,  except  for  a  slight 
vowel  change  in  Mosin.  Aneityum  has  aijangjing  to  pour  and  ajaingjanse 
to  pour  in ;  this  speech,  so  remote  from  either  of  the  Proto-Samoan  migra- 
tion streams  that  it  falls  almost  into  the  lowest  class  of  quality  of  its  Poly- 
nesian content,  has  been  too  little  studied  to  warrant  our  acceptance  of 
this  identification.  But  we  can  sense  a  Polynesian  ghost  in  its  j-ng-s,  all 
the  more  since  the  l-j  mutation  plainly  appears  in  lima  (312)  five  Aneityum 
ni-jman. 

155- 

liu,  liliu,  lilia,  ler,  bilui,  bilu,  to  turn  back,  return,  go  or  come  back. 

Samoa:  liu,  liliu,  to  turn,  to  go  backward  and  forward.  Tonga: 
liu,  liliu,  to  return.  Futuna :  liliu,  to  return,  to  go  or  come 
back.  Niue :  liu,  liliu,  to  turn,  change,  return.  Uvea:  liliu, 
to  turn,  to  return.  Maori :  ririu,  to  pass  by.  Tahiti :  riuriu, 
to  go  around  in  a  circle.        Mangareva :  akariu,  to  come  and  go. 

Viti:  lia,  to  transform,  to  metamorphose. 

Nggela :  liliu,  to  change,  to  turn  away. 

The  identification  of  liu  is  complete  through  all  these  notes.  With  the 
dialectic  occurrence  of  Efate  lilia  there  need  be  no  hesitation  about  admit- 
ting Viti  lia. 

156. 
manuka,  a  wound. 

Samoa:  manu'a,  a  wound.  Tonga:  manuka,  manukaia,  to  kill, 
murder,  applied  to  chiefs.  Fotuna :  manuka,  a  sore,  an  ulcer. 
Nuguria:  manua,  to  wound. 

Mota    Maligo:  maniga,    wound.  Mota    Veverau:  manuga,    id. 

Bierian:  manika,  a  sore,  an  ulcer.  Baki:  menuko,  id.  Laurr 
manug,  a  sore,  an  ulcer,  an  abscess.  Baravon,  Pala :  manua, 
wound.        Malekula:  menu,  a  sore,  an  ulcer. 

Arabic :  naka',  to  wound.     Hebrew :  nakah,  id.     Ethiopic :  nakaya,  id. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  while  on  the  one  hand  this  word  is  confined 
to  Nuclear  Polynesia  it  occurs  on  the  other  not  only  in  the  New  Hebrides 
but  even  so  far  back  along  the  Samoa  track  as  the  east  Indonesian  gate. 
Tonga  makes  far  less  use  of  the  courtesy  speech,  the  Polynesian  Basakrama, 
than  does  Samoa.  In  Samoa  manu'a  is  an  open  word,  the  wound  of  a  chief 
is  masoe.  It  would  appear  that  Tonga  manuka  was  an  importation  from 
Samoa  and  was  set  aside  for  courtesy  use  as  being  a  foreign  novelty.  Any 
note  is  valuable  which  tends  toward  the  elucidation  of  the  differentiation 
of  Proto-Samoan  and  Tongafiti  in  Tonga. 

157- 

nakbe,  a  hollowed  log  used  as  a  drum. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Uvea,  Niue:  nafa,  a  drum. 

Malekula  Uripiv:  nambwi,  a  drum. 

Hebrew:  nekeb,  a  hollowed  thing  used  as  a  musical  instrument. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  235 

158. 
ruma,  the  breast,  bosom. 

Maori :  uma,  the  breast,  bosom.  Samoa :  uma,  a  wide  chest.  Tonga, 
Futuna,  Uvea,  Niue:  uma,  the  shoulder.  Nuguria:  uma, 
breast  of  a  man.  Marquesas:  uma,  the  breast.  Hawaii: 
umauma,  id.  Tahiti:  ouma,  id.  Rapanui:  huma,  breast, 
chest. 

Sesake:  ruma,  the  breast.  Dobu:  rumaruma,  id.  Buka :  nunume, 
id.         Motu:  geme,  id.         Galoma:  komakoma,  id. 

Arabic :  ha'zum',  the  breast,  the  bosom. 

Frontal  abrasion  is  so  well  established  that  we  need  have  no  hesitation 
in  accepting  the  identification  of  Melanesian  ruma  and  Polynesian  uma. 
The  r-n  mutation  which  will  admit  Buka  nunume  is  the  most  frequent  l-r 
change  in  Polynesia,  and  in  the  Solomon  Islands  finds  support  in  lima  (313) 
hand  Saa  ninime.  Motu  geme  is  much  more  remote  and  uncertain,  and  does 
not  well  accord  with  the  high  quality  of  the  identifications  in  that  Torres 
Straits  migration  station ;  the  r-g  mutation  finds  a  measure  of  support  in 
the  l-k  mutation  lima  (313)  hand  Vaturanga  kima  Nggao  kame,  where, 
however,  Motu  has  the  abraded  ami.  Galoma  with  its  k  form  adds  con- 
firmation. 

159- 
ruru,  to  tremble,  an  earthquake. 

Samoa :  lulu,  lue,  to  shake.  Tonga :  luelue,  to  roll ;  lulu,  to  shake. 
Futuna:  lulu,  to  tremble,  to  shake,  to  agitate.  Niue:  luelue, 
to  shake;  lulu,  to  shake,  to  be  shaken.  Nuguria:  ruhe,  motion 
of  the  hands  in  dancing;  luhe  henua,  an  earthquake.  Uvea, 
Hawaii :  lu,  lulu,  lululu,  to  shake,  to  tremble,  to  flap.  Fotuna : 
no-ruruia,  to  shake.  Maori:  ru,  ruru,  to  shake,  an  earth- 
quake. Tahiti,  Rarotonga,  Rapanui,  Paumotu :  ruru,  to  shake, 
to  tremble.  Mangareva:  ru,   to  tremble;  ruru,   to  shake. 

Marquesas :  uu,  to  shake  the  head  in  negation ;  uuuu,  to  shake 
up.  Uvea :  ue  i,  to  shake ;  ueue,  to  move.  Rapanui :  ueue, 
to  shake. 

Nguna:  ruru,  a  trembling.         Mota:  rir,  to  quake,  an  earthquake. 

Syriac :  r'el,  to  tremble. 

Here  we  seem  to  have  a  common  stem  in  two  states. 

The  simpler  is  lu.  This  is  found  in  its  bare  state  in  Uvea,  Hawaii,  Maori 
and  Mangareva.  With  a  persistent  reduplication,  lulu,  it  is  found  in  all 
the  above  and  in  Samoa,  Futuna,  Fotuna,  Tonga,  Niue,  Tahiti,  Rarotonga, 
Paumotu,  Rapanui  and  the  Marquesas,  Ffate,  Nguna  and  Mota.  In  Hawaii 
it  appears  in  triplication,  and  in  the  Marquesas  even  in  quadruplicate . 

The  modified  stem  is  lue.  This  is  nowhere  found  to  the  exclusion  of 
lulu,  but  with  it  is  found  in  Samoa,  Tonga,  Niue  and  Uvea ;  that  is,  it  is 
a  Nuclear  Polynesian  type. 

While  there  can  be  no  difficulty  in  form  or  sense  involved  in  the  Mota 
identification  we  notice  the  confirmatory  agreement  of  Mota  and  Maori  in 
the  particularized  seismic  meaning. 


236  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

160. 

taru-si,  taro-si,  tarotaro,  to  pray. 

Samoa:  tatalo,  to  pray;  talotanga,  a  prayer.  Futuna:  tatalo,  to 
imprecate,  to  desire.  Tahiti:  tarotaro,  to  pray.  Rapanui: 
tarotaro,  a  malediction,  to  curse.  Hawaii:  kalokalo,  to  pray 
to  the  gods,  to  supplicate  favors.  Nukuoro:  tarotaronga,  a 
prayer. 

Mota,  Arag:  tataro,  a  prayer. 

Aravic:  sala',  to  pray.       Fthiopic:  salaya,  id.       Chaldee:  sela,  id. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  talos. 

The  word  has  passed  along  its  course  with  little  variety  in  form  or  sig- 
nification. Tregear,  with  such  recognition  of  doubt  as  the  cf.  note  may 
carry,  associates  with  this  stem  the  Maori  tarotaro  to  cut  the  hair.  His 
explanation  "that  the  cutting  of  hair  among  Polynesians  was  generally 
accompanied  by  a  solemn  and  religious  ceremony,"  while  unimpeachable 
as  a  statement  of  manners  and  customs,  seems,  for  the  purposes  of  philolog- 
ical comparison,  an  impossible  exaltation  of  the  incident  over  the  essential. 

161. 

taumafa,  taumofa,  to  invoke  or  pray  while  sacrificing  or  giving  an  offering. 

Samoa:  taumafa,  to  eat,  to  drink  (of  a  chief  or  a  chief's  pigeon). 
Tonga :  taumafa,  to  eat,  applied  to  the  Tuitonga  but  now  used 
to  high  chiefs.  Futuna :  taumafa,  a  thank-offering  to  the  gods 
or  to  a  chief.  Niue:  taumafa,  to  eat,  used  to  chiefs  only. 
Uvea:  taumafa,  a  religious  feast,  to  eat.  Fotuna:  taumafa, 
an  offering  to  the  gods.  Nukuoro :  taumaha,  taamaha,  a  feast, 
a  sacrificial  feast ;  hakataumaha,  to  forbid.  Maori :  taumaha,  a 
thank-offering  to  the  gods ;  whakataumaha,  to  offer  in  sacrifice. 
Tahiti:  taumaha,  an  offering  of  food  to  the  gods.  Hawaii: 
kaumaha,  a.  sacrifice,  to  offer  in  sacrifice,  to  kill  a  victim  for 
sacrifice.  Raro tonga:  taumaa,  to  curse.  Mangareva :  toumaha, 
a  prayer  offered  up  before  a  feast  or  a  meal,  to  offer  first  fruits 
to  a  god. 

Malekula  Pangkumu:  tomav,  to  offer  in  sacrifice. 

Hebrew:  habhabim,  offerings. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  taumafat. 

The  identifications  show  remarkable  accord  in  form  and  sense.  It  is 
only  in  Samoa,  Tonga,  Niue  and  Futuna,  strictly  Nuclear  Polynesia,  that 
the  word  is  applied  at  all  to  mortal  men.  It  might  be  taken  as  a  piece  of 
gross  flattery  to  the  chiefs  to  assign  to  their  eating  the  word  which  belongs 
to  the  great  gods.  In  my  understanding  of  the  spiritual  ideasof  thiscentral 
area  of  Polynesia,  which  holds  the  most  primal  concepts  of  the  race,  it  seems 
more  reasonable  to  regard  the  word  as  originally  belonging  to  the  great 
chiefs  (Polynesian  Basakrama)  and  thence  extended  to  the  divine  essences 
when  the  Polynesians  had  learned  to  make  gods  in  their  own  image. 

Dr.  Macdonald  finds  no  difficulty  in  accounting  for  the  word  as  a  com- 
posite of  materials  now  in  Efat£,  tau  to  pray  or  invoke,  mafa  (mofa)  giving 
or  offering.     The  latter  element  he  thus  explains :  "when  the  blood  of  men 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  237 

or  animals  has  been  shed  and  forms  a  pool  on  the  ground,  one  feeling  the 
smell  of  it,  or  of  any  similar  thing,  says  i  nabwo  mo  fa,  it  smells  moja,"  and 
identifies  it  with  Arabic  ma'habat  a  small  pool,  wahaba  to  give,  to  make  an 
offering.  Yet  in  the  foregoing  there  nowhere  appears  for  mofa  the  sense  of 
giving  or  offering  which  without  hesitation  he  assigns  when  dealing  with 
it  in  the  taumafa  composition.  The  only  sense  which  may  be  derived  from 
the  narrative,  not  definition,  of  mofa  is  to  say  that  when  the  smell  of  blood 
is  felt,  if  indeed  that  be  possible  in  sense  perception,  and  one  says  it  smells 
mofa  the  word  is  meant  to  describe  the  apperception  of  shed  blood  by  the 
nose.  Not  in  the  least  inclined  to  accept  the  circuitous  Arabic  identifi- 
cation I  see  in  mofa  no  suggestion  of  the  radical  t. 

Working  on  different  materials  Tregear  has  isolated  tau  to  pray  in  Tahiti 
and  the  mafa  of  mamafa  heavy.  The  latter  at  least  is  Proto-Samoan  mafat. 
But  tau  nowhere  else  in  Polynesian  means  to  pray.  Bishop  Jaussen  gives 
tau  in  the  prayer  sense  but  altogether  omits  tarotaro  (160),  which  Tregear 
must  have  obtained  from  English  missionary  sources.  Assuming  the  sub- 
stantial accuracy  of  the  bishop's  dictionary  it  is  possible  that  Tahiti  tau 
by  the  not  infrequent  loss  of  /  (e.  g.,  valu  eight  Tahiti  vau)  may  be  associable 
with  talo  to  pray.  The  association  with  mafat  is  excellent  in  the  preserva- 
tion of  the  radical  t,  but  the  correlation  of  sense  leaves  much  to  be  desired. 

162. 
tauri,  to  bind,  to  be  bound  firmly  to,  to  marry  (a  woman),  to  tie  firmly  to 
(as  a  boat  to  a  ship  to  be  towed) ;  taura  ki,  to  be  fixed  or  bound 
firmly  to  one,  bringing  out  one  as  from  bondage  or  from  her 
relations,  to  redeem,  to  marry;  bitauri,  to  be  bound,  tied, 
attached  firmly  to  each  other,  to  be  married. 
Samoa :  tau,  taulia,  to  be  anchored,  to  be  fixed  (as  colors  in  cloth) ; 
taula,  an  anchor;  taulanga,  anchorage;  taula'i,  to  anchor  with 
or  to;  tauvale,   to  marry  beneath  one.  Tonga:  taulanga, 

anchorage ;  taufau,  to  tie.       Futuna :  taula,  an  anchor,  a  cable ; 
taulanga,  anchorage.       Niue :  taula,  an  anchor.       Uvea :  taula, 
an  anchor;  taulanga,  anchorage.         Nukuoro:  taura,  a  rope. 
Maori :  tau,  to  lie  at  anchor  or  moorings ;  taura,  a  rope ;  tauranga, 
anchorage;  tatau,  to  tie;  taunga,  a  support,  bond,  tie,  a  bond 
of  connection  between  families;  taumau,  betrothed.      Tahiti: 
tau,  an  anchor;  taura,  a  rope;  tauri,  to  be  intermixed  as  a 
family  in  a  house;  tautea,  to  rescue,  to  deliver.       Rarotonga: 
taura,  a  rope.      Marquesas :  tau,  a  rope ;  katau,  atau,  an  anchor. 
Mangareva:  tauri,  to  tie  together;  tour  a,  a  cord.        Hawaii: 
kau,  to  tie  on ;  kaula,  a  rope ;  kaupili,  to  unite,  as  man  and  wife. 
Sesake:  matau,  an  anchor.        Mota:  taur,  to  hold. 
Arabic :  sabara,  sabr',  to  bind,  to  be  bound  to. 
The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  taul. 

The  Polynesian  tau  is  protean  in  its  shifts  of  meaning.  I  have  here  segre- 
gated only  such  as  are  associable  with  Efate  tauri.  Other  senses  will  be 
found  in  236  and  267. 

In  the  Melanesian  identifications  Mota  is  satisfactory.  We  lack  the  data 
to  establish  the  value  of  ma  in  Sesake  matau  which  seems  to  be  a  composite 
of  this  tau. 


238  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

163. 

telatela,  matulu,  mutultul,  matoltol,  large,  swollen. 

Samoa:  tele,  latele,  vatele,  large.         Mangareva:  tere,  to  be  fat,  to 

swell  out.       Maori:  tetere,  large,  swollen.        Hawaii:  kelekele, 

fat,  plump,  large. 
Samoa:  matolutolu,  matoutou,  thick  (of  pork  only).      Tonga,  Futuna, 

Nukuoro :  matolutolu,  thick.     Niue:  matolu,  id.     Uvea:  matolu, 

thickness.       Hawaii:  makolu,  wide,  thick.       Maori:  matotoru, 

thick.         Fotuna,  Tahiti:  matoru,  id.         Mangareva:  matoru, 

fat,  thick.      Marquesas:  motou,  thickness. 
Mota:  matoltol,  thick.         Fpi:  torn,  large.         Norbarbar:  motoltol, 

thick.       Nguna:  matulu,  id.       Baki :  mererolu,  id.       Malekula: 

metetir,  id. 
Hebrew:  Wir,  large,  great. 

Dr.  Macdonald  includes  in  his  identifications  Samoa  telatela,  which,  if 
valid,  would  avail  to  connect  the  two  groups  which  follow.  Unfortunately 
this  identification  is  form  resemblance  only,  for  telatela  in  Samoan  is  the 
clitoris  and  in  no  way  associable  with  the  signification  of  these  stems.  Yet 
without  this  there  is  abundant  reason  to  consider  matolu  a  conditional 
derivative  of  tele.  If  this  be  the  fact,  the  conditional,  which  remains  practi- 
cally uniform,  must  be  held  to  preserve  a  primitive  which  since  then,  in  its 
unsupported  state,  has  developed  other  vowels. 

In  the  Melanesian  identifications  all  is  plain  except  Baki  and  Malekula. 
They  seem  to  have  me  as  the  conditional  element.  The  primitive,  then, 
will  appear  in  Baki  as  rerolu  and  in  Malekula  as  tetir,  evidently  reduplica- 
tions. In  view  of  the  plural  preduplication  of  Samoa  tele  tetele  Malekula 
tetir  seems  explicable  in  form  and  interesting  as  exhibiting  the  much  desired 
transition  form  between  tele  and  matolu.  Baki  rerolu,  apart  from  the  irregu- 
larity of  vowel  change  in  duplication, would  argue  a  t-r  mutation.  This  is 
unusual  but  not  impossible.  These  data  afford  four  examples,  which  are 
here  presented  for  consideration :  futi  (329)  banana  Moanus  mbur;  ate  (276) 
liver  Malekula  ere  Efate  are;  fatu  (294)  a  stone  Malekula  var;  talinga  (350) 
ear  Malekula  riring.  The  last  I  withdraw  for  reasons  which  will  be  offered 
sub  voce.     The  Baki  form  may  pass. 

164. 

tere,  teretere,  (a)  the  comb  of  a  cock;  (6)  the  eaves  of  a  house. 

(a)  Samoa:  tola,  a  thorn,  the  barb  of  a  spear,  the  spur  of  a  cock; 
talatala,  prickly,  thorny,  rough.  Tonga:  tola,  a  thorn,  the 
pricking  fin  on  the  back  of  a  fish ;  talatala,  tala,  thorny,  prickly. 
Futuna:  tala,  thorn,  horn  of  an  animal,  fin  of  a  fish;  talatala, 
prickly,  thorny  .  Niue :  talatala,  prickly.  Uvea :  tala,  thorn, 
horn;  talatala,  prickly.  Nuguria,   Nukuoro:  tara,  a  thorn. 

Maori :  tara,  a  point,  as  a  spear  point,  spines  in  the  dorsal  fin  of 
a  fish,  membrum  virile,  clitoris ;  taratara,  a  spine,  spike,  prickly, 
rough.  Tahiti:  tara,  a  horn,  thorn,  cock's  spur;  taratara, 
prickly,  thorny.  Rapanui :  tara,  a  horn,  spine,  thorn.  Hawaii. 
kakala,  rough  with  sharp  points ;  kalakala,  thorny.     Mangareva : 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  239 

tara,  a  horn,  a  spine,  crest  of  a  bird ;  taratara,  prickly,  thorny, 
spiny.  Moriori:  hokotara,  to  sharpen.  Marquesas:  too,  a 
thorn,  spike,  point. 
(b)  Samoa:  tola,  the  round  ends  of  a  house.  Maori:  tara,  the  side 
wall  of  a  house.  Tahiti:  tara,  the  corner  or  end  of  a  house; 
fautarafare,  the  bend  of  the  round  part  of  a  house.  Hawaii: 
kala,  the  ends  of  a  house  in  distinction  from  the  sides. 

Viti :  teretere,  combs  of  some  birds,  crest  of  serpents. 

Duke  of  York :  talaglagano,  thorny. 

Arabic :  torra,  crest,  comb  of  a  bird ;  torrat,  extremity,  end  of  anything. 

There  is  no  reason  to  suspect  any  closer  association  between  these  two 
groups  than  is  involved  in  identity  of  spelling,  which,  despite  change  of 
vowel  in  Polynesian,  extends  to  their  last  occurrence.  The  Viti  carries 
the  Efate  vowel  scheme  within  the  borders  of  Nuclear  Polynesia  and  serves 
as  the  connective  for  the  thorn  sense. 

In  the  architectural  tola,  Samoa,  Tahiti  and  Hawaii  agree  upon  the  ends 
of  the  house,  Samoa  and  Tahiti  upon  their  being  curvilinear;  with  a  differ- 
ent plan  of  structure  the  Maori  assign  it  to  the  side  wall.  Of  the  Ef  ate  word 
the  most  that  can  be  said  is  that  it  is  architectural  even  if  widely  different 
from  any  Polynesian  use. 

The  only  Melanesian  resemblance  beyond  Efate,  Duke  of  York  talaglag- 
ono,  in  the  east  gate  of  Indonesia,  suggests  a  stem  talak,  of  which  no  trace 
survives  elsewhere  and  the  gap  in  Melanesia  precludes  confirmation. 

165. 
tere,  the  mast  of  a  ship,  calf  (column)  of  the  leg. 

Samoa:  tila,  the  sprit  of  a  sail.        Futuna:  tila,  the  long  boom  or 

sprit  to  which  a  sail  is  bent.        Tonga:  jila,  yard  of  a  canoe. 

Fotuna :  jira,  mast.        Maori :  lira,  mast  of  a  canoe.       Tahiti, 

Rarotonga,  Mangareva :  lira,  a  mast.        Uvea :  sila,  yard. 

Makura:  na-tire,  mast.         Tanna:  tila,  id.        Bierian:  n'dalin,  id. 

Arabic:  sariyat,  sari,  the  mast  of  a  ship,  a  column. 

In  devising  his  second  definition  Dr.  Macdonald  has  squinted  so  strabis- 
mically  at  his  Arabian  entertainment  that  a  single  degree  added  to  his  angle 
of  vision  would  have  turned  him  into  a  One-Eyed  Calender. 

In  the  Polynesian  group  the  t-s  mutation  in  Uvea  sila  is  sufficiently 
common. 

The  Melanesian  identifications  are  simple,  except  Bierian  n'dalin.  Omit- 
ting the  final  n,  for  which  we  have  no  explanation  other  than  that  it  may 
be  noun-formative,  we  may  reduce  the  word  to  tali,  and  this,  it  is  at  once 
apparent,  is  metathetic  for  tila. 

The  variety  of  sense  as  between  boom,  sprit,  yard,  and  mast  is  more 
apparent  than  real.  It  is  due  to  an  attempt  to  establish  as  a  fixed  concrete 
a  term  which  is  undoubtedly  abstract  and  descriptive.  In  the  navigation 
where  the  triangular  sail  has  an  enormous  sprit  or  boom  and  a  short  mast 
tila  goes  with  the  longer  spar ;  where  the  mast  is  high  and  the  sprit,  boom, 
yard  or  gaff  is  subordinate,  tila  still  goes  with  the  longer  spar.  If  we  had 
the  data  whereby  to  analyze  tila  down  to  its  elements  we  should  probably 
find  that  it  meant  no  more  than  long  spar. 


240  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

166. 
n 
tjfai,  thunder,  ti,  article,  and  fai. 

The  following  words  all  mean  thunder  and  those  in  which  the  fai  element 
is  indisputable  are  grouped : 

Samoa,  Fakaafo :  jaititili.  Tonga :  faijijili.  Manahiki :  faititiri. 
Tahiti:  patiri.  Tongarewa:  hatitiri.  Maori:  whatitiri, 

whaitiri.  Bukabuka:  watitiri.  Paumotu:  fatitiri.  Nukuoro: 
haturi.  Rapanui,    Mangareva:  atutiri.  Hawaii:  hefyHj.. 

Nuguria:  hetuturi.  Marquesas:  hatiitii,  fatutii,  hatutii. 
Aniwa,  Fila:  te-fachiri.         Fotuna:  vajiri.         Vat6:  vatshiri. 

(Malay:  titir,  to  make  a  noise,  a  noise  which  gives  alarm.) 

Arabic :  bahh',  hoarse,  used  of  thunder. 

Dr.  Macdonald's  simple  attempt  at  etymology  in  respect  of  his  designa- 
tion of  ti  as  article  must  have  reference  to  the  Tongafiti  te,  the  weak  demon- 
strative functioning  as  article  at  times,  for  his  dictionary  does  not  identify  ti 
in  Efat€  in  any  sense.  The  common  Polynesian  words  for  thunder  involve 
the  two  elements  fai  and  tili.  The  Efat6  alone  in  Melanesia  contains  ele- 
ments in  the  thunder  word  which  resemble  the  Polynesian.  As  to  the  fai 
there  can  be  no  doubt ;  ti  may  readily  be  an  abraded  form  of  tili.  I  know 
of  no  instance  in  which  the  Melanesian  has  inverted  the  order  of  the  ele- 
ments in  borrowing  a  Polynesian  composite,  yet  in  default  of  more  definite 
information  this  seems  not  unlikely  in  this  case. 

The  former  element  in  Polynesia  has  the  following  forms : 

fai:  Samoa,  Fakaafo,  Tonga,  Mana-      wa:  Bukabuka. 

hiki.  wha:  Maori. 
whai:  Maori.  ha:  Tongarewa,    Nukuoro,    Mar- 
fa:  Paumotu,    Aniwa,  Fila,    Mar-               quesas. 

quesas.  he:  Hawaii. 

va:  Fotuna,  Vate.  a:  Mangareva. 
pa:  Tahiti. 

The  latter  element  falls  into  groups,  which  yet  may  not  have  diagnostic 
significance,  according  to  the  duplication  of  the  stem,  as  follow : 

tili:  Tahiti,  Maori,  Hawaii,  Aniwa,  Fila,  Fotuna,  Vate  (Nukuoro). 
titili:  vSamoa,  Fakaafo,  Tonga,  Manahiki,  Tongarewa,  Maori,  Buka- 
buka, Paumotu  (Mangareva,  Rapanui). 
tilitili:  Marquesas. 

Mangareva  atutiri,  Marquesas  fatutii,  hatutii,  suggest  a  fatu  former  ele- 
ment. Yet  the  Nukuoro  haturi,  which  can  scarcely  be  katu-ri,  seems  to 
argue  a  remoter  tutiri  duplication  through  an  ignorance  of  the  stem  vowel 
which  Nukuoro  reveals.  The  first  of  the  three  Marquesas  forms  is  recorded 
by  Tregear,  but  is  not  found  in  Bishop  Dordillon's  modern  dictionary. 

If  we  had  none  other  than  the  /ai-composites  we  should  say  that  the 
former  element  signifies  "to  make."  Not  one  of  the  other  forms  of  this 
element  offers  in  any  of  the  languages  a  sense  which  might  explain  the 
composite,  but  not  one  of  the  languages  has  anything  which  would  contra- 
indicate  this  sense.  Provisionally,  therefore,  we  may  assume  that  jaititili 
means  "to  make-tilt  intensively." 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  241 

Nowhere  in  Polynesia  can  I  find  a  meaning  of  tili  which  would  shed  any 
light  on  this  composite,  and  I  am  forced  to  the  conclusion  that  this  element 
has  passed  out  of  independent  existence.  The  presence  of  the  composite 
in  Aniwa,  Fotuna,  and  Fila  argues  its  great  age  as  a  compound.  I  am  very 
loth  to  accept  an  Indonesian  identification  except  it  be  supported  by  a 
satisfactory  chain  of  evidence.  To  present  such  a  resemblance  based  upon 
a  single  instance  goes  against  my  practice  in  the  present  work.  Yet  with 
this  deprecation  I  note  the  Macassar  djili  the  lightning  flash.  Faitili  then 
might  mean  that  which  makes  the  lightning.  It  may  be  that  we  shall  find 
a  trifle  in  geographical  support  of  this  suggestion.  Macassar  is  the  region 
in  Celebes  which  lies  in  closest  proximity  to  the  island  of  Salayer,  a  name 
which  seems  not  remotely  preserved  in  the  honorific  fa'alupenga  of  Samoa 
in  the  high  phrase  for  all  Tutuila. 

Tulouna  a  'oe  le  motu  o  Salaia.     Saving  thy  grace,  island  of  Salaia. 

167. 
ulumwa,  a  pillow  for  the  head. 

Samoa :  alunga,  alulunga,  a  soft  pillow.      Nuguria :  aruna,  headrest. 
Tonga :  olunga,  pillow.     Futuna,  Uvea,  Niue :  ulunga,  id.     Maori, 
Mangareva:  urunga,  id.      Hawaii:  uluna,  a  pillow,  to  sleep  on 
a  pillow,  to  tie  up  a  bundle  for  a  pillow.      Paumotu :  rurunga,  a 
pillow.        Tahiti:  urua,  turua,  id.         Rapanui:  rangua,  id. 
Dufaure  Island  (New  Guinea) :  unua,  a  pillow.     New  Britain :  ulula- 
lag,  id.     Mota  Maligo :  ilinga,  head-rest,  pillow.     Mota  Veverau : 
ulunga,  id. 
Mahri:  here,  haroh,  hare,  eres',  the  head. 
Dr.  Macdonald  repeats  and  again  repeats  the  hint  that  this  is  a  derivative 
of  ulu  the  head.     Tregear  notes  that  the  word  is  probably  connected  with 
uru  the  head,  turu,  and  runga. 

This  can  only  apply  in  those  instances  which  have  initial  u,  Futuna,  Uvea, 
Niue,  Maori,  Mangareva,  Hawaii,  Tahiti,  Mota  Veverau.  It  leaves  unsatis- 
fied Samoa,  Tonga,  Paumotu  and  Mota  Maligo.  The  Samoan  plural  is 
proof  that  the  word  is  a  composite  of  which  the  latter  element  is  lunga. 
The  former  element  is  most  commonly u,  but  a,  0,  and  possibly  i  occur.  The 
Paumotu  rurunga  is  accordingly  a  preduplication  of  the  second  element  and 
the  common  first  element  does  not  appear  in  it  at  all.  If,  then,  lunga  inde- 
pendently or  in  composition  carries  the  sense  of  headrest  it  will  be  seen 
that  the  stem  can  not  be  ulu  the  head.  The  alternative  Tahiti  turua  is 
anomalous  on  either  theory  of  the  word.  The  Rapanui  form  is  susceptible 
of  explanation  by  double  metathesis. 

Mota  Veverau  ulunga  is  of  the  general  type.  I  incline  to  regard  Mota 
Maligo  ilinga  as  a  mere  variant  of  local  dialect.  The  only  way  by  which 
Dufaure  unua  can  be  brought  into  correlation  is  by  establishing  the  loss 
of  n  and  the  l-n  mutation.  Each  of  these  changes  is  abundantly  manifested 
in  Melanesia  and  Polynesia;  whether  they  are  current  in  Dufaure  Island 
the  only  other  word  we  have  from  that  speech  (ama  (340)  outrigger  Dufaure 
sarima — unsatisfactory)  does  not  allow  us  to  judge.  The  New  Britain 
ululalag  can  be  correlated  only  as  a  compound  of  ulu  head  and  lalag  equiv- 
alent to  lunga  with  reduplication,  and  there  is  no  evidence  forthcoming  to 
support  the  latter,  while  the  former  is  distinctly  contraindicated. 


242  THE!  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

168. 

utu,  ut  i,  to  fill  (by  immersing)  a  water  vessel. 

Samoa :  utu,  to  draw  water,  to  fill  a  bottle,  to  charge  a  gun.  Tonga  : 
utu,  to  draw  water;  utufia,  to  pour  out,  to  run  as  water  from 
a  vessel  or  tears  from  the  eyes.  Futuna :  utu,  to  draw  water, 
to  fill  with  a  liquid ;  uku,  to  plunge  into  the  water.  Uvea :  utu, 
uutu,  to  draw  water,  to  pour  into.  Niue :  utu,  to  draw  water. 
Nuguria:  utu,  to  fill.  Maori:  utu,  to  dip  up  water,  to  fill 
with  water.  Tahiti:  utuhi,  to  dip  into  the  water,  to  rinse. 
Mangareva :  utuhi,  to  draw  water.  Hawaii :  ukuhi,  to  pour, 
as  water  into  a  cask,  to  fill  a  vessel  with  any  fluid.  Mangaia: 
uti,  to  draw  water.  Fotuna:  no-eitu,  id.  Rapanui:  uutu, 
to  fill  up ;  ootu,  to  draw  water. 

Motu:  utu,  a  flood,  to  draw  water.  Tanna:  atu,  id.  Aneityum: 
athun  wai,  id. 

Arabic:  "ata  ("a'tu)  to  immerse. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  utuf. 

Rather  more  frequently  than  is  the  case  in  general  the  influence  of  the 
radical  /  is  found  not  only  in  Nuclear  Polynesia  but  persists  to  distant 
extensions  of  the  Tongafiti  swarm.  The  Mangaia  uti  is  singular  in  Poly- 
nesia but  accords  with  an  alternative  Efat6  form.  The  irregularity  of  the 
initial  vowel  in  Fotuna  looks  toward  the  Tanna  and  Aneityum  forms,  and 
they  are  its  close  neighbors. 

Dr.  Macdonald  in  his  definition  squints  as  usual  quite  obliquely  at  the 
Arabic.  It  is  only  by  the  accident  of  the  container,  the  common  water 
vessel  of  the  South  Sea  being  the  coconut  pierced  at  the  eyes,  that  it  is 
more  convenient  to  fill  by  immersing.  That  the  immersion  in  no  sense 
inheres  in  the  word  is  shown  by  the  Samoan  use  of  utu  to  charge  a  gun  or 
to  cram  tobacco  into  a  pipe,  and  by  the  general  use  of  the  word  to  signify 
pouring  out  from  the  container. 

EFATE-MELANESIAN-POLYNESIAN-MALAY. 

169. 
finanga,  food. 

Samoa :  sina' aiunga,  grayheaded  from  eating  the  hermit  crab  (unga), 
old  but  foolish.  Tonga:  hinakaiunga,  grayheaded  as  a  punish- 
ment for  eating  the  hermit  crab. 
Mota,  Marina:  sinaga,  food.  Malo:  sinaca,  id.  Motlav,  Omba: 
hinaga,  id.  Lo:  hinega,  id.  Sesake:  vinaga,  id.  Duke 
of  York:  winangan,  id. 
Malagasy:  hinana,  food. 

There  is  a  possibility  that  the  Efate  contains  a  misprint,  for  in  Dr. 
Macdonald's  alphabet  the  ng  differs  from  the  g  by  no  more  than  a  dot  above. 
The  mutation  g-ng  is  by  no  means  impossible,  but  it  is  strange  that  Efate 
is  the  only  speech  except  the  distant  Duke  of  York  in  which  this  word 
varies  from  the  standard. 

The  two  words  in  Nuclear  Polynesia  have  hitherto  been  a  puzzle  unsolved. 
The  interpretations  offered  in  the  dictionaries  of  Pratt  and  Baker  respec- 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  243 

tively  are  just  such  philology  as  the  islanders  invent  for  the  student  who 
attempts  to  go  under  the  surface  of  their  speech.  It  is  of  a  piece  with  the 
Samoan  etymology  of  tangata  man  from  ta  to  strike  and  ngata  snake,  with 
Genesis  iii,  15,  cited  as  decisive.  We  now  reduce  the  word  to  sinaka  food 
in  a  verbal  use  as  shown  by  verb-formative  i,  and  unga,  the  particular  sense 
of  which  does  not  yet  appear. 

The  Melanesian  forms  are  all  in  accord,  even  including  Duke  of  York 
winangan,  for  in  this  island  we  find  s-w  mutation  although  no  other  example 
thereof  is  included  in  these  data ;  and  the  Sesake  vinaga  is  transitional. 

EFATE-POLYNESIAN-MALAY-SEMITIC. 
170. 

afis  i,  afit  i,  afin  i,  afan  i,  afen  i,  to  put  or  carry  under  the  arm  or  arms 
held  between  the  arm  and  the  side,  to  cover  with  the  wings  as 
a  bird  its  young,  clasping  them  between  the  wing  and  the  side ; 
afini  na,  the  armpit;  afili  na,  the  armpit,  the  groin. 

Samoa:  afisi,  to  carry  under  the  arm,  to  carry  a  child  astride  the 
hip,  afisinga,  a  load  carried  under  the  arm.  Tonga:  efi,  to 
carry  under  the  arm.  Futuna :  efi,  to  carry  under  the  arm, 
the  under  side  of  a  fin.  Mangareva:  ahi,  when  used  after 
a  word  signifying  a  load  or  a  bundle  it  means  a  load  carried 
on  the  chest  or  in  the  arms.  Maori :  awhi,  to  embrace ;  awhe, 
to  measure  a  tree  by  embracing  it.        Tahiti :  ee,  armpit. 

Malay :  kdpet,  mangapet,  to  carry  under  the  arm. 

Arabic:  "abana,  to  put  under  the  armpit;  ma"bin',  groin,  armpit. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  afis. 

This  appears  only  in  Samoa  and  in  Kfate,  where  variants  are  found  in 
t,  n  and  I.  The  efi  of  Tonga  and  Futuna  marks  the  transition  in  respect 
of  the  former  vowel,  and  Maori  awhe  the  transition  form  for  the  latter; 
together  they  substantiate  Tahiti  ee,  the  /  normally  vanishing  in  that 
language. 

171. 

bangobango,  to  be  crooked. 

Samoa :  pi'opi'o,  crooked,  wrong.  Futuna,  Tongarewa,  Marquesas, 
Mangareva,  Paumotu:  piko,  bent,  crooked,  awry,  twisted. 
Nukuoro :  pikopiko,  crooked.  Niue :  piko,  to  think  erroneously ; 
pikopiko,  to  speak  falsely.  Uvea :  piko,  pipiko,  crooked,  slug- 
gish. Maori:  piko,  to  bend,  to  stoop,  to  be  curved.  Rapanui: 
hakapiko,  pliant,  to  bend,  to  make  crooked.  Tonga:  biko, 
crooked.  Tahiti:  pio,  bent,  crooked,  wrong.  Hawaii:  pio, 
bent,  crooked. 

Malay :  bengkok,  crooked .  Malagasy :  vukuka,  id .  Java :  bengkong,  id . 
Saru:  pekok,  id. 

Hebrew:  hafak,  to  turn.  Syriac:  hpak,  id.  Arabic:  'apaka,  id. 
Hebrew:  hapakpak,  crooked,  twisted. 


244  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

172. 
bwala,  to  be  smooth. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea:  molemole,  smooth.  Nukuoro: 
molemole,  soft.  Hawaii:  molemole,  smooth,  bald.  Tahiti: 
moremore,  id.  Maori:  more,  bare,  plain,  bald.  Mangareva: 
akamore,  to  decapitate,  to  cut  off  horns.  Paumotu:  moremore, 
without  hair  on  the  body,  polished. 
Malagasy:  bory,  deprived  of,  shorn,  cropped,  polled. 
Arabic :  mara,  maur',  to  fall  off  or  pluck  out,  as  wool  or  hair. 

173- 
biau,  beau,  biaufiau,  biafiau,  a  wave;  biaufiau,  to  be  raised  in  waves, 
rough  sea. 
Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Fotuna,  Niue,  Marquesas,  Nuguria:  peau, 

a  wave.         Mangareva:  peau,  peahu,  id. 
Viti:  mbiau,  a  wave. 

Tanna:  peau,  a  wave.         Aneityum:  ne-peau,  id. 
Malay:  ombak,  a  wave. 
Ethiopic:  ababi,  waves.         Arabic:  'ubab,  id. 

174. 
bule,  fule,  complete  (adverbial). 

Tonga :  fuli,  fulibe,  all,  everyone.     Futuna :  fuli,  all,  universal ;  fuliai, 

all  without  exception.      Uvea :  fuli,  all,  universal,  the  whole. 
Malay :  bulah,  the  whole. 
Arabic:  bala"a,  bulu",  to  complete,  to  go  through  to  the  end. 

175- 
busi,  to  blow,  to  spout  as  a  whale. 

Samoa :  pusa,  to  send  up  a  smoke  (applied  also  to  dust,  spray,  vapor), 
Nukuoro:  pusa,  steam.  Fotuna:  noh-pusa,  to  rise  (of  dust). 
Tonga:  buhi,  to  spit;  bubuhi,  to  spout  as  the  whale,  to  blow 
anything  from  the  mouth.  Futuna :  pupusi,  to  blow,  a  blast 
of  wind.  Niue :  puhi,  to  spurt  out.  Uvea :  pupuhi,  to  blow. 
Maori:  puhi,  to  blow.  Tahiti:  pupuhi,  to  blow  the  fire,  to 
blow  out  a  candle ;  puhipuhi,  to  blow  with  the  mouth,  with  a 
fan,  with  bellows.  Hawaii:  puhi,  to  blow  (as  wind),  to  blow 
(the  fire,  a  shell),  to  puff,  to  spout.  Marquesas :  puhi,  to  blow, 
to  breathe.  Mangareva:  puhi,  to  blow.  Paumotu :  puhipuhi, 
to  blow.  Rarotonga :  pupui,  id. 
Malay:  ambus,  ambusi,  to  blow;  dmbusan,  bellows.         Malagasy: 

mifufutra,  to  blow  the  bellows. 
Arabic:  nafat'a,  nafah'a,  to  blow  out,  to  puff,  to  eject  spittle. 
I  do  not  take  cordially  to  Dr.  Macdonald's  inclusion  of  Samoan  pusa  in 
his  identification.  This  word  is  found  also  in  Nukuoro  and  Fotuna  and 
nowhere  else  in  Polynesia.  The  accord  of  all  other  instances  upon  pusi, 
evidently  pus  advanced  in  manufacture  by  the  verb-formative  i,  renders  it 
well-nigh  impossible  that  this  rare  and  rigidly  Proto-Samoan  pusa  can  be 
associable  therewith.  The  only  difference  between  the  two  pusi  senses  is 
that  to  spout  is  blowing  made  visible;  this  sense  in  Polynesia  appears  in 
Tonga,  Niue,  and  Hawaii. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  245 

176. 

butu,  futu,  butafuta,  futfut,  to  spring  up  or  out,  as  water  from  a  spring  or 
smoke  from  a  fire;  butu  raki,  buti-raki,  to  appear,  to  come  in 
sight. 

Maori :  puta,  to  gush  out,  to  spurt,  to  come  in  sight,  to  pass  through, 
to  pass  in  or  out.  Hawaii:  puka,  to  enter  in  or  pass  out; 
hoopuka,  to  appear  in  sight  when  at  a  distance.  Marquesas : 
puta,  to  arrive.        Mangareva:  puta,  to  go  out  from. 

Malay:  tarbit,  to  issue,  to  come  out,  to  emanate,  to  appear. 

Arabic:  nabata,  to  spring  up  or  out  as  water,  to  appear,  to  go  or 
come  forth,  to  come  in  sight. 

If  it  were  not  that  the  Maori  and  Hawaiian  comprehend  the  two  senses 
in  one  word  I  should  scarcely  consider  buta  and  buturaki  associable.  The 
latter,  despite  our  author's  division  of  the  word  by  the  hyphen,  seems  to 
be  butur-aki,  butir-aki,  in  which  the  ki  which  he  describes  as  transitive  par- 
ticle seems  better  comprehended  as  aki  which  is  verb-formative  all  through 
Polynesia.  In  this  case  the  stem  is  closed  with  a  liquid.  The  absence  of 
this  closing  radical  and  the  difference  of  vowel  in  buta  argue  against  its 
association  with  the  butur  stem.  The  Polynesian  forms  preserve  the  a  and 
therefore  have  a  formal  identification  with  buta,  but  in  the  sense  there  is  a 
mixture  with  significations  of  butur.  It  will  be  observed  that  this  is  one  of 
the  infrequent  identifications  with  the  Tongafiti  swarm  having  no  trace  in 
Nuclear  Polynesia;  therefore  it  should  not  be  accepted  without  a  clearing 
up  of  these  difficulties  far  beyond  our  present  power. 

The  buturaki,  butiraki,  sense  is  found  in  Nuclear  Polynesia  in  Samoa  jotu, 
Tonga  fotu,  fotui,  fotuaki,  Futuna  jotu,  Viti  votu,  all  of  identical  meaning. 
Yet  there  is  nowhere  any  trace  of  the  radical  final  consonant.  The  Tonga 
fotuaki  would  appear  to  negative  the  possibility  that  modern  fotu  stems  in 
fotur,  but  this  is  more  apparent  than  real,  for  Tonga  seems  not  to  have 
adopted  these  inflected  forms  until  the  final  consonants  of  closed  roots  had 
vanished.  In  Samoa,  where  closed  roots  are  normally  preserved  in  com- 
posite (inflectional)  forms,  we  have  no  record  of  any  form  which  might  give 
evidence  upon  this  point.  Accordingly  this  is  not  offered  as  an  identifica- 
tion, but  to  record  a  resemblance  sufficient  to  suggest  identity.  It  is  to 
note  that  Samoan  fotu  could  not  undergo  any  known  variation  and  become 

Maori  puta. 

177. 

ngal  i,  kal  i,  al  i,  to  stir  water  around. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna:  ngalu,  a  wave,  a  breaker.  Fotuna, 
Maori,    Rarotonga:  ngaru,   id.  Mangareva:  ngaru,   scum, 

froth.  Paumotu :  puhingaru,  a  bubble  of  water.  Hawaii : 
naht^  a  wave.     Tahiti:  aru,  id.      Marquesas,  kau,  nau  tai,  id. 

Malay:  alun,  a  wave.       Malagasy:  aluna,  id. 

Hebrew:  galal,  to  roll;  gal,  fountain,  well,  waves.  Syriac:  galo', 
a  wave. 

In  addition  to  the  identification  with  ngalu  Dr.  Macdonald,  led  by  abraded 
forms  of  his  ngal,  adds  the  Hawaiian  ale  to  well  up,  which  is  negligible. 
Both  he  and  Tregear  link  with  ngalu  a  wave  ngalue  to  shake.     In  this  case 


246  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

the  nga  is  a  formative  prefix,  and  the  stem  lue  has  already  been  studied 
under  159. 

The  identification  ngali-ngalu  satisfies  in  form  as  little  as  in  sense.  In 
the  Polynesian  the  word  has  a  distinct  and  concrete  meaning.  The  Efate, 
if  it  be  regarded  as  concrete,  means  something  quite  different  from  ngalu; 
and  if  it  be  regarded  as  a  loose  and  abstract  term  it  has  nothing  in  it  to 
suggest  a  wave  of  the  sea.  Furthermore  we  find  in  these  data  almost  no 
instance  in  which  we  are  satisfied  with  the  identification  of  a  Polynesian 
concrete  with  a  Melanesian  abstract. 

178. 
ngiringiri,  bright,  shining,  brilliant,  polished. 

Samoa:  'i'ila,  to  shine,  to  glisten,  to  glitter.        Tonga:  kikila,  to 
shine,  to  glare;  ngingila,  bright,  shining.         Futuna:  kikila, 
bright,  shining;  ngingila,  brilliant,  resplendent.       Niue:  kikila f 
brightness,  to  shine.      Uvea :  ngingila,  bright,  shining,  brilliant,, 
fiery,  to  beam ;  pakila,  a  ray,  a  beam. 
Malay:  gilang,  to  shine,  to  glitter,  to  dazzle,  bright,  brilliant. 
Arabic:  gala',  galiyy' ,  clear,  bright,  shining,  polished. 
The  concurrence  of  ng  and  k  forms  in  Tonga,  Futuna  and  Uvea,  while 
Samoa  and  Niue  have  but  the  k  form,  seems  to  point  to  two  channels  by 
which  the  word  reached  these  several  parts  of  Nuclear  Polynesia.     Of  these 
the  migration  which  reached  Samoa-Niue  seems  to  present  an  earlier  stage 
of  the  root,  if  the  Malay  identification  prove  to  be  as  good  as  it  seems.    Then 
Efat6-Uvea-Futuna-Tonga  are  finger-posts  of  a  later  migration  overlaid 
upon  the  earlier.     We  shall  again  and  again  notice  evidences  of  two  waves 
in  the  Proto-Samoan  migration  stream.     The  consociation  of  Samoa  and 
Niue  is  supportable  by  Niue  tradition. 

179. 
kabwe,  a  small  basket. 

Samoa:  'apu,  a  cup  or  dish  made  of  a  leaf.  Tonga:  kabu,  the 
banana  leaf  so  folded  as  to  hold  water;  habu,  the  banana  leaf 
tied  at  both  ends  to  hold  water.  Mangareva :  kapu,  a  cup,  a 
leaf  dish.        Raro tonga:  kapu,  a  cup.  Marquesas:  kapu, 

a  handful;  curved,  rounded.  Tahiti:  apu,  the  shell  of  a  nut 
or  gourd.  Hawaii :  apu,  a  dish  or  cup ;  aapu,  a  concave  vessel. 
All  the  Polynesian  words  are  associated  with  the  curving  hollow 
of  the  hand,  Maori :  kapu,  id. 

Malay:  kabok,  goblet.         Malagasy:  kapoaka,  a  cup,  a  goblet. 

Syriac :  kapo',  a  goblet.  Hebrew :  kaf,  kap,  the  hollow  of  the  hand ; 
plural  a  hollow  vessel,  pan  or  bowl ;  ka}af,  to  bend,  to  curve. 
Cf.  kaf  96. 

180. 

las,  lasi,  big,  large,  great,  sufficient,  to  suffice. 

Samoa:  lasi,  many.  Futuna:  lasi,  many,  great.  Tonga:  lahi, 
large,  many,  abundant.  Niue :  lahi,  great.  Uvea :  lahi,  many, 
great.  Maori,  Tahiti :  rahi,  many,  great.  Manahiki :  rahi,  great., 
Raro  tonga:  rai,  large. 

Saparua:  ilahil,  great.        Awaiya:  ildhe,  id. 

Arabic:  'arus'a,  to  be  wide,  large. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  247 

There  should  be  a  limit  to  the  confidence  with  which  we  are  to  follow 
our  author.  Our  limit  is  reached  at  this  word  "suffice."  For  it  is  thus 
that  Dr.  Macdonald  proceeds:  "to  meet,  i.  e.,  to  suffice,  be  sufficient  for,  as 
nafinanga  i  lasingita,  the  forces  sufficient  for  (meets)  us  and  you,  tilasi,  id., 
also  to  meet,  come  upon,  comeWross  (a  person)  i  tilasinami  nabua,  he  met 
us — them  on  the  way."  ? 

So  far  as  las,  lasi,  means  great  the  Polynesian  identification  is  perfect. 

The  Indonesian  suggestions  are  derived  from  Turner;  they  are  presented 
as  resemblances;  there  seems  no  other  relation. 

181. 

soko,  masoko,  true,  exact,  to  the  point. 

Samoa:  sa'o,  sdsa'o,  correct,  right.        Futuna:  sako,  right,  correct. 

Tonga:  sao,  pleasing,  agreeing  with  what  is  right  and  just. 

Niue:  hako,  straight;  hakohako,  perfect,  upright,  just. 
Malay:  sung"uk,  true. 
Arabic:  sadaka,  sadk',  true.       Hebrew:  sadak,  to  be  straight,  right, 

just. 

The  extinction  in  Tongan  of  Proto-Samoan  k  is  so  unusual  as  to  cause 
the  thought  that  perhaps  Tonga  sao  is  really  Samoa  sao  perfect,  without 
fault  or  blemish,  and  not  properly  to  be  identified  with  sako. 

182. 

sulu,  a  torch;  sulu  e,  to  scorch  with  the  flame,  to  illuminate  with  a  torch. 

Samoa:  sulu,  a  torch;  to  light  by  a  torch;  sulusulu,  to  carry  a 
torch;  susulu,  to  shine  (used  of  the  heavenly  bodies  and  of 
fire).  Futuna :  susulu,  the  brightness  of  the  moon.  Tonga: 
huluaki,  huluia,  huluhulu,  to  light,  to  enlighten;  fakahuhulu, 
to  shine;  tuhulu,  a  torch  or  flambeau,  to  light  with  a  torch. 
Niue :  hulu,  a  torch ;  huhulu,  to  shine  (as  the  moon) .  Maori : 
huru,  the  glow  of  the  sun  before  rising,  the  glow  of  fire. 

Bald:  yulu,  a  torch.         Motu:  hururu,  id. 

Java :  suluh,  a  torch. 

Arabic:  s'a'ala,  to  light,  kindle  a  fire,  torch;  s'u'ulu,  flame  of  fire; 
mas"al',  torch. 

The  Efate  gives  us  the  torch  sense ;  this  runs  through  Samoa,  Tonga,  Niue, 
Baki,  Motu,  Java.  In  Polynesia  we  encounter  the  sense  of  shining,  which 
may  be  taken  to  mean  that  the  torch  is  the  shining  thing.  The  abstract 
sense  is  found  with  the  torch  name  conjointly  in  Samoa,  Tonga  and  Niue, 
and  exclusive  of  the  torch  in  Futuna  and  Maori.  The  Samoan  susulu,  which 
expressly  points  out  that  fire  and  the  heavenly  bodies  shine  in  the  same 
word,  is  the  link  which  joins  the  two  significations,  and  the  Maori  would  be 
exactly  as  valid  if  it  but  included  a  sulu  torch.  The  celestial  shining  in 
Samoa  and  Tonga  is  general,  in  Niue  and  Futuna  is  moonshine,  in  Maori  is 
the  sun  in  the  dawn  glow.  Of  the  Paumotu  huru  color,  height,  figure, 
shape,  only  the  first  sense  can  be  in  the  least  referable  to  sulu  to  shine,  and 
then  only  to  dismiss  it. 

The  Motu  identification  will  pass  muster.  If  the  Baki  is  to  stand  it 
introduces  a  new  mutation,  s-y,  one  which  rests  upon  this  single  instance ; 


248  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

and  our  Baki  material  is  so  scanty,  this  being  the  only  case  involving  s, 
that  we  can  neither  prove  nor  dispute  it. 

The  Java  suluh  seems  good,  for  in  cases  where  form  and  sense  are  in 
perfect  accord  we  need  not  exact  corroboration  from  other  Indonesian 

sources. 

183. 

tabwa  n,  tauba  na,  side,  shore. 

Samoa :  tapa,  the  uncolored  border  of  a  bast  cloth.  Tonga :  tapa, 
the  border  or  edge  of  bast  cloth  or  of  anything;  kapa,  the 
corners  and  edges  of  anything.  Niue :  tapa,  side.  Rapanui : 
tapa,  edge,  border,  fringe,  cloth,  clothing.  Maori:  tapa,  the 
margin,  the  edge,  the  brim  of  a  vessel.  Mangareva:  tapa, 
bast  cloth,  the  border  of  cloth.  Marquesas :  tapa,  bast  cloth. 
Tahiti:  tape,  a  fragment  of  cloth;  tapemoana,  the  edge  of  the 
deep  water.        Hawaii :  kapa,  bast  cloth,  bank,  shore,  side. 

Malay:  tapi,  edge,  border. 

Arabic:  taff',  side,  shore. 

The  sense  of  side,  without  particular  restriction,  is  found  in  Efate,  Niue, 
Maori.  The  specialized  sense  of  the  border  of  the  bast  cloth,  which  is 
absent  from  Efate,  is  found  to  the  exclusion  of  the  general  sense  in  Samoa 
and  Mangareva,  and  inclusive  of  the  general  sense  in  Tonga.  In  Mangareva 
the  word  means  not  only  the  border  but  the  cloth,  and  in  the  Marquesas 
and  Hawaii  the  border  idea  has  vanished  and  the  word  is  applied  to  the 
cloth  in  general,  while  in  Tahiti  it  designates  any  fragment  of  the  cloth. 
The  shore  sense  takes  a  long  leap  from  Efate  to  Tahiti  and  Hawaii. 

184. 

taii-ni,  tao-ni,  to  cook,  to  bake  in  the  oven ;  tao,  leaves  for  cooking  which 
are  put  into  the  oven  along  with  the  food  to  be  cooked. 

Samoa :  tao,  to  bake ;  taofono,  taona'i,  to  bake  food  the  day  before 
it  is  used ;  tau,  the  leaves  used  to  cover  an  oven.  Tonga :  tao, 
to  cook  food  in  an  oven,  to  bake.  Futuna :  tab,  to  put  in  an 
oven,  to  cook.  Niue:  tao,  to  bake.  Uvea:  tao,  to  cook,  to 
bake.  Maori,  Rapanui :  tao,  to  bake  or  cook  in  a  native  oven, 
properly  to  steam,  to  boil  with  steam.  Tahiti:  tao,  the  rocks 
and  leaves  with  which  a  pig  is  covered  when  cooking;  baked, 
boiled,  cooked.  Marquesas,  Mangareva,  Mangaia,  Tongarewa  : 
tao,  to  bake  in  an  oven. 

Malagasy :  tatao,  the  rice,  milk,  and  honey  cooked  at  the  annual 
feast. 

Arabic :  taha,  tahw',  to  cook. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  taon. 

The  word  refers  to  the  specific  manner  of  cookery  which  involves  the 
pit  oven.  The  suggestion  in  the  Maori,  therefore,  does  not  mean  a  different 
method ;  it  is  but  an  attempt  more  precisely  to  describe  the  kitchen  method, 
a  very  tasty  cookery,  be  it  said.  The  suggestion  of  boiling  is  found  only 
in  Tahiti,  yet  in  his  dictionary  Bishop  Jaussen  does  not  record  it  under 
the  word  bouillir;  boiling  was  little  known  to  the  Polynesians  before  the 
European  introduction  of  pottery  and  other  fire-resisting  utensils.     The 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  249 

sense  of  the  noun  tab  is  found  in  Tahiti,  and  in  Samoa  where  it  is  distin- 
guished from  the  verb  by  the  form  tau,  and  this  corresponds  to  taunt,  which 
nowhere  else  appears  in  Polynesia. 

The  Malagasy  affiliation  is  suggested  by  Tregear  with  the  apologetic 
note  cf .  It  does  not  seem  good,  for  rice  and  milk  with  honey  scarcely  lend 
themselves  to  this  cookery.  The  failure  to  recognize  Polynesian  kitchen 
conditions  in  regard  of  rice  once  mislaid  some  charity  of  excellent  intention. 
The  Apia  hurricane  of  1889,  in  addition  to  the  destruction  of  two  fleets,  left 
the  Samoans  on  the  verge  of  starvation  by  the  uprooting  of  their  planta- 
tions and  the  snapping  off  of  the  crowns  of  coconut  trees.  As  soon  as  their 
plight  became  known  in  Australia  the  warm-hearted  Colonials  despatched 
a  cargo  of  rice  to  keep  the  poor  islanders  alive.  Unfortunately  the  Samoans 
had  neither  stoves  nor  pots,  they  could  not  bake  rice  in  a  pit  oven,  and  they 
were  as  badly  off  as  ever  until  food  supplies  better  adapted  to  their  con- 
ditions reached  them. 

185. 

uta  na,  uta  i,  to  pay  for,  repay,  give  in  payment  for. 

Niue :  uta,  to  pay,  to  render.  Maori :  utu,  an  equivalent,  a  recom- 
pense, the  price  paid,  to  pay  for,  to  compensate.  Marquesas: 
utu,  wages.  Tahiti:  utua,  compensation,  reward,  wages. 

Hawaii:  uku,  to  pay,  to  remunerate,  wages. 

Malay:  utang,  a  debt.         Tagalog,  Visayas:  utang,  id. 

Arabic :  'ada',  to  pay  for,  repay. 

The  Niue  identification  is  a  satisfactory  showing  that  the  word  has  made 
an  entrance  into  Nuclear  Polynesia.  The  utu  forms  are  all  in  the  Tongafiti 
migration,  and  that  is  so  much  later  as  to  have  allowed  the  word  to  change, 
or  it  may  have  been  a  dialectic  variant  ah  initio.  These  words  are  in  accord 
among  themselves  and  vary  from  Ef ate  only  in  form  and  that  upon  the  weak 
point  of  the  unaccented  final  vowel.     They  are,  therefore,  acceptable. 

The  Malayan  identifications  are  imperfectly  satisfactory.  Polynesia  has 
the  sense  of  something  that  is  paid  to  a  person  who  has  the  right  to 
receive  it ;  Indonesia  has  the  sense  of  what  a  person  has  to  pay  out.  The 
distinction  is  one  that  would  have  found  Wilkins  Micawber,  Esq.,  at  his 
best,  to  the  rest  of  us  a  tragedy.  Yet  in  form  the  Indonesian  words  agree 
in  a  terminal  consonant,  which  is  also  in  Efate  utana,  if  I  am  correct  in  thus 
reading  the  word. 

EFATE-  VITI-MELANESIAN-POLYNESIAN-SEMITIC. 
186. 
afa,  afafa,  ofa,  ofaofa,  to  swim. 

Samoa,  Futuna:  opeope,  to  float. 
Viti:  nawa,  to  float. 
Epi:  mava,  mia,  to  swim. 

Arabic:  'ama,  to  float,  to  swim  (said  of  a  man),  to  go  (of  a  camel), 
to  dispose  in  sheaves  or  bundles ;  'amat,  a  bundle,  float  or  raft 
for  carrying  things  across  water. 

If  the  following  were  but  an  exercise  of  Dr.  Macdonald's  reasoning  I 
should  have  left  it  in  his  volume  where  the  curious  might  find  it,  yet  on 


250  THE)   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

account  of  what  seems  a  definite  and  positive  ascription  to  a  "native"  I 
must  give  it  place : 

The  first  meaning  (to  swim)  seems  not  connected  with  the  second  (to  carry),  to  a 
European,  but  a  native  connects  them  thus:  a  man  aja  natas,  swims  or  floats  on  the  sea, 
the  sea  aja  natamole  bears  or  carries  the  man ;  so  a  man  aja  ki  nakasu,  swims  holding  a 
floating  stick,  but  if  he  gets  on  to  the  stick  and  lets  it  float  him  ashore  the  stick  is  said 
to  aja  i  carry  him.  The  sea  or  the  stick  carries  him  thus,  hence  aja,  v.  t.,  denotes  carry 
a  man  on  one's  back,  then  to  carry  anything  on  the  back :  and  as  a  man  so  carried  clasps 
with  his  arms  the  carrier  round  the  chest,  the  head  of  an  axe  is  said  to  aja  its  handle, 
and  as  one  carrying  a  basket  on  his  back  holds  the  string  of  it  over  his  shoulder,  so  a 
man  drawing  a  log  by  a  string  thus  over  his  shoulder  is  said  to  aja  it,  and  a  tug  steamer 
is  said  to  aja  or  tow  a  ship.  A  dog  aja  a  piece  of  meat,  carrying  it  off  firmly  held  by 
its  teeth,  and  a  man  aja  a  pipe  or  a  twig,  i.  e.,  carries  it  held  by  his  teeth.  A  messenger 
aja,  carries  his  message,  a  horse  its  rider,  and  a  warrior  aja,  carries,  i.  e.,  leads  his  troop; 
also  a  person  aja  narongitesan,  bears  a  disease  or  infirmity  or  trouble.  In  the  Arabic 
word  there  is  the  idea  of  connection  together  (as  things  in  a  bundle).  In  ajai,  carry 
him  as  a  floating  stick  carries  a  man  in  the  water,  or  a  horse  carries  him  on  land,  the 
transitive  preposition  i  gives  the  verb  its  transitive  force,  make  to  swim,  to  go,  i.  e.,  carry. 

This  identification  seems  very  doubtful  at  every  point.  In  the  matter 
of  signification,  floating  is  by  the  islanders  quite  distinguished  from  swim- 
ming. Through  of  a  the  Efate  afa  approximates  ope  in  form,  but  the  sense 
difficulty  remains .  Efate  and  Samoa  are  the  forms  which  lack  an  initial  con- 
sonant. Between  Viti  and  Epi  there  is  sense  dissimilarity,  but  there  is  a 
certain  formal  resemblance  except  for  the  initial  consonant.  It  might  be 
argued  that  the  fact  that  there  is  such  dissimilarity  shows  that  this  con- 
sonant is  in  a  state  of  flux  and  therefore  the  more  readily  tends  to  vanish. 
The  mutation  is  not  recognized  in  any  of  our  Epi  material.  Regarded  as 
n-m  mutation,  we  have  but  three  instances  of  its  occurrence  in  our  data, 
and  that  no  nearer  than  Marina  (312-3,  317,  324).  If  regarded  as  m-n 
mutation,  our  only  support  will  lie  in  the  equally  distant  Nggao  and  New 
Georgia  in  the  single  word  351. 

The  Semitic  requires  all  Dr.  Macdonald's  reasoning  above  cited,  and 
even  then  wholly  fails  of  giving  satisfaction. 

187. 
aran,  oran,  arain,  oraone,  on,  uen  (in  on  and  uen  the  radical  r  is  changed 
to  n),  sand. 
Samoa,  Fakaafo,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea,  Nukuoro,  Aniwa, 
Fotuna,  Maori,  Tahiti,  Hawaii,  Rarotonga,   Manahiki,  Mar- 
quesas: one,  oneone,  sand.       Nuguria:  one, sand;  oneone,  beach. 
Mangareva:  owe,  the  soil;  one patapata,  sand.       Rapanui:  oone, 
sand,  gravel,  clay,  dirt,  filth.       Vate:  ngone,  sand. 
Viti:  Oneata,  the  name  of  an  island. 

Mota,  Santo,  Malo,  Keapara,  Galoma,  Saa:  one,  sand.     Eeon:  leon, 

on  the  sand.      Baki:  iono,  sand.      Bierian :  eniono,  id.      Santo 

Wulua:  parono,  id.     Malekula:  dambanaun,  id.     Motu,  Sinau- 

goro,  Hula,  Rubi:  kone,  id.      Kiriwina:  kana-kenua.      Boniki: 

gonugonu.         Oiun:  ganas. 

Arabic:  horr',  horron,  sand;  from  harm,  to  be  hot. 

Through  inability  to  use  his  critical  apparatus  Dr.  Macdonald  has  solved 

his  quite  unnecessary  difficulty  by  his  note  as  to  the  change  of  radical  r-n. 

A  different  arrangement  of  the  Efate  material  will  develop  the  true  radical 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  251 

quite  simply,  on,  uen  for  the  simple  stem;  oraone,  arain,  aran,  or  an  for 
the  composite.  The  stem  is  one  and  the  Viti,  Polynesian,  and  much  of 
the  Melanesian  identification  is  exact. 

The  form  oraone  shows  that  one  is  compounded  with  an  element  ora,  and 
this  may  be  the  same  as  ara.  In  these  compounds  the  one  member  through 
in  is  degraded  into  a  mere  n.  This  ora  or  ara  may  have  somewhat  to  do 
with  the  per  of  Santo  Wulua  perono.  When  unsupported  one  loses  its  final 
vowel  in  on,  and  in  uen  seems  to  undergo  such  vowel  shift  as  is  found  in 
arain. 

In  Melanesia,  so  far  as  is  not  included  in  the  general  identification,  we  find 
the  loss  of  the  final  vowel  in  le-on,  and  probably  in  Malekula  dambana-un 
we  have  the  same  loss  together  with  vowel  shift.  The  form  ono  is  found 
in  composites  in  Baki  and  Bierian  and  in  Santo  Wulua. 

Having  thus  removed  the  ara  from  the  Efate  words  there  is  left  to  the 
Arabic  identification  not  even  a  resemblance. 

188. 
aso,  to  burn,  to  be  scorched. 

Samoa:  'a'asa,  glowing  hot.         Tonga,  Uvea:  kakaha,  hot,  fiery, 
painful.         Futuna:  kaka,  fiery,  reddened  by  fire.         Niue: 
kaka,  hot,  red-hot. 
Viti :  nggesa,  burnt  or  scorched  in  cooking. 
Aneityum:  acas,  cos,  to  burn,  hot,  burning;  ecescas,  burnt. 
Arabic:  wakada,  to  burn,  to  be  kindled.         Hebrew:  yakad,  id. 
Syriac:  ikad,  id. 
The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  kas. 

The  vanishing  of  radical  k  in  Efate  finds  support  in  mataku  (258)  to  fear 
Efate  mitaku,  where  also  we  have  mitau.  This  granted  we  have  an  excellent 
identification  in  sense  and  form  from  Melanesia  through  Viti  to  Nuclear 
Polynesia.  The  Niue  and  Futuna  kaka  are  the  reduplication  of  the  root 
after  abrasion  of  its  final  consonant.  One  of  the  Aneityum  forms  points 
the  way  very  neatly  to  the  Viti  vowel  change. 

189. 
bwalo,  to  be  empty,  vain,  null  and  void,  to  no  purpose  or  effect. 

Samoa :  vale,  inactive,  needless,  worthless.        Tonga :  vale,  in  vain, 
in  ukiuki-vale,  to  inquire  in  vain.       Hawaii :  wale,  gratuitously, 
idly,  without  reward. 
Viti :  wale,  uselessly,  idly,  only,  for  nothing,  gratis. 
Mota:  tuwale,  only. 

Arabic:  batala,  butl',  botV ,  to  no  end,  in  vain,  for  nothing,  idle. 
Hebrew :  batai,  to  be  empty,  vacant,  idle.  Ethiopic :  batalar 
to  be  empty,  vain. 

190. 

bebe,  a  butterfly. 

Samoa:  pepe,  a  butterfly,  a  moth,  to  flutter  about.  Nukuoro, 
Futuna, Niue, Uvea,  Fotuna,  Nuguria,  Tahiti,  Marquesas:  pepe, 
a  butterfly.  Maori :  pepe,  a  grub,  a  moth ;  pepepepe,  a  butterfly ; 
pepeatua,  a  species  of  butterfly.       Tonga :  bebe,  a  butterfly. 

Viti:  mbembe,  a  butterfly.        Rotuma:  pep,  id. 


252  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Arag,  Ulawa,  Saa,  Fagani,  Bululaha,  Hula,  Keapara,  Galoma :  pepe, 
butterfly.       Epi:  lepepe,  id.       Moanus:  ndrapipi,  id.       New 
Georgia :  pepele,  id.      Omba,  Maewo,  Wango,  Vaturanga,  Buka, 
Baravon,  New  Britain,  Solomon  Islands,  Rubi,  Suau,  Sariba: 
bebe,  id.         Laur:  b'dbd,  id.         Mugula,  Tubetube,   Tagula, 
Murua:  bebi,  id.         Savo:  bebeula,  id.         Motu,  Sinaugoro: 
kaubebe,  id.     Panaieti,  Misima:  bebebi,  id.     Pokau:  ehgJMlo,  id. 
Roro:  peropero,  id.         Nada,  Kiriwina:  beba,  id.         Boniki: 
bebabeba'vU..        Mukawa,  Raqa:  arabebemta,  id.        Kwagila: 
karabibim,  id.         Taupota,  Wedau:  bebeu,  id.         Awalama: 
kapeu,  id.       Tavara:  gopu,  id.       Dobu :  pepega,  id.       Mekeo: 
/e/e,  id.       Kiviri,  Oiun:  /e/efc,  id.        Lakon,  Pak,  Sasar,  Alo 
Teqel:  pep,  id.       Lo:  />*/>,  id.       Norbarbar :  peb,  id.       Volow, 
Merlav,  Gog,  Motlav:  beb,  id.       Lamassa:  bam,  id.       Lambell: 
'hamba,  id.         Mota:  />e/>e,  nt/>e,  id.         Nggela:  uleulebe,  id. 
Buka:  fcawe,  id.       Brierly  Island :  bebi,  a  moth.       Malo:  w&e, 
a  butterfly.        Baki:  bembe,  id.       Tanna:  paubauuk,  id. 
Morella:  pepeue,  butterfly.         Amboyna:  pepeul,  id. 
Hebrew:  '«/>,  't6'e6,  to  flutter. 
The  identification  is  so  complete  that  we  need  no  more  than  simple 
inspection  until  we  reach  the  forms  which  are  either  more  or  less  than  pepe. 
The  pep,  by  abrasion  of  the  final  vowel,  finds  itself  in  Rotuma,  Lakon, 
Pak,  Sasar,  Alo  Teqel,  Lo,  Norbarbar,  Volow,  Merlav,  Gog,  Motlav.     Still 
further  abrasion,  or  what  amounts  to  the  same  thing,  the  unduplicated  stem 
pe,  does  not,  with  perhaps  a  single  exception,  appear  unsupported ;  but  as  a 
composition  member  it  is  found  in  Lambell  'hamba,  Mota  rupe,  and  Nggela 
uleulebe.     Our  possible  exception  is  Lamassa  bam.     Laur,  Lamassa,  and 
Lambell  we  have  through  a  single  channel,  very  German  and  the  most  com- 
petent piece  of  ethnography  I  know.     From  this  we  see  that  ba  is  close  to 
be.     In  Lambell  the  ba  is  compounded ;  in  Lamassa,  but  a  few  miles  away, 
bam  may  be  regarded  as  but  ba  nasalized,  as  is  sometimes  the  Melanesian 
case;  or  the  m  may  be  a  mutant  from  p,  as  we  shall  discuss  in  note  207. 
Variants  of  pepe  are  easily  traced  in  Malo  vebe,  Baki  bembe;  and  Tanna  pau- 
bauuk, while  remote  from  the  standard,  as  Tanna  lies  remote  from  the  free 
track  of  migration,  seems  struggling  to  preserve  the  same  stem.     In  Indo- 
nesia the  pepe  stem  is  unmistakable  in  Morella  and  Amboyna. 

We  now  turn  to  the  pepe  composites.  Lambell  'hamba  we  have  already 
noted.  Not  by  any  means  identifiable  with  'ham,but  associable  because  at 
the  northern  verge,  we  note  Motu  kaubebi  and  Moanus  ndrapipi.  There  is 
a  liquid  component  which  so  frequently  associates  itself  with  pepe  as  to 
attract  notice.  Its  simplest  form  is  le,  initial  in  Epi  lepepe,  final  in  New 
Georgia  pepele.  There  is  a  stronger  form,  yet  I  incline  to  regard  it  identical : 
ula  final  in  Savo  bebeula,  Amboyna  pepeul,  Morella  pepeue;  initial  as  ule  in 
Nggela  uleulebe.  "This  may  appearin  oriori  butterfly  in  the  Lakatoi  language. 
This  consistent  reducibility  to  elemental  pe,  and  Buka  bawe  is  so  reduc- 
ible as  well,  removes  all  possibility  of  identification  with  the  Hebrew  word 
offered. 

We  should  not  pass  unnoticed  a  group  of  forms  which  Dr.  Ray  has  col- 
lected on  the  New  Guinea  shore  of  Torres  Straits.    The  meaning  is^wuigj) 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  253 

but  that  is  not  particularly,  remote  from  the  butterfly  signification.  At 
least  the  comparison  is  worth  making.  Starting  with  pepe  and  ending 
with  ani,  these  forms  show  a  remarkable  process  of  dilapidation  of  the 
Polynesian  stem  in  the  custody  of  Melanesians  or  worse,  yet  there  is  a 
perfect  chain  from  pepe  to  ani.  The  form  pepe  is  found  in  Mugula.Tube- 
tube,  and  Panaieti.  The  slightly  variant  pape  is  found  in  Dobu,  Awalama, 
Taupota,  Wedau,  and  Kubiri;  and  Tavara  apape  is  a  modification  of  the 
same.  The  simple,  unduplicated  stem,  £e,  is  recognizable  in  mape  of 
Galavi,  Boniki,  and  Mukawa;  in  mabe  of  Mugula;  and  in  peapea  of  Sariba. 
Recurring  to  the  pape  stem  we  have  no  difficulty  in  following  it  to  Oiun 
baben  and  Kiviri  fafen.  At  this  point  we  have  acquired  a  final  n,  which 
thenceforward  dominates  the  stem.'  Its  simple  series  runs  in  this  order: 
Sinaugoro  pane,  Mekeo  pani,  Galoma  bane,  Uni  bant,  Keapara  vane,  Pokau 
vani,  Motu  hani,  Rubi  ani.  More  involved  forms  are,  Misima  bpeni,  Nada 
papane,  Murua  pinpene,  Kiriwina  pinipanela. 

191. 
bilikit,  to  peel. 

Samoa :  mele'i,  to  husk  coconuts. 

Viti:  longgata,  to  peel:  meleka,  to  break  off  a  small  piece  of  food. 

Aneityum:  milinga,  to  peel. 

Ethiopic :  lahasa,  to  peel. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  melek. 

We  can  find  this  in  Samoa,  Viti  and  Aneityum.  The  Efat6  m-b  mutation 
we  have  already  been  compelled  to  recognize  in  umu  (76)  oven  Efat£  ubu. 
These  two  instances  are  very  satisfactory,  yet  there  are  no  other  except  that 
similar  m-v  mutation  in  masaki  (323)  sick  Nggela  vahagi.  The  Viti  longgata 
in  which  our  author  sees  identity  is  no  more  than  a  partial  resemblance. 

|3I  192. 

boro,  the  coconut  leaf;  a  basket  made  thereof;  the  leaf  plaited  for  thatch- 
ing houses. 

Samoa :  pola,  a  plaited  coconut  leaf  used  to  inclose  the  sides  of  a 
house.  Tonga :  pola,  the  nut  leaf  plaited  for  thatch  and  other 
purposes ;  bolobola,  a  large  basket  made  of  the  nut  leaf.  Futuna : 
pola,  plaited  coconut  leaves.  Niue :  pola,  a  coconut-leaf  mat. 
Maori :  pora,  a  kind  of  mat.  Tahiti :  jarepora,  a  small,  neatly 
thatched  house  on  a  double  canoe;  haapora,  a  sort  of  long 
basket.  Mangareva:  />ora,  a  general  name  formats.  Paumotu: 
kaporapora,  a  mat.  Fotuna:  borabora,  a  coconut  leaf  basket. 
Marquesas:  poa,  coconut  leaves.      Sikayana:  pura,  thatch. 

Viti :  mbola,  a  coconut  leaf  plaited  for  thatching,  a  basket. 

Mota :  pora,  a  basket.  New  Georgia :  poru,  a  mat.  Bougainville : 
polta,  a  mat.       Aneityum :  naburabura,  a  coarse  basket. 

Arabic :  fara',  to  split,  to  rend,  to  slit. 

The  identification  is  perfect  in  our  territory,  the  only  variants  from  the 
pola  type  being  Sikayana  pura  and  Aneityum  burabura,  in  New  Georgia 
poru,  and  the  unaccountable  injection  of  t  in  Bougainville  polta.  This, 
however,  may  be  a  syncopation  of  polata,  the  pola  screens  which  serve  for 
Venetian  blinds  about  the  islander's  house.     As  usual  our  author :  "bworai 


254  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

to  split  open ;  bora  a  basket  woven  out  of  the  frond  of  a  coconut  palm  whose 
stalk  is  split  asunder."  He  is  looking  not  only  at  bworai, but  at  the  Arabic 
he  is  about  to  suggest.  The  slitting  of  the  stalk  would  appear  to  the 
islander,  as  to  us,  the  first  and  least  important  of  the  operations  whereby 
the  basket  is  produced. 

'93- 
kafika,  the  rose  apple. 

Samoa:  nonufi'afi'a,  the  Malay  apple.  Futuna:  kafika,  a  fruit  tree. 
Niue:  kafika,  a  lofty  tree.  Fotuna:  kafika,  the  rose  apple. 
Tahiti:  ahid,  Malay  apple.  Maori:  kahika,  the  white  pine. 
Marquesas:  kehika,  kehia,  ehia,  tree  names.  Hawaii:  ohia,  a 
tree  name. 
Viti:  kavika,  Malay  apple. 

Mota,  Lo,  Maewo,  Arag,  Marina :  gaviga,  the  rose  apple.  Tangoan 
Santo:  kabika,  khabika,  id.  Santo  Wulua:  keviga,  id.  Malo: 
avica,  id.         Merlav,  Lakon:  gavig,  id.  Mosin:  gevig,  id. 

Leon:  vegig,  id.       Motlav:  na-gveg,  id.       Norbarbar:  geve,  id. 
Retan:  vege,  id.         Malek'ula  Pangkumu:  havih,  id.         Pak: 
marag,  id.       Sasar:  merag,  id.       AloTeqel:  mereg,  id.     Tanna: 
ni-gauvug,  id. 
Hebrew:  tapuah,  an  apple.         Arabic:  toff  ah,  id. 
The  Proto-Samoan  is  kafik. 

The  modern  Samoan  has  reduced  this  stem  by  the  initial  syllable,  but  in 
compensation  it  has  incorporated  the  name  of  the  custard  apple  {Morinda 
citrijolia).  With  mere  color  justification  this  nonu  passes  in  Samoan  over 
to  varieties  of  the  kafika  {Eugenia  malaccensis)  as  nonuui  the  white  and 
nonu'ula  the  red  variety.  It  will,  therefore,  be  not  out  of  place  to  introduce 
a  brief  record  of  nonu,  all  the  more  since  it  is  one  of  the  very  few  words  in 
Polynesia  which  points  at  all  clearly  to  a  Sanskrit  source,  nona  in  that 
language  being  the  custard  apple. 

nonu:  Samoa,  Nukuoro,  Gilberts,  British  New  Guinea,  Tonga,  Niue, 
Futuna,  Marquesas  (noil). 

nono:  Tahiti,  Mangareva. 

nino:  Mortlocks,  Marshalls,  Tagalog,  Pampangas. 

nunu:  Viti. 

nona:  Sanskrit,  Malay. 
In  reducing  the  element  of  the  composite  which  pertains  to  Eugenia 
malaccensis  Samoa  with  its  fi'a  differs  from  every  language  in  the  Polynesian 
system ;  yet  this  vanishing  tendency  of  the  first  syllable  shows  itself  in  the 
initial  abrasion  which  gives  us  Tahiti  ahid,  Marquesas  ehia  and  Hawaii  ohia. 
In  Melanesia  the  trisyllabic  form  is  maintained  intact  in  Mota,  Lo.Maewo, 
Arag,  Marina,  Tangoan  Santo,  Santo  Wulua,  and  in  Malo  with  the  abrasion 
of  the  initial  k  as  in  the  extremes  of  eastern  Polynesia.  Our  next  group 
includes  the  dissyllables  which  now  appear  as  closed  stems  through  abrasion 
of  the  final  vowel ;  these  are  Merlav,  Lakon,  Mosin,  Leon,  Motlav,  Malekula 
Pangkumu,  and  Tanna.  We  find  yet  a  third  group,  dissyllables  of  open 
stem  through  the  abrasion  of  the  final  consonant  of  the  last  preceding  group ; 
these  are  Norbarbar  and  Retan. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  255 

The  change  in  the  initial  syllable  from  a  to  e,  which  we  find  in  the  remote 
Marquesas,  is  here  observed  in  Santo  Wulua,  Mosin,  Leon,  Norbarbar,  and 
Retan.  Metathesis  is  observed  in  Leon  from  Mosin,  and  in  Retan  from 
Norbarbar.  Retan  vege  might  be  fika,  after  the  manner  of  the  loss  in 
Samoan ;  but  as  Leon  vegig  must  be  Mosin  gevig,  which  is  kafik,  we  prefer 
to  consider  Retan  in  accord  with  its  neighbor.  Motlav  na-gveg  I  have 
classed  in  the  foregoing  with  the  dissyllables  of  closed  stem.  The  initial  n 
is  the  shadow  of  the  article,  just  as  ni  in  Tanna,  but  Motlav  is  a  very  diffi- 
cult language  to  write  because  the  article  attracts  the  nearest  vowel  of  the 
stem,  in  this  case  gaveg;  therefore  na  is  article  for  this  word  and  in  attract- 
ing has  also  subtracted. 

Pak,  Sasar,  and  Alo  Teqel  are  a  separate  and  unassociable  group. 

The  Semitic  proposed  by  Dr.  Macdonald  is  clearly  irrelevant. 

194. 
kori,  kuri,  oria,  kuria,  a  dog,  a  brave,  a  warrior. 

Samoa:  'uli,  a  dog.       Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea,  Fotuna,  Aniwa: 

kuli,  id.       Maori,  Rarotonga,  Mangareva,  Paumotu,  Sikayana: 

kuri,  id.        Tahiti:  uri,  id. 
Viti:  koli,  a  dog. 
Baki,  Epi,  Ambrym,  Santa  Cruz,  Deni :  kuli,  a  dog.       Iai,  Tanna, 

Eromanga,  Malekula,  Aneityum :  kuri,  id.     Epi :  koria,  kuliu,  id. 

Sesake:  koriia,  id.     Malo:  vuria, id.     Tangoan  Santo :  vuriu,  id. 

Bierian:  kuliu,  id.        Santo:  wurin,  id. 
Arabic:  gorw',  a  young  dog;  gariyy' ',  brave. 

The  identifications  are  satisfactory  and  the  stem  shows  no  variations 
until  we  reach  Malo  and  Santo  with  the  k-v  mutation,  which  is  found  only 
in  these  two  languages  and  in  this  word  alone.  The  closely  similar  k-w 
mutation  spreads  over  a  wider  area  of  speech,  yet  also  is  found  in  but  a 
single  word.  The  Santo  word  wurin  derived  from  Dr.  Macdonald's  gram- 
mar of  that  language  is  so  close  to  Tangoan  Santo  vuriu  that  I  must  regard 
the  final  n,  otherwise  incomprehensible,  as  a  fault  of  the  press. 

The  Arabic  does  combine  in  similar  words  the  Efate  significations,  yet 
not  even  on  that  account  is  it  convincing  in  the  absence  of  confirmatory 
evidence  to  bridge  the  gap. 

195- 
koto  bolo,  a  basket  (bolo,  basket). 

Samoa:  'ato,  a  basket.        Tonga,  Fotuna,  Uvea:  kato,  a  basket. 

Niue;  kato,  a  basket,  a  bag. 
Viti :  kato,  a  basket. 

I/O:  gat,  a  bag.        Malekula:  na-cat,  a  basket.        Malo:  cete,  id. 
Tanna:  katum,  id.         Aneityum:  in-cat,  id.;  nefehcat,  a  large 
basket. 
Arabic:  ka'tat,  a  basket  for  carrying  dates. 
As  koto  means  a  basket  and  bolo  means  a  basket,  the  use  of  synonyms 
in  composition  is  an  interesting  example  in  Melanesia  of  the  principle  of 
determinant  compounds,  the  existence  of  which  in  Samoan  I  have  else- 
where established  (14  Journal  Polynesian  Society,  40).     Koto  is  readily 
identifiable  with  kato  in  Nuclear  Polynesia  and  Melanesia  and  no  forms  call 


256  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

for  explanation  except  the  as  yet  inexplicable  ra-final  in  Tanna  katum.  The 
Malo  cete  is  here  included.  It  is  probably  a  member  of  the  kete  series,  which 
it  will  at  least  serve  to  introduce  here.  The  consonant  skeleton  being  the 
same  in  kete  and  kato,  we  may  venture  to  look  upon  them  as  variants  of 
very  early  introduction. 

Maori,  Rarotonga,  Futuna,  Marquesas :  kete,  a  basket.  Tonga,  Uvea, 
Viti :  kete,  the  belly.  Mangareva :  akaketekete,  to  grow  big  (said 
of    adolescent   girls).  Rapanui:    kete,    keete,    basket,    sack^ 

Nuguria :  kete,  fishtrap,  kiddle,  food  basket.  Samoa :  'ete,  basket,, 
bag.     Tahiti,  Nukuoro:  ete,  id.     Hawaii :  eke,  a  bag,  a  small  sack. 

Mota:  gete,  a  basket.  Malo:  cete,  id.  Aneityum:  in-ced,  in-cet 
(in  composition),  id. 

The  Aneityum  with  in-cat  (kato)  and  in-cet  (kete),  Samoa  'ato  and  'ete, 
establish  satisfactorily  the  transition  forms.  As  covering  the  sense 
passage  from  basket  to  Tonga,  Uvea,  and  Viti  belly,  we  may  instance  that 
in  English  of  the  Marquis  of  Queensberry  rhetoric  the  bread-basket  is  a 
parallel  case. 

196. 

koto-fi,  kote-fi,  to  cut,  to  cut  off,  to  break  off. 

Samoa :  'oti,  to  cut,  to  clip  (as  the  hair) ;  'oto,  'otofia,  to  pluck  one 
here  and  another  there.  Tonga:  koji,  to  cut  with  scissors; 
koto,  to  crop,  to  shorten  shrubs ;  koso,  to  cut.  Futuna :  koti, 
to  cut ;  koto,  to  pluck  a  leaf  from  its  branch.  Niue :  kotikoti, 
to  notch.  Maori,  Rarotonga,  Paumotu :  koti,  to  cut.  Mar- 
quesas, Mangareva:  kokoti,  id.  Rapanui:  kokoti,  to  cut  off. 
Uvea:  kosi,  to  clip,  to  shear.     Tahiti:  oti,  id.     Hawaii:  oki,  id. 

Viti:  koti,  shears;  kotiva,  to  clip  or  shear;  kosova,  to  cut  across. 

Lambell :  koti,  to  cut.  King:  toki,  id.  Lamassa:  kuti,  id.  Mota:: 
got,  id. :  igot,  a  cutter;  goso,  to  stab.      Pala:  kut,  to  cut  through. 

Arabic :  kata'a,  cut,  cut  off,  separate. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stems  are  kotif  and  kotof. 

We  here  assemble  three  forms.  Koti  and  koto  are  manifestly  associable. 
As  to  the  final  radical  consonant  we  establish  kotif  on  Viti  and  Efat£,  kotof 
on  Samoa  and  Efate,  and  kosof  on  Viti.  Of  these  forms  kotif  and  kotof  are 
identical  in  respect  of  the  complete  consonantal  skeleton  and  differ  only  in 
the  unaccented  and  weak  vowel ;  kotof  and  kosof  are  in  vowel  agreement  and 
differ  only  in  the  t-s  mutation,  which  has  been  proved  a  normal  Polynesian 
change.  With  such  strong  concords  and  with  such  simple  differences  I 
regard  the  three  as  ancient  variants  of  a  parent  stem. 

Let  us  now  examine  the  distribution  of  these  forms. 

kotif:  Samoa,  Viti,  Efat6,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Maori,  Rarotonga, 
Paumotu,  Marquesas,  Mangareva,  Tahiti,  Hawaii — in  other  words . 
it  belongs  equally  to  the  Proto-Samoan  and  the  Tongafiti  swarms. 

kotof:  Samoa,  Efate,  Tonga,  Futuna — purely  Proto-Samoan. 

kosof:  Tonga,  Viti,  and  Uvea  an  interesting  transition  form. 

Our  Melanesian  material  except  in  Efat6  does  not  include  kotof,  the  Mota 
<-stem  being  omitted  from  the  consideration.     In  King  we  have  a  simple 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  257 

metathetic  variant.  Koti}  occurs  in  Efati,  in  three  of  the  New  Ireland 
languages  at  the  eastern  Indonesian  gateway,  and  probably  here  are  to  be 
classed  the  abraded  Mota  forms.  Kosof  is  not  positively  but  quite  likely 
identified  in  Mota  goso. 

Tonga  alone  employs  the  three  forms. 

197. 
Iago,  to  prop,  the  wooden  pins  whose  sharpened  ends  are  driven  into  the 
sama  (outrigger)  of  a  canoe  and  whose  upper  ends  crossed  hold 
and  bear  up  the  nakiat  (struts). 
Samoa :  tango,  props  to  rest  a  canoeon,  to  raise  on  supports.    Tonga : 
lango,  a  fulcrum,  to  raise  by  logs  or  pieces  of  wood,  blocks  of 
wood  on  which  anything  is  raised.        Niue:  lango,  a  support. 
Maori :  rango,  the  skid  or  roller  over  which  logs,  canoes,  and  the 
like  are  dragged.      Mangareva :  rango,  floor  joists.      Rapanui: 
rango,  bed,  scaffold,  ladder;  rangorango,  stool.         Rarotonga: 
tirango,  threshold.       Paumotu:  tirangorango,  joists.       Tahiti: 
rao,  a  block  or  roller  under  a  boat,  sleepers  under  a  floor. 
Viti :  lango,  a  threshold,  pieces  of  wood  on  which  anything  is  set. 
Mota:  lango,   to   put   rollers   under;  ilango,   a   roller;  taplagolago, 
cylindrical.       Nggela :  tapalagolago  (from  Mota) ,  a  cart,  a  wheel. 
Merlav:  geilang,  a  roller  for  a  canoe.        Santo:  lako,  props  of 
a  canoe. 
Arabic:  rakaha,  to  prop. 
The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  langom. 

The  word  runs  its  course  across  our  area  with  only  the  minor  ng-g 
mutation  in  Efat6  and  Nggela  and  partly  in  Mota,  and  the  equivalent  ng-k 
mutation  in  Santo. 

198. 
mat',  ebb,  low  water. 

Samoa:  masa,  taimasa,  low  tide;  masamasa,  to  be  making  ebb. 
Futuna:   masa,   dry,  waterless,  empty.  Nukuoro:   masa, 

dry.       Tonga :  mahaifo,  mahamaha,  mamaha,  ebb ;  maha,  empty. 
Niue :  maha,  empty.      Uvea :  maha,  dry.      Rapanui :  taimaha, 
low  tide.       Nuguria:  umasa,  low;  tai  humaha,  lagoon  is  dry. 
Viti:  mati,  to  ebb;  matha,  empty,  dry. 
Mota:  mamasa,  dry;  mamasaiga,  parched.       Nggela:  mamaha,  dry 

(of  land).       Aneityum:  mese,  dry;  in-mas,  ebb  tide. 
Arabic :  mat' a,  to  macerate  and  dissolve.      Hebrew :  masas,  to  melt, 
to  flow  down,  to  waste. 

We  have  here  two  words :  one,  Ef at6  mat'  and  Viti  mati,  ebb  tide,  with 
no  previous  history;  the  other,  masa,  becomes  ebb  tide  only  in  a  resultant 
fashion.  Masa  has  the  basic  signification  of  dry;  this  is  the  only  sense  in 
Uvea  and  Nukuoro,  in  Mota  and  Nggela ;  it  is  associated  with  another  sense 
in  Futuna,  Viti  and  Aneityum.  The  first  secondary  sense,  empty,  is  the 
only  signification  in  Niue,  and  in  association  with  another  sense  it  occurs 
in  Viti  and  Futuna.  The  third  signification  is  dryness  in  a  restricted  sense, 
the  beach  or  reef  from  which  the  water  has  receded,  that  is  to  say,  ebb  or 
low  water.  This  is  the  only  sense  in  which  the  word  is  used  in  Samoa;  in 
Tonga  it  is  associated  with  the  empty,  and  in  Aneityum  with  the  dry  sense. 


258  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

In  Viti  we  find  matha  of  the  masa  stem ;  this  renders  it  quite  unlikely  that 
mati  has  any  relation  thereto.  If  Viti  mati  fails,  then  Ffate  mat'  is  left  un- 
supported. We  are  therefore  justified  in  rejecting  this  identification,  so  far 
as  it  enters  Polynesia;  we  can  only  recognize  an  Ef ate- Viti  identification 
to  be  added  to  the  list  of  words  established  in  Viti  as  of  Melanesian  source. 

Of  course  even  without  these  considerations  the  proposed  Semitic  iden- 
tification fails  utterly  on  the  ground  of  sense,  for  it  can  have  no  relation 
whatever  to  words  of  the  meaning  here  involved. 

199. 
mata,  mwata,  a  snake. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea :  ngata,  a  snake.  Maori :  ngata, 
a  snail,  a  slug,  a  leech,  a  looper  caterpillar.  Fotuna :  ta-ngata, 
a  snake. 

Viti:  ngata,  a  snake. 

Malo,  Rubi,  Dobu :  moata,  a  snake.  Mota,  Mugula,  Sariba,  Misima: 
mata,  id.  Suau,  Tavara,  Awalama,  Taupota,  Wedau,  Galavi, 
Boniki,  Mukawa,  Raqa,  Kiviri,  Oiun :  mota,  id.  Santo :  mata, 
maura,  id.  Bierian:  n'mata,  id.  Malekula:  na-mat,  id. 
Baki:  maro,  id.        Murua:  mateta,  id.        Nada:  moteta,  id. 

Arabic:  'it'at',  'at' a',  a  snake. 

The  parent  of  these  forms  is  a  problem.  It  can  scarcely  have  been  ngata, 
for  ng  is  a  consonant  which  in  all  the  Melanesian  languages  here  adduced 
is  susceptible  of  ready  reproduction  as  ng  or  n.  Still  less  can  it  have  been 
mata,  for  in  one  of  the  Efate  forms,  in  Malo,  and  in  Mota  (Codrington  dis- 
tinguishes it  as  mata)  we  see  a  positive  effort  to  express  not  the  pure  m 
which  they  have  and  use  but  something  somehow  different,  a  suggestion 
of  mb.  We  have  no  means  of  determining  or  of  representing  a  parent 
sound  which  shall  class  as  its  children  ng-mw-m. 

The  identifications  of  this  ngata  are  in  other  respects  distinctly  satisfac- 
tory. I  can  not  include  therewith  the  Baki  maro  and  its  congener  Santo 
maura.  These  we  shall  consider  true  Melanesian  material.  The  absence 
of  the  word  from  the  Tongafiti  migration  (except  Maori  with  its  modified 
sense)  is  a  zoological  rather  than  a  linguistic  lacuna;  it  is  conditioned  by 
the  fact  that  east  of  the  strait  which  parts  German  from  American  Samoa 
there  are  no  snakes. 

The  Semitic  words  mean  snake;  they  possess  an  a  and  a  t  apiece,  but 
these  are  insufficient  proof  of  identity. 

200. 
mauri,  to  live;  maurian,  life. 

Samoa :  maui,  a  Manu'a  salutation,  'ua  maui  mat.  Tonga,  Niue : 
moui,  alive,  life,  to  live.  Futuna,  Uvea:  mauli,  id.  Vat6: 
mauri,  to  live.  Aniwa:  mouri.  Nukuoro:  mount,  to  live. 
Fotuna:  no-mauri,  id.;  ta-mauri,  life:  emauri,  to  feel  well. 

Viti :  maurimu,  a  word  of  blessing  used  by  the  priests  when  people 
take  a  thing  to  the  house  of  the  god ;  conjecturally,  mauri,  life, 
and  -mu,  possessive  suffix  of  the  second  singular,  "thy  life,"  or, 
"may  thou  live."  Rotuma:  mauri,  to  live;  amauri,  to  make, 
to  live ;  amauringa,  savior. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  259 

Sesake,  Ulawa,  Waima,  Kabadi,  Galoma,  Motu:  mauri,  to  live. 
Saa:  mauri,  meuri,  id.;  maurihe,  life,  safety.  Santo:  meuri, 
to  live.  Bierian:  mauli,  id.;  ni  mauliana,  life.  Baki:  meouli, 
to  live;  meoulian,  life.  Malo:  mauru,  life,  to  live.  Tangoan 
Santo:  nauri,  to  live.  Mota:  maur,  to  live.  Malekula: 

maur,  id.;  mauran,  life.      Ponape:  maur,  to  live.      Marshalls: 
mour,  id.     Vaturanga:  maumauri,  to  live;  maurisali,  life.     New 
Britain:  wamawr/xz,  to  make  to  live.     Tanna :  murif, life.     Laka- 
toi  language :  makuri,  life,  alive.     Keapara,  Hula :  maguli,  life. 
Arabic:  'S^'a,  'oij",  ma'as",  ma'is",  ma'is'at,  to  live. 
Before  discussing  the  stem  in  its  greater  extension  I  would  comment  on 
my  identification  in  Samoa  and  Viti.     When  we  observe  the  general  use 
of  mauri,  to  live,  we  should  expect  to  find  it  certainly  in  Samoa  and  very 
likely  in  Viti.     In  neither  does  it  appear  on  the  surface ;  Samoa  has  ola  to 
live,  a  word  wholly  of  the  Tongafiti  migration,  and  Viti  in  mbula  to  live 
employs  a  word  of  Melanesian  stock  which  enters  Samoan  only  in  the  inter- 
jection apula  in  congratulation  upon  safe  delivery  from  a  sneeze. 

The  Viti  maurimu  is  susceptible  of  no  other  explanation  based  on  exist- 
ing Viti  material,  and  the  explanation  which  I  have  proposed  has  no  objec- 
tion other  than  that  mauri  is  not  elsewhere  used  in  Viti  as  signifying  to  live ; 
therefore  I  have  no  hesitation  in  believing  this  to  be  a  valid  explanation. 
It  is  interesting  to  observe  that  in  wishing  long  life  in  ceremonial  phrase 
the  Viti  uses  the  Samoan  word,  the  Samoan  the  Viti.  Yet  we  have  a  par- 
allel example  in  our  own  speech.  Those  of  us  who  salute  the  sneezer  are 
more  than  likely  to  ejaculate  Prosit!  Dieu  vous  benisse!  Gesundheit!  rather 
than  English.  Piety  has  always  been  prone  to  find  somewhat  esoteric  in 
the  foreign :  ' '  Mesopotamia,  blessed  word !" 

In  our  Samoan  authorities,  and  George  Pratt  was  a  marvel  of  recondite 
information,  no  explanation  is  offered  of  the  pleasant  Manu'a  phrase  'ua 
maui  mai.  To  give  it  sense  by  identifying  it  with  mauli  to  live  needs  but 
to  establish  the  evanescence  of  the  inner  liquid.  In  my  work  on  Samoan 
phonetics  (17  Journal  of  the  Polynesian  Society,  154)  I  have  proved  not 
only  that  this  is  a  Polynesian  change,  but  that  it  holds  in  Samoa  in  partic- 
ular. In  this  material  it  needs  but  the  comparison  of  Futuna  with  Tonga. 
The  l-n  mutation  is  peculiarly  persistent  in  Nukuoro. 

Thus  far  we  have  found  the  word  Nuclear  Polynesian  and  signifying  to 
live.  But  it  is  found  in  Tongafiti  possession  and  meaning  native,  indige- 
nous rather  than  foreign.  There  is  no  gradation  of  signification.  We  are 
thus  led  to  discriminate  between  the  two  swarms.  The  Proto-Samoan 
swarm  left  the  common  center  with  mauli  meaning  to  live ;  the  Tongafiti 
did  not  follow  until  it  had  popularized  ola  in  the  sense  to  live  and  had  set 
mauli  into  the  background  of  a  secondary  sense.  Meaning  native,  it  is  in 
the  following  series :  Maori,  Tahiti,  Mangareva,  Paumotu :  maori.  Hawaii : 
maoli.     Marquesas:  maoi. 

201. 
nono,  ne,  noi,  to  dwell  or  be  beside  some  one,  to  abide. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna :  nofo,  to  sit,  to  dwell,  to  live  with.  Niue, 
Uvea:  nofo,  to  sit,  to  dwell.  Fotuna:  no-nofo,  to  dwell,  to 
remain.       Fakaafo,  Aniwa,  Vat£ :  nofo,  to  sit.       Maori,  Tahiti : 


260  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

noho,  to  sit,  to  dwell,  to  live  with.  Hawaii,  Marquesas, 
Paumotu :  noho,  to  sit,  to  dwell.  Mangareva :  noho,  to  remain, 
to  dwell.  Sikayana,  Tongarewa:  noho,  to  sit,  to  stay.  Mana- 
hiki,  Nukuoro  :noho,  to  sit.  Bukabuka :  noo,  to  be.  Rarotonga : 
noo,  to  sit,  to  dwell.  Moiki:  noho,  id.  Rapanui:  noho,  to 
sit,  to  dwell,  a  bench.  Nuguria:  nofo,  to  sit:  unoho,  to  dwell; 
nahoa,  bench. 

Viti :  no,  to  lie  (of  things) ;  nbnb,  a  place  to  lie  on.  Rotuma :  noh, 
to  sit,  noho,  a  place. 

Motu:  noho,  to  dwell,  to  stay.  Vaturanga:  noho  (are  mate  noho, 
they  are  dead,  have  died :  "this  is,  no  doubt,  the  Maori  noho  to 
sit" — Codrington).     Nggao:  nokro,  to  sit.      Pala:  noh,  to  lie. 

Hebrew:  navah,  naah,  to  sit  down,  to  rest,  to  dwell. 

The  Polynesian  stem  is  unalterably  a  dissyllable,  the  only  change  which 
it  exhibits  being  the  mutation  /-^-extinction,  the  last  being  found  in  Raro- 
tonga and  Bukabuka.  In  Rotuma  noh  (i.e.,  noho  under  terminal  abrasion) 
we  find  a  transition  form  to  no  in  Viti  and  Efate,  thence  by  reduplication 
nono.  The  principal  objection  to  this  chain  of  forms  lies  in  the  fact  that 
while  Viti  and  Efate  agree  upon  no-i orms  Motu  and  Vaturanga,  at  a  greater 
backward  distance  from  Polynesia,  have  noho.  In  Nggao  f-kr  gives  us  an 
anomalous  mutation,  of  which  this  is  the  sole  instance,  for  in  all  our  colla- 
tion of  /-variants  we  find  nothing  approximating  this  wholly  irregular  kr. 
The  passage  from  sit-stiise  to  6e-sense  seems  far  greater  to  us  than  to 
the  islanders.  They  have  not  arrived  at  the  need  of  a  word  to  express 
being  in  the  abstract.  The  occurrence  of  this  signification  in  Vaturanga 
far  to  the  west  balances  the  extremeness  of  the  easting  of  Bukabuka,  in 
which  it  is  again  found. 

202. 
rakum,  rakoma,  a  crab. 

Samoa:  'ama'ama,  a  crab  (Grapsidae)  found  in  the  rocks.       Tonga: 
kamakama,  a  rock  crab.      Niue :  kamakama,  a  crab.      Futuna: 
kamakama,  a  little  black  crab  that  lives  in  chinks  of  the  rocks. 
Viti :  nggumunggumu,  a  kind  of  crab. 
Epi:  lakum,  a  crab. 
Arabic:  h'umh'um',  a  crab. 

We  lack  data  on  which  to  establish  through  transition  forms  the  identity 
which  seems  probable  between  the  kama  of  Nuclear  Polynesia  and  the  Efate 
and  Epi  ra-kum. 

203. 

sar  i,  sari,  to  saw;  serf,  to  cut  with  a  sawing  motion;  sara,  a  saw. 

Samoa:  sala,  to  lop,  to  cut  off;  sele,  a  bamboo  knife,  to  cut  or  clip 
(as  the  hair) ;  selei,  to  cut,  to  shear,  to  slash.  Futuna,  Uvea : 
sele,  a  knife,  to  cut  off,  to  cut.  Nukuoro :  selesele,  to  carve,  to 
engrave.  Fotuna:  no-sere,  to  cut;  seria,  a  saw.  Tonga: 
hele,  a  knife,  to  cut,  to  lacerate;  hehele,  to  cut.  Niue:  hele, 
hehele,  to  cut  up,  to  reap,  to  castrate.  Hawaii:  mcpgfe,  to 
divide,  to  cut  in  pieces.  Maori :  here,  a  spear  for  killing  birds. 
Paumotu :  kohere,  to  cleave,  to  split. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  261 

Viti:  sele,  a  bamboo  knife;  seleva,  to  cut  with  a  knife,  to  castrate. 

Nggela,  Belaga :  sari,  to  cut.  Malo :  sarosaro,  to  saw ;  isaro,  a  saw. 
Mota:  sal,  to  cut  with  a  drawing  motion;  gasal,  a  knife;  sir,  to 
shave.  Gog:  gasal,  a  knife.  Maewo:  siri,  to  shave;  siriva, 
to  shave  off  something.  Pak,  Leon:  sir,  to  shear.  Sesake: 
soro,  a  saw ;  soroa,  to  saw.        Pala :  sele,  a  bush  knife. 

Hebrew :  nas'ar,  to  saw.        Aramaic :  nsar,  id. 

Throughout  the  data  assembled  in  this  item  there  is  manifest  a  tendency 
to  particularize  the  manner  of  cutting.  Thus  Efate,  Fotuna,  Malo,  Sesake, 
all  specify  the  saw;  Samoa,  Pak,  Leon  have  the  shearing  and  clipping  sense; 
Mota  and  Maewo  shave ;  many  of  these  languages  indicate  the  knife ;  Nuku- 
oro  suggests  the  burin.  From  this  presentation  we  might  infer  an  equip- 
ment of  saws,  scissors,  razors,  lancets  and  all  manner  of  edged  tools.  Far 
otherwise  is  the  fact.  The  silex-edged  bamboo  splinter,  the  lip  of  a  shell 
ground  sharp,  the  tooth  of  a  shark — these  are  the  cutting  tools  of  the  Pacific 
islands,  east  as  well  as  west.  The  definition  is  at  fault  which  gives  the  sense  _ 
of  saw  to  any  word  of  a  people  which  has  no  tool  that  cuts  by  notches  in  a 
blade,  of  shear  to  men  who  know  no  scissors.  It  would  be  idle  to  seek  to 
differentiate  these  words  by  the  tool  employed,  for  a  rude  knife  is  all  there 
is.  The  most  that  we  may  venture  upon  is  to  segregate  the  data  by  the 
former  vowel. 

E.    sele:  Samoa,  Futuna,  Uvea,  Nukuoro,  Fotuna,  Tonga,  Niue,  Hawaii, 
Maori,  Paumotu,  Viti — altogether  Polynesian. 
seli:  Fotuna,  Efat6 — Melanesian,  and  wholly  so  if  the  Fotuna  form 
be  considered  due  to  neighboring  New  Hebrides  influence. 
I.      sili:  Mota,  Maewo,  Pak,  Leon — all  northern  New  Hebrides. 
A.    sala:  Samoa,  Efate\  salo:  Malo. 

salt:  Efat6,  Nggela,  Belaga.        sal:  Efatd,  Mota,  Gog. 
0.    solo:  Sesake. 

Viti  and  Maewo  seem  to  indicate  a  root  closed  in  v  which  does  not  else- 
where appear,  which  had  been  quite  lost  at  the  time  when  Samoa  erected 
the  verb  selei  upon  the  noun  sele. 

204. 
sik  ef  sek e,  saki,  to  raise;  sike-ti,  to  grasp  with  tongs. 

Samoa:  si'i,  to  lift.        Futuna:  siki,  to  lift,  to  raise,  to  remove. 
Uvea:  fakasiisii,  to  raise;  hiki,  to  lift  up.     Tonga:  hiki,  to  lift, 
to  remove.     Niue:  hiki,  to  land,  as  fish  from  a  canoe.    Maori: 
hiki,  to  lift  up,  to  carry,  to  nurse.       Mangareva :  hiki,  to  hold 
a  child  in  the  arms  or  on  the  knees.      Paumotu :  hiki,  to  fondle. 
Mangaia :  iki,  to  nurse  a  child  in  the  arms.       Marquesas :  hiki, 
hii,  to  nurse  a  child.       Tahiti:  hii,  to  nurse,  to  dandle,  to  take 
a  child  in  the  arms.      Hawaii :  hii,  to  lift  up,  to  carry,  to  nurse. 
Viti :  sikita,  to  raise,  to  lift  up. 
Aneityum:  ahieng,  to  drag,  to  draw  up. 
Hebrew :  hazak,  to  hold  fast,  to  take  hold  of,  to  seize. 
The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  sikit. 

The  Efat6  siketi  is  associable  by  reason  of  its  form,  but  the  sense  is  too 
remote  and  too  particular  for  a  satisfactory  identification. 


262  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

In  Polynesia  are  a  primary  and  a  secondary  sense.  The  sense  of  to  raise 
is  exclusively  Nuclear  Polynesian  including  Efate.  In  the  Tongafiti  migra- 
tion the  sense  is  exclusively  to  nurse  a  child,  a  particular  instance  of  lifting 
up.  I  have  been  willing  to  mark  the  sharpness  of  this  division  by  using  in 
the  foregoing  sentence  the  word  exclusively,  yet  with  the  full  knowledge 
that  Hawaii  and  Maori  seem  to  contradict.  I  have  already  pointed  out  the 
evidence  of  single  words  showing  a  direct  migration  from  Samoa  to  Hawaii 
by  the  north  and  to  New  Zealand  by  the  south.  This  combination  of  the 
two  sharply  marked  senses  in  Hawaii  and  Maori  seems  to  me  to  be  associable 
therewith. 

Mr.  Tregear's  suggestion  that  Aneityum  ahieng  shows  kinship  with  this 
stem  does  not  commend  itself  to  me. 

205. 

sila  i,  sela  i,  sol  i,  to  rub,  as  to  rub  oneself  with  oil. 

Samoa :  soloji,  a  towel,  to  wipe;  solo,  a  towel,  to  wipe  as  after  bathing. 
Futuna:  solo,  to  wipe.  Tonga:  holo,  a  towel,  to  wipe,  to  dry; 
holoi,  to  wipe,  to  dry  off,  to  rub  off.  Niue :  holoholo,  a  hand- 
kerchief, towel,  napkin,  to  wash  the  hands  or  body.  Uvea: 
holo,  holoi,  holoholoi,  to  rub,  to  wipe,  to  clean.  Hawaii:  hglp§, 
to  wash,  to  wipe,  to  brush,  to  cleanse.  Rapanui :  horoi,  to  clean, 
to  wipe  out ;  horohoro,  to  brush.  Maori,  Tahiti :  horoi,  to  wash. 
Mangareva:  horoi,  oroi,  to  wipe,  to  wash.  Mangaia:  oroi, 
to  wash.  Rarotonga :  orei,  to  wipe,  to  wash.  Marquesas : 
hoot,  id. 

Viti :  solota,  to  rub,  to  dry  oneself  after  bathing. 

Motu:  huria,  to  wash,  to  scrub.  Mota:  sarag,  to  wipe;  sarav,  to 
rub;  saravag,  to  brush.         Aneityum:  ruhoi,  to  rub. 

Arabic:  "asala,  "usul',  to  wash. 

This  solo  stem  is  not  clearly  distinguishable  from  olo  (331)  to  rub.  The 
motion  of  the  hands  being  the  same,  solo  may  be  a  particular  instance  of 
olo.  For  this  reason  it  has  not  seemed  desirable  to  attempt  rigid  accuracy 
in  assigning  the  Melanesian  examples. 

In  general  we  may  note  a  distinction  in  sense  between  Nuclear  Polynesia 
and  the  Tongafiti  eastern  extension,  Nuclear  Polynesia  referring  to  the 
drying  after  bathing,  eastern  Polynesia  to  the  bathing.  The  only  exception 
to  this  in  Nuclear  Polynesia  is  Niue  which  has  both  senses.  Maori,  Tahiti 
and  Mangaia  are  restricted  to  the  washing  sense ;  Hawaii,  Mangareva,  the 
Marquesas,  and  Rarotonga  have  both.  In  Melanesia  Motu  has  the  Tonga- 
fiti washing  sense,  Mota  and  Aneityum  accord  with  Nuclear  Polynesia. 

Aneityum  ruhoi  is  metathetic. 

206. 

siua,  siuo,  siwo,  suwa,  sua,  to  descend. 

The  following  words  signify  down,  to  be  down,  to  come  down : 

Tonga,  Niue:  hifo.  Samoa,  Futuna,  Uvea,  Fotuna,  Nuguria, 
Aniwa:  ifo.         Maori,  Tahiti,  Hawaii,  Marquesas,  Rapanui, 


DATA   AND   NOTES.  263 

Mangareva,  Moiki :  iho.     Paumotu :  ihoiho.     Nukuoro :  hakaiho, 
to  go  down. 
Viti:  sivo,  debased,  dethroned,  put  out  of  office,  a  tropical  sense 
germane  to  that  in  Samoa  ifonga.        Rotuma :  sio,  down. 

These  words  signify  down : 

Vaturanga:  sivo.  Tangoan  Santo :  sibo.  Omba:  hivo.  Nguna, 
Mota,  Santo,  Sesake:  siwo.  Malo:  siuo.  Merlav,  Maewo, 
Sesake :  swwo.  Gog :  suw,  sug.  Aneityum :  asuol,  suko.  Lakon : 
hew.  Eromanga :  sep.  Roro:fc'w.  Pokau:  cfo'w.  Mekeo  :kipo. 
Wedau:  ipu.  Mukawa:  sipu.  Tavara:  hopu.  Wedau:  opu. 
Galoma:  ribo.  Keapara:  rigo.  Motu:  diho.  Tubetube:  siio. 
Raro:  zi,  azi. 

Arabic:  safala,  suful' ,  sifl',  to  be  low,  to  descend. 

With  unchanging  vowels  the  Polynesian  identifications  move  in  a  regular 
course  of  mutation  of  the  two  consonants,  i'-ft-extinction,  /(xj)-fe-extinction. 
We  observe  in  this  a  tendency,  not  without  exceptions,  to  maintain  the 
labial  strong  when  the  lingual  is  preserved,  and  to  obscure  the  labial  in 
the  aspiration  of  its  series  where  the  lingual  has  become  extinct. 

The  Melanesian  affiliates  call  for  more  detailed  examination. 

The  sibilant  is  retained  by  all  except  that  in  Lakon  it  merges  in  the 
aspiration,  and  here  the  initial  aspirate  is  explosive,  as  if  hv  or  vh;  Omba, 
too,  employs  the  aspirate.  We  do  not  find  a  single  instance  in  which  the 
labial  is  of  the  same  value  as  in  Samoa.  In  two  languages  it  has  been 
strengthened  to  a  mute,  in  Tangoan  Santo  to  the  sonant,  in  Eromanga  to 
the  surd.  In  these  languages  the  surd  spirant  is  replaced  by  the  sonant, 
v:  Vaturanga,  Omba.  In  the  greater  number  the  reduction  has  progressed 
as  far  as  the  semivowel  of  this  series,  w,  or  to  the  nearest  vowel,  w,  the 
distinction  not  being  made  clear  in  the  absence  of  the  scientific  alphabet : 
Efate,  Nguna,  Mota,  Santo,  Sesake,  Merlav,  Maewo,  Gog,  Lakon,  Malo.  In 
two  instances  there  occurs  the  rare  leap  from  labial  to  palatal,  to  k  in 
Aneityum  and  to  g  in  Gog.  The  former  vowel  remains  at  i  in  about  half 
of  Melanesia.  It  changes  to  u  in  Efate,  Merlav,  Maewo,  Sesake,  Gog  and 
Aneityum,  Efate  and  Sesake  having  the  i-form  as  well.  It  changes  to  e 
in  Lakon  and  Eromanga.  The  latter  vowel  remains  fixed  at  o  except  in 
Efate"  and  the  languages  which  admit  terminal  abrasion,  Gog,  Lakon,  and 
Eromanga.  The  Aneityum  asuol  I  include  because  of  the  sense,  but  I 
can  not  identify  the  beginning  and  the  ending,  yet  embraced  therein  is  an 
element  which,  if  independent,  could  be  referred  to  sifo. 

207. 

tabu,  tab,  bakatabtabu,  to  be  forbidden,  prohibited,  sacred. 

Tonga:  tabu,  forbidden,  consecrated,  sacred.  Samoa.^Futuna, 
Niue,  Uvea,  Maori,  Tahiti,  Rarotonga,  Rapanui,  Marquesas, 
Mangareva,  Fotuna,  Aniwa:  tapu,  id.  Paumotu:  tapu,  an 
oath,  to  swear.  Nukuoro :  tapu,  prohibition.  Hawaii :  kapu, 
forbidden,  consecrated,  sacred. 

Viti:  tambu,  unlawful,  forbidden,  sacred. 


264  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Buka,  Baravon,  Nggela,  Belaga:  tambu,  sacred,  holy,  prohibited. 
Merlav:  vatambu,  to  make  holy.     Omba:  tambetambe,  to  worship. 
DukeofYork:  tabu  (watabunabulu),  sacred.     Dobu,  New  Britain: 
tabu,  sacred,  holy,  prohibited ;  watabu,  to  hallow.     Suau :  tabuna, 
sacred.     Pokau :  kabukabu,  id.      Mekeo :  afu,  id.     Motu:  koau- 
aku,id.     Aneityum:  in-tap,  a  sacred  place;  itap,  sacred,  holy,  for- 
bidden ;  imiitap,  to  hallow,  to  make  sacred .     Mota :  tapu,  sacred. 
Malo:  sab,  saburu,  id.      Tanna:  asim,  id.      Bierian:  ham,  id. 
Motu :  tabu,  a  very  important  feast,  a  species  of  mythical  beings. 
Arabic:  dabba,  dabbu,  to  prohibit. 
An  interest  exterior  to  our  present  study  pertains  to  this  word  in  the 
fact  that  it  is  one  of  the  two  words,  tattoo  the  other,  which  the  English 
has  borrowed  from  the  Polynesian. 

In  scarcely  altered  skeleton  of  vowels  and  consonants  tapu  occurs  in 
Polynesia  and  in  Melanesia.  In  the  western  island  world  it  undergoes  less 
variation  than  almost  any  of  the  Polynesian  loan  material.  In  Omba  the 
final  u  becomes  e,  in  Efate  and  Aneityum  it  undergoes  a  terminal  abrasion. 
We  need  give  particular  attention  only  to  the  following  forms. 
Malo  sab  (of  a  man)  saburu  (of  a  woman) .  This  needs  but  the  establish- 
ment of  the  t-s  mutation  to  prove  its  identity.  I  have  already  (17  Journal 
of  the  Polynesian  Society,  2 12)  proved  it  to  exist  as  between  Polynesia  and 
Viti;  in  the  material  now  under  examination  it  clearly  appears  in  talinga 
(350)  ear  Marina  salinga,  buto  (247)  navel  Buka  viiso,  mate  (318)  to  die 
Aneityum  mas. 

Next  upon  this  follows  Tanna  asim.  Taking  the  s  as  now  accounted  for, 
we  have  to  consider  a  p-m  mutation.  In  note  190  I  have  found  a  case 
which  is  susceptible  of  this  interpretation,  and  taking  that  with  this  there 
seems  to  me  a  probability  of  this  change.  We  have  abundant  proof  of  a 
nasal  reinforcement  of  p  and  b,  mp  and  mb.  It  is  quite  possible  that  when 
such  a  nasalized  consonant  was  transmitted  at  second  hand  to  others  to 
whom  the  double  consonant  was  harsh  they  might  excise  the  radical  mem- 
ber of  the  composite  and  in  their  ignorance  of  the  true  form  retain  the 
purely  accidental  nasal.  Bierian  ham,  then,  would  derive  from  Malo  sab 
in  the  vowel  and  from  Tanna  asim  in  the  p-m  mutation,  while  the  change 
from  s  to  h  is  so  common  as  to  call  for  no  note. 

208. 
tafe,  tabe,  to  flow  out,  to  go  out. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea :  tafe,  to  flow,  to  run.  Fotuna : 
no-tafe,  id.  Tahiti,  Mangareva:  take,  id.  Paumotu:  take,  a 
river.  Nukuoro :  tahea,  to  drift  along.  Maori :  whakatahe,  to 
clear  from  obstruction,  as  a  watercourse  or  channel.  Hawaii : 
kahe,  to  run,  to  flow.  Marquesas :  tahe,  to  flow,  to  gush,  to 
stream,  to  trickle.  Rapanui:  tahe,  to  flow.  Nuguria:  tahe, 
a  current. 

Viti :  ndave,  to  flow ;  ndavendave,  the  channel  in  which  liquids  flow, 
or  the  source  of  them ;  ndaveta,  a  passage  through  a  reef. 

Nggela :  tave,  to  flow.  Motu :  atahedid,  to  overflow.  Malekula : 
jivjiv,  to  run  (nose) .        Malo:  madividivi,  id.        Baki :  jevi,  id. 

Aramaic:  dub,  to  flow  out.        Hebrew:  zub,  id. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  265 

There  is  no  need  to  comment  upon  the  identifications  within  the  Pacific 
area  except  in  respect  of  one  particular.  Viti  ndaveta  has  a  form  resem- 
blance to  ndave  but  the  sense  does  not  so  clearly  hang.  I  have  included 
inhere  because  it  seems  to  suggest  a  radical  tafet,  which  may  appear  also 
in  Motu  atahedid.  Yet  in  Viti  the  passive  is  ndavena,  in  which  the  sug- 
gestion of  final  n  is  equally  worthy  of  consideration.  In  Polynesia  there  is 
no  evidence  to  warrant  the  idea  that  tafe  was  ever  other  than  an  open  root. 

209. 

tanga,  tonga,  tronga,  rong,  a  basket,  the  stomach. 

Samoa :  tanga,  a  basket.  Futuna :  tanga,  a  sack.  Niue,  Uvea, 
Rapanui,  Nukuoro :  tanga,  a  bag.  Tonga :  tangai,  a  narrow 
bag,  a  sack.        Nuguria:  tana-mimi,  the  bladder. 

Viti:  tanga,  a  bag,  a  pocket,  a  purse. 

Arag:  tanga,  a  bag.  Sesake:  ndanga,  id.  Motu:  tanga,  a  bag, 
a  deep  basket.        Tangoan  Santo:  tanga,  a  basket. 

Hebrew :  tene',  a  basket. 

210. 

tef  i,  tefi,  tetefi,  to  cut,  to  circumcise. 

Samoa :  tefe,  to  cut,  as  circumcising.  Fotuna :  tefe,  to  circumcise. 
Maori:  tehe,  the  glans  penis  left  uncovered  by  the  prepuce  as 
if  circumcised.  Tahiti:  tehe,  to  castrate  animals,  to  slit  the 
prepuce  above.  Mangareva,  Marquesas:  tehe,  to  circumcise, 
to  castrate.  Rapanui :  tehe,  to  split ;  tehetehe,  a  notch.  Hawaii: 
kahe,  to  cut  or  slit  longitudinally,  to  castrate;  kaheomaka, 
^kaheule,  to  circumcise  after  the  Hawaiian  fashion. 

Viti:  teve,  to  circumcise. 

Mota :  teve,  to  cut  with  a  drawing  motion ;  teveteve,  a  knife.  Merlav : 
tevtev,  a  knife.  Malekula:  teve,  to  circumcise,  to  cut  with  a 
bamboo  knife.      Bierian :  mdeve,  to  circumcise.      Baki :  jivi,  id. 

Arabic :  'as' aba,  to  cut. 

Little  calls  for  note  in  the  Pacific  identification.  In  Hawaii  we  observe 
the  e-a  change  which  does  not  elsewhere  appear.  The  Bierian  mdeve  is  a 
variant  of  the  t-nd  characteristic  of  that  Epi  dialect.  The  Baki  jivi  and 
tafe  (208)  to  flow  Malekula  jivjiv  to  run  at  the  nose  exhibit  the  t-j  mutation 
which  is  rare  in  Melanesia  but  is  the  normal  change  from  Samoa  to  Tonga 

before  e  and  i. 

The  word  appears  in  Nuclear  Polynesia  only  in  Samoa  and  Viti,  and  is 
there  restricted  to  circumcision.  In  its  occurrence  in  eastern  Polynesia  it 
combines  with  the  circumcision  sense  that  of  castration.  In  Samoa  it  is 
defined  as  "the  operation  equivalent  to  circumcision,"  in  Hawaii  "to  cir- 
cumcise after  the  Hawaiian  fashion,"  in  Tahiti  "to  slit  the  prepuce  above." 
The  operation  is  so  singular  that  in  almost  all  the  versions  of  the  Bible  in 
the  Pacific  the  word  circumcision  has  been  rendered  by  peritome,  a  trans- 
literation from  the  Greek,  rather  than  by  the  employment  of  this  word 
from  the  vernacular. 


266  THE   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 

The  operation  is  surgically  described  by  Dr.  Kramer  in  "Samoa,"  ii,  61 : 

Die  Beschneidung,  'o  le  iefenga  (tefe  beschneiden) ,  bei  der  es  sich  nicht  um  Circum- 
cision wie  die  Englander  sagen,  handelt,  sondern  um  einfache  Spaltung  der  Vorhaut, 
also  Einschneidung  am  oberen  Rande,  wie  allgemein  in  Indonesien  ublich,  wird  so 
ausgefiihrt,  dassmaneinenSpatelunter  die  Vorhaut  schiebt  und  diese  durch  einen  Schlag 
mit  einem  scharfen  Gegenstand  als  Haifischzahn,  Muschel,  Bambusmesser,  neuerdings 
naturlich  mit  Eisenmesser  durchtrennt.  Sie  wird  bei  den  samoanischen  Jiinglingen, 
ahnlich  wie  bei  den  Mohammedanern,  bei  Eintritt  der  Mannbarkeit,  stets  zwischen  dem 
7.  und  15.  Lebensjahre  ausgefiihrt.  Religiose  Gebrauche  wie  bei  andern  Volkern,  z.  B. 
auf  Fidji,  wo  die  Operation  auf  den  Nangaplatzen  geschah  und  wo  richtige  Circumcision 
geubt  zu  werden  scheint,  scheinen  auf  Samoa  nie  mit  der  Operation,  die  meist  von 
einem  darin  Erfahrenen  ausgeiibt  wurde,  verbunden  gewesen  zu  sein.  Das  leitende 
Motiv  scheint  fiir  Samoa  nur  in  der  Reinlichkeit  zu  liegen,  indem  gesagt  wird,  dass  kein 
samoanisches  Madchen  mit  einem  unbeschnittenen  Jiingling  schlafen  wurde.  Deshalb 
nennen  die  Samoaner  die  Bliite  der  Amorphophallus-Pflanze  (leve)  welche  dem  mann- 
lichen  Gliede  nicht  unahnlich  sieht  und  einen  fotiden  Geruch  verbreitet,  wie  ich  mich 
selbst  zu  uberzeugen  Gelegenheit  hatte,  tafao,  und  ebenso  nennen  sie  einen  unbe- 
schnittenen Junglingspenis.  Der  Arzt  weiss,  dass  dies  nicht  ohneGrund  geschieht.  Wenn 
mann  nun  behauptet,  dass  die  Beschneidung  bei  den  Juden  an  Stelle  unserer  Taufe 
(am  8.  Tage)  ausgeiibt,  rein  rituell  sei,  und  dass  Reinlichkeitsgedahken  feme  lagen,  so 
mag  das  sekundar  so  geworden  sein,  urspriinglich  wird  man  aber  die  bei  den  oriental- 
ischen  Volkern  ausgetibte  Beschneidung  auf  den  Reinlichkeitsgedanken,  der  in  Samoa 
nach  langst  eingefuhrtem  und  allgemein  ausgebreitetem  Christentum  heute  allein  noch 
diese  Sitte  aufrecht  zu  erhalten  im  stande  ist,  zuriickfuhren  mussen. 


tuk  i,  tuki,  to  strike,  to  beat,  to  pound. 

Tonga:  tuki,  to  strike,  to  drive,  to  drub.  Futuna:  tuki,  to  beat, 
to  strike,  to  hit  with  a  hammer,  rock  or  fist.  Uvea:  tuki,  to 
strike,  to  beat.  Niue :  tuki,  to  knock.  Nukuoro :  tuki, 

to  beat,  to  strike,  to  pound.  Maori:  tuki,  to  ram,  to  butt,  to 
strike  endwise,  to  beat.  Rarotonga :  tuki,  to  strike,  to  beat. 
Rapanui :  tukituki,  to  bray.  Marquesas :  tuki,  to  beat  poi,  to 
bruise,  to  strike,  to  bray  with  a  pestle.  Mangareva:  tuki,  to 
pound,  to  bray  with  a  pestle.  Paumotu:  tukituki,  to  hit 
against,  to  strike,  to  pound.  Nuguria:  tukituki,  to  beat;  a 
breadfruit  beater.  Fotuna :  no-tukia,  to  strike  with  the  fist. 
Samoa:  tu'i,  to  thump,  to  beat,  to  pound,  to  strike  with 
the  fist.  Tahiti:  tui,  to  butt,  to  strike,  to  pound.  Hawaii: 
^uij_  to  pound  with  the  end  of  a  thing,  to  smite,  to  hammer. 

Viti :  tuki,  to  beat  or  knock  with  the  fist,  to  hammer. 

Belaga :  tutui,  to  pound.  Baki :  juki,  to  strike  with  the  fist.  Male- 
kula :  tice,  id.        Pala :  tuke,  to  beat. 

Hebrew :  duk,  dakak,  to  beat,  to  pound.       Arabic :  dakka,  dakka,  id. 

There  is  nothing  in  these  identifications  involving  any  principle  with 
which  we  have  not  already  become  familiar. 

There  is,  however,  an  interesting  specialization  in  the  sense.  It  is,  of 
course,  well  understood  that  peoples  on  the  speech  plane  in  which  we  find 
the  languages  of  this  study  have  a  large  number  of  distinct  terms  whereby 
to  describe  an  act  as  performed  in  a  certain  manner  or  through  the  employ- 
ment of  a  certain  implement  in  cases  where  the  languages  of  superior  culture 
make  use  of  a  general  term  for  the  act  limited  by  an  adverbial  modifier 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  267 

detailing  the  manner  or  the  implement.  Thus,  in  the  terms  of  the  present 
instance,  we  should  say  "to  strike  with  A,  B,  C,  .  .  .  X,  Y,  Z,"  covering 
every  possible  thing  with  which  a  blow  could  be  inflicted  from  the  simplest 
pugilism  through  fustigation  to  the  fulmination  of  the  bolt  from  the  blue 
ineluctable.  But  our  islander  would  maintain  a  series  of  distinct  verbs 
from  "to  strike  with  A"  clean  through  to  the  crisscross  row  if  the  tale  of 
his  striking  machinery  should  extend  so  far. 

In  this  instance  we  shall  find  that  we  are  dealing  with  material  collected 
by  just  short  of  a  score  of  observers,  each  independent  of  the  other,  each 
under  the  control  of  his  own  personal  equation  of  observation,  apprecia- 
tion, and  ability  to  reproduce  in  one  language  the  idiom  of  another.  For 
this  reason  we  shall  all  the  more  highly  regard  the  evidences  of  special  sense 
in  tuki.  Maori  gives  us  "to  strike  endwise,"  Hawaii  "to  pound  with  the 
end  of  a  thing,"  the  Marquesas  and  Mangareva  the  same  idea  in  particular 
terms  as  "to  bray  with  a  pestle."  Next  we  find  a  group  "to  strike  with 
the  fist,"  Futuna,  Samoa,  Viti,  Baki,  Malekula.  From  sight  of  many  such 
encounters  I  can  aver  that  Pacific  pugilism  has  none  of  the  niceties  of  the 
straight-arm  jab,  the  left  hook  to  the  jaw,  and  the  other  fine  touches  of  the 
diction  of  the  prize  ring.  A  blow  in  such  combats  is  delivered  by  regard- 
ing arm  and  fist  as  helve  and  head  respectively  of  a  hammer  wherewith 
to  belabor  the  head  and  shoulders  of  the  opponent.  The  motion  of  such 
a  blow  is  exactly  that  of  using  the  pestle  or  the  hammer  or  the  rock  in  the 
hand.  The  motion  can  be  traced  still  farther  by  the  curious  in  the  defini- 
tions here  assembled. 

212. 

ulua,  to  put  forth  leaves,  to  grow  up  (of  plants  and  hair) ;  uluulua,  to  be 
full  of  leaves,  to  be  hairy. 

Samoa:  uluulu,  to  be  umbrageous  (of  trees),  to  be  bushy  (of  the 
beard) .  Tonga :  ulu,  thick,  bushy  (as  a  dress  of  leaves) .  Niue : 
ulu,  hair.  Nuguria:  rauulu,  id.  Hawaii :  ulu,  to  grow ;  uluulu, 
to  grow  thick.  Maori :  uru,  a  single  hair.  Mangaia :  uruuru, 
coarse  hair.        Mangareva :  uru,  feathers,  hair  on  the  body. 

Viti :  vakaulu,  having  a  large  head  of  hair  or  a  wig. 

The  following  words  signify  hair : 

Lo:  ul.      Deni:  ulu.      Mota,  Maewo:  ului.      Sesake:  ululu.     Epi, 

Arag:  ilu.        Ambrym,  Hi,  wolu.        Marina:  vul.        Omba: 

■vulugi.        Norbarbar:  wulugi.       Volow:  iligi.        Nifilole:  lu. 

Suau:  uru.    Tubetube:  hulu.     Mugula,  Sariba:  kuru.     Nada, 

Kiriwina:  kulu.        Tagula:  wuluwulia. 
Arabic:  'ala,  'aluw',  to  go  up;  'ilaivat,  the  head.       Hebrew:  'alah, 

to  go  up;  'aleh,  leaf,  leaves;  'oleh,  sprouting  forth,  growing  up. 

lulu,  hair  (of  the  head,  face  or  body). 
The  following  all  mean  hair,  feather : 

Samoa,  Uvea,  Futuna, Tonga,  Niue:  fulu.    Maori, Tahiti:  huruhuru. 
Mangareva:  huru.        Rapanui:  huhuru.        Nuguria:  hahuru. 
Hawaii:  hulu.        Marquesas:  huu.        Rarotonga:  uru. 
"Viti:  vulua,  hair  about  the  pubes.        Rotuma:  leav,  hair. 


268  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

In  connection  with  the  words  here  assembled  it  is  quite  impossible  to 
dissociate  the  two  stems  ulu  and  fulu.  It  is  probable  that  in  my  theory 
of  word  formation  byconsonantal  coefficients  the  explanation  will  be  found. 

Before  proceeding  to  our  task  of  tracing  out  the  intricacies  here  presented 
I  wish  to  call  attention  to  the  existence  in  Polynesia  of  yet  another  word 
for  hair,  lauulu.  Where  a  distinction  is  made  fulu  is  the  hair  of  the  body, 
lauulu  that  of  the  head  inclusive  of  the  beard,  yet  frequently  accompanied 
by  a  specific  term  for  the  beard. 

Tregear  interprets  this  as  lau  leaf  and  ulu  head ;  such  also  is  the  interpre- 
tation given  by  the  islanders,  the  value  of  their  etymologies  having  been 
mentioned  in  note  169.  This  is  very  simple,  very  obvious.  Yet  the  form 
of  lauulu  used  in  Tahiti  is  rouru,  and  in  that  language  ro  does  not  mean 
leaf  at  all ;  nor  yet  does  it  in  the  Viti  dialect  which  employs  ro  ni  vulu  for 
ndrau  ni  ulu  in  the  same  sense.  Furthermore,  the  vulu  in  the  Viti  Levu 
form  is  not  ulu  head  but  vulu  hair,  and  ndrau  itself  means  hair  as  well  as 
leaf.  Thus  we  have  found  that  hair  as  "the  leaves  of  the  head  "  is  not  such 
a  simple  explanation  as  it  appears. 

Having  already  established  the  nature  and  employment  of  determinant 
compounds,  I  recognize  in  this  composite  lauulu  two  words  of  one  identical 
sense  among  others,  lau  hair  and  ulu  hair;  their  employment  together 
determines  for  the  composite  the  sense  of  hair  beyond  any  doubt.  Cod- 
rington  (Melanesian  Languages,  73)  seems  to  have  felt  some  suspicion 
about  the  leaves  of  the  head  explanation,  but,  the  determinant  compound 
not  having  come  within  his  knowledge,  he  was  unable  to  carry  on  his  note 
to  a  satisfactory  issue. 

We  shall  now  examine  the  interlacing  of  these  two  stems  in  the  area  of 
their  greatest  intricacy,  Melanesia ;  and  shall  rearrange  the  material  in  the 
order  of  a  developmental  series.  It  should  be  noted  that  such  termina- 
tions as  gi,  ge,  and  i  are  merely  local  means  to  indicate  a  noun  as  absolute. 

fulu  series.  ulu  series. 

vulu:   Gog,  Malo,  Omba,  Mosin,     ulu:    Deni,  Malo,  Sesake,  Mota, 

Vuras,  Eromanga.  Maewo. 

wulu:  Norbarbar.  uli:  Merlav. 

wolu:  Ambrym.  ilu:  Epi,  Arag. 

holu:  Buka.  ili:  Ambrym,  Volow,  Motlav. 

weu:  Duke  of  York,  ul:  Lo. 

houi:  Motu.  lu:  Nifilole. 

vul:  Marina,  Lakon.  kalu:  New  Georgia. 

vili:  Makura,  Bierian,  Pak,  Sasar, 

Alo  Teqel. 
viji:  Baki. 

The  two  series  inosculate  in  vulu-ulu,  vili-ili,  thus  showing  that  the 
intimacy  of  their  interrelation  is  not  fortuitous.  The  bare  simplicity  of 
Nifilole  lu  is  repeated  in  the  Efate  lulu.  The  Eromanga  novlimpu  becomes 
clearer  by  indicating  the  several  members  of  the  composite,  no-vli-mpu. 
Baki  viji,  so  close  to  its  neighbor  Bierian  vili,  clearly  establishes  an  l-t 
mutation;  we  find  confirmation  in  sala  (339)  path  Bugotu  hatautu,  and 
(l-nd)  langi  (308)  sky  Buka  indengid.     Finding,  then,  in  Melanesia  this  form 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  269 

in  t  we  may  incline  toward  a  warmer  reception  of  Indonesian  tf-forms  where 
the  vowel  is  truer  to  stem  than  in  Baki.  Such  are  Tidore,  Galela :  hutu; 
Menado:  uta;  Sanguir:  utan;  Gah:  uka;  Matabello:  ud;  Batumerah:  hud; 
Wahai :  hue.  Other  Indonesian  forms  in  which  a  resemblance  appears  are 
these:  Mayapo :  }olo;  Massaratty:  olqfolo;  Cajeli:  buloni;  Baju:  buli  tokolo; 
Malagasy:  volo;  Bouton:  bulwa;  Ahtiago:  ulufuim;  Tobo:  ulvu;  Salayer: 
uhu;  Teluti:  keulo;  Morella:  keiule;  Liang:  kaiola;  Caimarian:  keori. 

Rotuma  leav  and  Tobo  ulvu  and  Ahtiago  ulufuim  show  interesting  vari- 
eties of  metathesis.  Assigning  position,  we  mark  vulu  1234;  then  Rotuma 
represents  3412,  Tobo  4312,  and  Ahtiago  probably  4321,  or  less  likely  2341. 

EFATE-MELANESIAN-VITI-POLYNESIAN-MALAY. 

213. 
banga,  bangan  i,  fanga,  to  feed,  to  charge,  to  fill. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Uvea:  fafanga,  to  feed.  Tonga:  fafangai,  id. 
Futuna,  Niue,  Paumotu:  fangai,  id.  Tahiti:  faaai,  id.  Rapa- 
nui:  hangai,  id.  Hawaii:  hanai,  id.  Maori:  whangai,  to  feed, 
to  nurture.  Mangareva,  Rarotonga :  angai,  to  feed,  to  nourish. 
Marquesas:  hakai,  to  feed. 

Viti:  vakania,  to  feed. 

Mota:  vangan,  to  feed.  Nggela,  Bugotu:  vanga,  food.  King: 
ivangon,  to  eat.      Lambell:  hangdn,  id.     Lamassa:  angdn,  id. 

Malagasy:  mamahana,  to  feed,  to  load  a  gun;  ma  causative  and 
fahana. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  probably  fangan.  Yet  the  final  n  nowhere 
appears  in  Polynesia,  while  it  is  plainly  to  be  seen  in  Efat£,  Mota  and  our 
three  New  Ireland  languages. 

Dr.  Macdonald's  identification  with  Viti  vakania  at  first  seemed  to  me 
wholly  superficial.  On  closer  examination  it  is  found  to  be  worse;  it 
is  an  attempt  to  wrest  the  record.  The  only  place  in  which  the  word 
appears  in  the  Viti  dictionary  is  not  in  its  alphabetic  place,  but  as  a  note 
under  the  word  kana  to  eat,  of  which  it  is  clearly  stated  to  be  a  causative. 
That  our  author  had  this  entry  before  his  eyes  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  he 
cites  the  word  as  vakani-a,  just  as  Hazlewood  has  printed  it.  He  forgets 
that  he  identified  it  correctly  in  46.  Since  va  is  the  causative  prefix  and 
kana  means  to  eat  there  can  be  not  the  remotest  relation  with  the  fangan 
stem.  The  discussion  of  these  two  Viti  stems  will  be  found  under  214 
and  46  respectively. 

In  Polynesia  generally  the  word  is  transitive,  yet  there  are  uses  in  which 
evidence  appears  of  the  intransitive  as  well.  Regarding  the  primary  sense 
of  the  word  as  transitive,  we  find  in  its  use  as  signifying  the  charging  of  a 
gun  or  the  filling  of  a  pipe  in  Ffat6  no  great  deviation  from  an  elemental 
signification  of  putting  something  into  the  mouth. 

214. 
baka,  faka,  causative  prefix. 

Tonga,  Paumotu,  Niue,  Futuna,  Uvea,  Fakaafo,  Fotuna,  Sikayana, 
Aniwa:  faka.  Marquesas,  Paumotu,  Nukuoro,  Rapanui, 
Tongarewa:  haka.      Maori:  whaka.      Samoa:  fa' a.      Tahiti, 


270  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Uvea,  Tonga :  faa.  Tahiti,  Hawaii,  Marquesas,  Nukuoro :  haa. 
Moriori :  hoko.  Hawaii:  hoo.  Paumotu:  fa.  Hawaii:  to. 
Maori:  wha.  Hawaii:  ho.  Rarotonga,  Mangareva,  Buka- 
buka:  oka.        Mangareva:  anga.        Rapanui,  Paumotu:  a. 

Viti :  vaka,  va.         Rotuma :  faka,  fak,  a. 

Sesake,  Kiriwina,  Santo,  Nguna:  vaka.  Malo:  vaca.  Marina: 
Nggela,  Belaga,  Sinaugoro,  Omba,  Maewo,  Mota :  vaga.  Fagani: 
faga.  Tangoan  Santo :  thaka.  Keapara :  vaka.  Ulawa,Wango, 
Saa,  Ugi :  ha' a.  Sesake,  Nguna :  paka.  Bierian :  baka.  Sesake, 
Marina,  Arag,  Merlav,  Gog,  Lakon,  Mota,  Motlav,  Volow,  Lo, 
Deni,  Vaturanga,  Nggela,  Bugotu,  Motu,  Pak,  Leon,  Vuras, 
Mosin,  Baki,  Kabadi,  Hula,  Nguna:  va.  Nifilole,  Duke  of 
York,  Raluana,  Kabakada,  Matupit,  Baravon :  wa.  Aneityum : 
ua.  Nggao:  fa.  Roro,  Pokau:  ba.  Mekeo,  Panaieti,  Nguna: 
pa.  Motu,  Pala :  ha.  Nengone,  Lifu,  Motu,  Panaieti,  Dobu :  a. 
Motlav,  Pak,  Leon :  ve.  Vuras:  vi.  Norbarbar,  AloTeqel:  v-. 
Savo :  au.      New  Britain :  wara.      Malekula  Pangkumu :  vaha. 

Sulu:  mak,  maka.         Tagalog,  Bicol:  mag,  pag. 

faka:  Futuna,  Efate,  Tonga,  Pau-  fa:  Uvea,  Nggao,  Paumotu,  Efate\ 

motu,  Uvea,  Rotuma,  Samoa.  faa  (fa):  Tonga. 

faga:  Fagani.  va:  Viti,  Sesake,  etc. 

faa:  Tahiti,  Uvea.  wha:  Maori. 

fak:  Rotuma.  ba:  Efate\ 

vaka:  Nguna,  Viti,   Sesake,   Malo,  ve:  Motlav,  Pak,  Leon. 

Santo.  vi:  Vuras. 

vaga:   Marina,  Maewo.Omba,  Mota,  v — :  Norbarbar,  Alo  Teqel. 

Nggela,  Belaga.  b — :  Efate\ 

vaha:  Malekula  Pangkumu.  f — :  Efate. 

baka:  Efate,  Bierian.  pa:  Nguna. 

paka:  Nguna,  Sesake.  ha:  Hawaii. 

whaka:  Maori.  ho:  Hawaii. 

haka:  Marquesas,  Paumotu,  Nuku-  wa:  Nifilole,  Duke  of  York,  Raluana, 

oro,  Tongarewa.  Kabakada,  Matupit,  Baravon. 

thaka:  Tangoan  Santo.  ua:  Aneityum. 

haa:  Hawaii,  Ulawa, Tahiti,  Marque-  a:  Rotuma,    Nengone,   Lifu,  Pau- 

sas,  Wango,  Saa,  Ugi,  Nukuoro.  motu. 

hoko:  Moriori.  au:  Savo. 

hoo:  Hawaii.  wara:  New  Britain. 
aka:  Rarotonga,  Mangareva,  Bukabuka. 
anga:  Mangareva. 

It  is  manifest  that  two  forms  are  here  involved  and  that  the  sense  is 
identical.  I  have  given  close  attention  to  the  examination  of  those  lan- 
guages in  which  the  two  forms  are  in  use  simultaneously,  and  except  for 
one  slight  discrimination  I  have  failed  to  discover  any  principle  in  the  selec- 
tion of  the  form  which  shall  be  used.  It  is  not  euphonic,  for  the  long  form 
is  used  before  consonants  as  well  as  before  vowels  and  the  same  is  equally 
true  of  the  short  form.  The  only  discrimination  which  I  have  satisfied 
myself  to  exist  consistently  is  in  Uvea,  where  faka  is  causative  and  fa,  (jaa) 
is  used  of  resemblance. 


DATA  AND  NOTES. 


271 


The  stems  are  faka  and  fa.  Rotuma  fak  is  the  only  vestige  of  the  transi- 
tion form. 

To  show  the  devolution  I  have  rearranged  the  forms  in  two  lists.  We 
need  comment  on  but  few  facts.  The  forms  in  o  seem  to  have  developed 
sporadically  and,  of  course,  independently  in  Hawaii  at  the  extreme  north- 
ern limit  of  the  Tongafiti  swarm  and  in  Moriori  at  the  extreme  south  and 
apparently  earlier  than  the  Tongafiti  movement.  Not  a  vestige  of  the  o 
has  been  retained  along  the  migration  tracks.  In  Savo  au  and  New  Britain 
■wara  we  find  apparently  irreducible  forms,  possibly  heterogenetic. 

215- 

bia,  bisa,  fia,  fisa,  how  many. 
In  the  same  sense — 

Tonga,  Niue:  fika.  Samoa,  Futuna,  Uvea,  Nukuoro,  Aniwa, 

Nuguria,  Sikayana:  fia.  Maori,  Moiki,  Tahiti,  Marquesas, 
Mangareva,  Rapanui,  Paumotu :  hia.        Mangaia:  ia  (eia). 

Viti:  vitha. 

Mota,  Maewo :  visa.  Sesake :  pisa.  Vaturanga :  ngisa.  Pala : 
hise.  Wango:  siha.  Arag,  Ambrym:  viha.  Nggao:  ngiha. 
Baravon:  aivia.        Moanus:  tje,  td  tjg. 

Malay:  hia,  what. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  fiha. 

Dr.  Macdonald  disposes  of  the  matter  with  the  declaration  "the  final 
part  of  bia  and  bisa,  namely  a  or  sa,  is  the  interrogative  pronoun."  Refer- 
ence to  these  several  words  in  their  proper  places  in  the  dictionary  confirms 
his  statement — so  far  as  relates  to  Ffate.  He  offers  no  explanation  for  the 
former  element  of  such  a  composite,  and  I  have  none  to  suggest.     But : 


Language. 

How  many. 

What. 

Language. 

How  many. 

What. 

Mota 

Vaturanga.. . 

visa 
visa 
pisa 
ngisa 

sava 

sava 

sa 

na  hua 

Wango 

Arag 

Ambrym. . . . 
Nggao 

siha 
viha 
viha 
ngiha 

e  taha 

hava,  havanau 

ha 

nano 

It  is  tantalizingly  close,  yet  with  such  instances  as  Vaturanga  and  Nggao 
we  are  debarred  from  accepting  the  explanation  until  we  know  enough  of 
the  ^-element  to  enable  us  to  account  for  the  word  as  a  whole. 

216. 

matua,  to  be  old,  mature,  large,  great,  wise. 

Maori,  Manahiki,  Tongarewa:  matua,  parent.  Rarotonga,  Buka- 
buka:  metua,  id.  Samoa:  matua,  parent,  mature,  elder. 
Tonga:  matua,  parents,  old  people;  motua,  old,  mature,  ripe. 
Futuna:  matua,  old,  parents,  mature,  ripe.  Niue:  matua, 
parent;  motua,  old.  Uvea:  matua,  parents,  old,  mature. 
Rapanui:  matua  tamaroa,  father;  matua  tamaahine,  mother. 
Tahiti :  -matua,  old ;  mitua,  metia,  parent.  Marquesas :  motua, 
father.       Mangareva:  motua,  father;  -matua,  old.      Nuguria, 


272  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Sikayana :  matua,  old.  Aniwa :  tomatua,  to  be  able.  Hawaii, 
Paumotu:  makua,  parent,  old,  mature.      Fotuna:  mahtua,  old. 

Viti:  matua,  ripe,  mature. 

Nggela :  kukua,  ancestors.  I,aur :  imdtuk,  ripe.  Lambell :  makds, 
id.  Lamassa :  imakos,  id.  Bierian :  matua,  old ;  tamatua,  old 
man.  Tanna :  matu,  ripe.  Santo :  metua,  ripe.  Mota :  matua, 
ripe,  full-grown.      Aneityum :  meto,  ripe.      Pala :  matua,  uncle. 

Malagasy:  matoa,  eldest  son  or  daughter.  Malay:  mantuwah,  a 
parent-in-law ;  mentua,  mother.  Macassar :  matowang,  father- 
in-law. 

Three  senses  are  involved  herein,  to  be  old,  to  be  ripe,  parent.  I  should 
like  to  see  my  way  to  the  idea  that  age  is  the  central  idea,  but  the  mate- 
rial does  not  warrant  this  conclusion — or,  in  fact,  any.  The  three  senses 
(assuming  the  mature  of  the  dictionaries  to  cover  ripe)  appear  concurrently 
in  Tonga,  Uvea,  Futuna,  Hawaii,  Paumotu.  In  Samoa  matua  does  not 
mean  ripe  and  that  language  is  not  included  in  this  category.  Concurrence 
of  the  two  senses  old  and  parent  obtains  in  Samoa,  Niue,  Tahiti,  Mangareva. 
Differentiated  forms  {matua,  motua)  are  found  in  Tonga,  Niue,  Mangareva ; 
and  in  Tahiti  matua,  mitua,  and  metua.  In  Tonga  and  Niue  motua  is  old 
and  matua  is  parent,  which  is  its  sole  signification  in  Maori,  Manahiki,  and 
Tongarewa.  But  in  Tahiti  and  Mangareva  the  usage  is  opposite.  In  the 
Marquesas  motua  is  the  only  form  and  its  only  sense  is  father. 

In  our  Melanesian  area  Nggela  kukua  ancestors  is  included  only  as  sug- 
gesting a  partial  resemblance.  Ffate  is  the  only  language  which  gives  the 
stem  an  extended  range  of  meaning.  Bierian  shares  with  it  the  common 
Polynesian  signification  of  old.  All  the  other  forms  have  the  sole  meaning 
of  ripe  and  the  languages  employ  other  words  for  age  and  parent. 

217. 
tema  na,  tama  na,  father. 
In  the  same  sense — 

Samoa,  Fakaafo:  tama.  Aniwa:  tama.  Tonga,  Uvea:  tamai. 
Futuna,  Sikayana,  Fotuna,  Nuguria,  Nukuoro:  tamana. 

Viti:  tama,  father. 

Pala,  New  Britain :  tama.  Redscar  Bay  (N.G.) :  tamaa.  Aneityum : 
etma.  Eromanga:  temi.  Mota:  tamai.  Nifilole:  tumai. 
Mota,  Duke  of  York,  Buka,  Baravon,  Nggela,  Laur,  King, 
Sesake,  Malo,  Bierian,  Tangoan  Santo,  Arag,Vaturanga,Bugotu, 
Motu,  Sinaugoro,  Rubi,  Suau,  Sariba,  Tubetube,  Panaieti, 
Misima,  Nada,  Murua,  Kiriwina,  Dobu,  Mukawa,  Kubiri,  Raqa, 
Kiviri:  tama.  Oiun:  tame.  Tanna:  timi{n).  Santo:  tima. 
Pokau,  Doura:  kama.  Ulawa,  Wango,  Uni:  'ama.  Fagani: 
wama.  Saa,  Bululaha,  Wagawaga,  Mekeo,  Hula,  Keapara, 
Galoma,  Tavara,  A  walama,  Taupota,  Wedau :  ama.  Roro :  hama. 
Nggao,  IyO :  ma.  Mota,  Omba,  Gog,  Alite,  New  Georgia,  Koita, 
Motu :  mama.  Boniki,  Galavi :  mamai.  Merlav,  Lakon,  Pak, 
Sasar,Vuras,  Mosin,  Alo  Teqel,  Motlav,Volow,Norbarbar:  mam. 
Malekula,  Tangoan  Santo:  tata.  Nengone:  chacha.  Baki:  ka- 
rama.     Panaieti,  Misima :  nam.    Tagula :  rama.    Raqa :  dada. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  273 

Salayer,  Liang,  Lariko,  Saparua,  Awaiya,  Caimarian,  Wahai,  Teor : 
ama.  Morella :  a'ma.  Cajeli :  a'mam.  Ahtiago :  amdi.  Teluti : 
amaeolo.  Amblaw :  amao.  Bouton :  amana.  Menado :  iama. 
Sanguir :  yaman.  Tobo :  jaman.  Bolanghitam :  kiamat.  Gah: 
mama.     Mysot:  mam.    Mayapo:  ndma.     Massaratty:  ndama. 

In  the  Polynesian  this  is  distinguished  from  tdma  child  by  the  accent 
tamd  or  by  the  addition  of  a  final  syllable  which  automatically  secures  the 
same  incidence  of  the  accent,  tamdi^  tamdna.  Diacritical  marks  have  been 
but  sparingly  used  in  our  Melanesian  vocabularies  and  for  that  reason  we 
lack  a  sure  guide  as  to  the  accenting  of  the  western  affiliates.  We  find  but 
the  cases  of  New  Britain,  and  Pala  in  which  the  accent  is  printed,  and  Mota, 
Nifilole,  Redscar  Bay,  and  Aneityum  in  which  it  is  inferential.  In  not  one 
of  these  languages  have  we  any  evidence  of  the  use  of  tdma  child,  therefore 
the  accent  is  not  a  differential  in  their  own  material,  but  has  carried  its 
ictus  from  the  source  whence  the  tamd  father  has  been  borrowed. 

We  shall  first  examine  the  languages  which  retain  the  t-m  consonant 
skeleton.  There  is  a  long  series  in  which  the  two  vowels  remain  as  in 
Polynesian ;  they  are  therefore  identical  words  except  that  the  accent  may 
vary,  and  on  that  point  we  are  without  information.  The  final  a  is  almost 
wholly  permanent,  not  only  in  the  t-m  series  but  in  the  m  series  which  will 
come  up  for  our  later  consideration.  The  solitary  exceptions  are  Tanna 
timi(n)  and  Eromanga  temi.  The  former  a  in  this  case  becomes  e  in  Ero- 
manga  and  *  in  Tanna.  The  i-mutation  also  appears  in  Santo  tima.  In 
Nifilole  we  find  u  in  tumai. 

Our  next  variant  of  tamd  involves  frontal  abrasion  affecting  the  t.  This 
we  find  in  two  discrete  areas  in  the  Solomons,  respectively,  north  and  south 
of  Malanta  and  separated  by  an  area  of  greater  degradation.  With  the 
ama  of  this  abraded  type  I  include  Fagani  wama. 

This  middle  type  gives  us  a  suite  of  occurrences  of  the  transition  form 
by  which  we  arrive  at  forms  in  which  not  only  the  initial  t  but  the  vowel  a 
thus  become  initial  have  been  subjected  to  frontal  abrasion.  The  simplest 
form  is  ma  in  Nggao  and  Lo.  By  reduplication  of  ma  we  may  more  logically 
account  for  mama  than  by  attempting  to  establish  a  t-m  mutation.  By  final 
abrasion  of  mama  we  arrive  at  mam,  a  form  very  widespread  in  the  Banks 
Group,  the  northern  subdivision  of  the  New  Hebrides. 

Few  forms  lie  outside  this  chain.  Aneityum  etman  is  only  superficially 
irregular,  for  by  punctuating  apart  its  formative  elements  we  find  in 
e-tma-n  our  tama  theme  with  loss  of  the  former  vowel,  which  is  character- 
istic of  many  of  the  Polynesian  homogenies  in  that  language.  The  tata  of 
Malekula  and  Tangoan  Santo  and  the  chacha  of  Nengone  appear  to  be  the 
result  of  a  terminal  abrasion  involving  the  final  syllable  and  then  a  redup- 
lication. There  is  a  priori  no  reason  why  such  a  course  should  'not  have 
been  followed  by  the  former  syllable  as  well  as  the  later;  we  must  note, 
however,  that  we  find  no  evidence  such  as  transition  forms  would  afford  in 
support  thereof.  If  Baki  karama  stems  with  the  ma  type  of  tamd  it 
involves  a  component  kara  as  to  which  we  lack  information. 

The  Indonesian  homogenetic  forms  are  most  largely  of  the  transitional 
ama  type,  only  Tobo  jaman  suggesting  a  tama  possibility  and  in  our  igno- 
rance of  the  source  of  this  record  jaman  may  be  but  a  variant  transcription 


274  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

of  Sanguir  yaman.    The  still  more  dilapidated  forms  of  ma,  mama,  and 
mam  also  appear. 

From  the  Micronesian  Pacific  we  record  Gilbert  Islands  tdma  father,  and 
in  passing  note  that  this  archipelago  has  borrowed  much  from  Samoa  and 
in  somewhat  recent  times ;  and  Ponape  jam  father. 

EFATE-VITI-POLYNESIAN-MALAY-SEMITIC. 
218. 

bwaka,  a  fence  of  stone  or  wood  made  for  protection  or  fortification  in  war,. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Nine,  Tahiti,  Marquesas,  Moriori :  pa,  a  wall,  fence, 
hedge.  Maori:  pa,  a  barricade,  an  obstruction,  a  fort,  a 
stockade.  Paumotu:  pa,  a  rampart,  bulwark.  Rapanui: 
pa,  a  wall,  to  inclose.  Hawaii,  Mangareva :  pa,  a  wall  and  its 
inclosure.  Rarotonga:  pa,  an  inclosure.  Fotuna:  pa, 

kaupa,  a  fence.        Samoa :  'aupa,  a  wall,  fence,  hedge,  bulwark. 

Viti :  mba,  a  fish  fence ;  mbai,  a  fence  around  a  garden  or  a  town,  but 
not  around  a  house. 

Malo:  baba,  a  fence.  Tanna:  kaupa,  id.  Eromanga:  nim-pa-t,  id. 
Mabuiag:  pa  (plural  pal),  a  fence  for  a  garden,  a  stockade. 

Malay:  pagar,  a  fence,  a  railing;  palang,  a  bar,  a  piece  of  wood  laid 
crosswise  in  obstruction.  Malagasy :  bako,  a  pinfold ;  bamba, 
a  wall  or  fence  in  fortification. 

Hebrew :  ma'akeh,  a  parapet  (surrounding  a  flat  roof)  to  hinder  one 
from  falling  off;  'akah,  to  hold  back,  to  hinder,  to  impede. 

Our  Polynesian,  Viti,  and  Melanesian  identifications  deal  only  with  a 
simple  pa  stem  which  exhibits  but  the  slight  normal  ^-variations.  Efate 
bwaka  involves  a  new  element  which  we  are  unable  to  identify,  and  the 
same  is  true  of  the  Indonesian. 

219. 

bakauti,  buti,  to  make  an  end,  to  finish. 

Niue:  oti,  all,  entirely;  fakaoti,  together,  to  destroy  utterly,  to  make 
a  clean  sweep.  Maori:  oti,  finished,  ended.  Tahiti:  oti,  to 
be  done,  finished.  Mangareva:  oti,  the  end,  finished,  all  over. 
Rarotonga :  oti,  finished.  Paumotu :  fakaoti,  to  finish,  to  con- 
clude. Nukuoro :  hakaoti,  to  end,  to  finish.  Moriori :  hokoti, 
to  cause  to  cease.  Nuguria:  huoti,  to  finish.  Sikayana: 
oti,  all,  to  finish.  Samoa:  talafa'aoti,  to  tell  all.  Tonga: 
oji,  to  be  finished,  to  be  done,  all  gone.  Fotuna :  oji,  all,  the 
whole.         Uvea :  fakaosi,  to  finish. 

Viti:  otia,  vakaotia,  to  finish,  to  bring  to  an  end,  to  complete,  to 
perfect;  oti,  finished,  done,  destroyed,  utterly  ruined. 

Aneityum:  oti,  gone,  done,  finished. 

Malagasy:  cf.  oty,  picked  off,  gathered  (of  fruits),  weaned. 

Hebrew :  kaseh,  an  end ;  kasah,  to  finish. 

In  Efat6  buti  I  find  an  instance  of  the  most  degraded  faka-fa  stem, 
b-uti,  paralleled  by  the  similar  v —  shown  in  214. 
The  identifications  here  offered  are  so  patent  that  they  need  not  detain  us. 


DATA  AND   NOTES*  275 

A  particular  interest  of  an  ethnographic  nature  will  attend  our  exami- 
nation of  the  areas  in  which  this  homogeneity  is  found  traceable.  OH 
seems  to  be  a  word  of  the  Tongafiti  swarm.  It  is  found  at  the  remotest 
beaches  upon  which  broke  that  wave  of  migration.  In  the  Nuclear  Pacific 
we  find  it  in  Samoa,  Tonga,  Nukuoro,  Uvea,  Viti,  and  Niue.  In  Samoa  it 
has  found  a  lodgment  in  but  the  one  word  cited.  In  the  islands  of  the 
Western  Verge  we  find  it  in  Sikayana  and  Fotuna.  In  Melanesia  it  appears 
only  in  Efate"  and  Aneityum.  Compare  with  this  any  of  these  records 
showing  a  word  of  the  Proto-Samoan  baggage ;  Melanesia  is  speckled  with 
its  occurrences.  In  this  case  we  are  at  no  loss  to  account  for  the  Tongafiti 
word  in  Nuclear  Polynesia,  for  we  know  that  to  have  been  a  halting-place 
for  the  later  swarm  in  the  permanent  home  of  the  former.  We  know,  too, 
that  Samoa  by  a  mighty  effort  cast  off  the  invaders,  and  we  are  therefore 
not  surprised  to  find  so  slight  a  remnant  of  the  enemy's  speech.  The 
presence  of  this  Tongafiti  word  in  two  of  the  islands  of  the  Western  Verge 
and  in  two  of  the  New  Hebrides  calls  for  attention.  The  absence  of  Tonga- 
fiti homogenies  in  Melanesia  indicates  for  that  migration  a  different  course 
in  general,  but  such  instances  as  this  go  to  show  that,  while  our  conclusion 
is  in  the  main  true,  now  and  then  a  small  squadron  may  have  found  its 
way  down  the  ancient  track,  or  that  when  the  second  swarm  was  expelled 
from  Nuclear  Polynesia  some  of  its  fleets  may  have  gone  westward  to 
homes  where  the  chances  of  settlement  were  but  slight. 

220. 

baloni,  bano-li,  balo-si,  bilo-si,  bulo-si,  bulu-ngi,  bulu-ni,  bunu-li,  to  wash 
anything,  to  wash  by  rubbing.        Cf.  bafano  49. 

Samoa :  fufulu,  fulua,  to  rub,  to  wash,  to  wipe;  fulunga,  the  rubbing 
of  a  thing.  Nukuoro :  fufulu,  fulua,  to  wash.  Tonga,  Futuna, 
Uvea:  fufulu,  to  wash,  to  cleanse.  Fotuna:  no-furuna,  to 
wipe. 

Viti :  vuluvulu,  to  wash  the  hands. 

Malay:  basuh,  to  wash.        Malagasy:  uza,  id. 

Arabic:  masa,  maus',  to  wash,  to  rub  with  the  hands. 

These  Efate  forms  are  in  a  snarl  which  needs  disentangling  before  we  can 
give  them  precise  study.  We  shall  first  examine  the  forms  which  exhibit 
the  skeleton  b-l-n.  These  are  baloni,  buluni,  each  being  accompanied  by 
a  metathetic  form,  banoli  and  bunuli  respectively.  With  the  b-l-n  skeleton 
I  must  include  the  slightly  variant  bulungi. 

Another  skeleton,  b-l-s,  occurs  in  balosi,  bilosi,  bulosi. 

Dr.  Macdonald's  crossing  of  reference  to  bafano  can  only  apply  to  the 
forms  which  I  have  preferred  to  regard  as  metathetic.  If  he  regards  them 
as  principal,  his  identification  with  fufuluhas  no  standing;  and  if  he  regards 
baloni  as  principal,  his  reference  to  bafano  is  irrelevant. 

But  neither  b-l-n  forms  nor  b-l-s  forms  can  be  properly  identified  with 
the  fulu  stem  of  Nuclear  Polynesia,  for  that  is  an  open  stem.  Yet  in 
Fotuna  no-furuna  we  find  an  n  as  to  which  we  have  no  explanation  in  the 
jejunity  of  our  only  account  of  the  grammar  of  that  speech.  It  may  be  a 
formative  suffix,  even  as  we  know  the  no  to  be  a  formative  prefix.  It  may 
be  the  sole  Polynesian  survival  of  a  fulun  stem.     It  may  be  grafted  upon 


276  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

the  open  stem  by  attraction  from  a  New  Hebridean  neighbor.  If  fulun  be 
the  Proto-Samoan  stem  its  affiliates  will  be  the  b-l-n  forms  of  Ffate\  To 
associate  therewith  the  b-l-s  forms  entails  an  n-s  mutation  of  which  we 
can  not  find  a  single  trace  in  this  material. 

The  Malay  and  the  Semitic  identifications  do  not  come  up  for  consider- 
ation at  all. 

221. 
bwoa,  nabwo,  tamo,  to  emit  odor;  bwon,  odor.    Cf.  139. 

Samoa:  poa,  a  yam  having  a  fragrant  odor;  poapoa,  fishy  smelling; 
fa'apoa,  to  feed  young  children  with  fish.    Futuna :  poa,  popoa, 
to  smell  fishy;  poa  tai,  odor  of  the  sea.      Tonga:  boa,  the  name 
of  a  species  of  yam,  the  smell  of  fish;  fakaboa,  to  scent  anything 
with  fish,  to  smell  of  fish ;  tavboa,  to  scent  the  water  with  fish 
to  catch  others. 
Viti :  mboi,  to  emit  an  odor. 
Malay:  bua,  odor.        Malagasy:  fufuna,  id. 
Arabic :  faka,  fah'a,  to  emit  odor. 

222. 
but  i,  buti,  futi,  to  pluck  (as  a  fowl),  to  pluck  out  or  up  (as  weeds) ;  mafuti, 
to  be  plucked. 

Samoa:  futi,  to  pluck  feathers  or  hair,  to  pull  up  weeds;  fufuti,  to 
haul  in  the  fishing  line.  Futuna :  futi,  to  pull  out  feathers  or 
hair;  futitaula,  to  raise  the  anchor.  Niue:  futi,  to  draw  up 
(as  a  fish  on  a  line),  to  hoist  (as  a  flag),  to  pluck  (as  a  hair). 
Nukuoro :  futi,  to  pick,  to  pluck.  Sikayana :  ufuti,  to  pull  or 
haul.  Tonga :  fufuji,  to  pull,  to  stretch  out ;  fuji,  to  pull,  to 
pluck,  to  deplume.  Maori :  huti,  huhuti,  to  hoist,  to  pull  up 
out  of  the  ground ;  huti-ika,  to  pull  up  a  fish.  Tahiti :  huti, 
to  pull  or  draw  up  a  fishing  line,  to  hoist  a  flag;  huhuti,  to  pluck 
feathers,  hair,  grass.  Marquesas :  huhuti,  to  pull  one  another 
by  the  hair;  hutihuti,  to  pull  out  the  feathers  of  a  bird,  to  pull 
the  hair.  Mangareva:  huhuti,  to  pull  up  as  by  the  roots; 
hutihuti,  to  pull  up  herbs,  to  pull  out  feathers ;  uhuti,  to  pull  up 
by  the  roots.  Paumotu :  hutihuti,  to  denude  the  body  of  hair. 
Rapanui:  huhuti,  to  weed;  hutihuti,  to  pluck  feathers.  Hawaii: 
huki,\to  draw,  to  pull;  uhuki,  to  pull  up  as  grass  or  weeds. 

Viti :  vutia,  to  pluck  feathers  or  hair,  to  pull  up  grass  or  weeds. 

Mota :  cf .  pit,  to  take  up  or  off  with  the  tips  of  the  fingers,  to  pick, 
to  pluck. 

Malay:  bantun,  to  pluck,  pull  out. 

Arabic :  mimosa,  to  pluck  out,  as  hairs. 

Because  of  its  signification  I  collate  Mota  pit,  yet  with  some  hesitation 
because  of  the  fact  that  in  the  study  of  some  150  Mota  words  homogenetic 
with  Samoa  this  is  the  only  instance  of  the  f-p  mutation.  This  objection 
rests  upon  this  case  rather  than  the  broader  knowledge  of  consonant  move- 
ments in  these  languages,  for  f-p  is  a  sufficiently  well-established  mutation 
in  the  true  Polynesian  and  appears  frequently  in  the  Melanesian  material 
here  collated. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  277 

The  Malay  proposed  in  identification  assumes  without  confirmation  a 
stem  of  three  consonants.  The  Arabic  shows  not  the  slightest  resemblance 
save  in  meaning. 

223. 

fis  i,  fisi,  fifis  i,  fif  i,  to  bind  around  or  about,  to  twine  around  or  twist; 
fifi,  to  twine  or  go  around,  a  fillet. 

Samoa :  fisi,  to  entwine,  as  a  vine  around  a  stick ;  fa'afisi,  to  entwine, 
to  coil;  fifi.  the  small  intestines;  aft,  to  do  up  in  a  bundle. 
Tonga :  phi,  thick,  bushy,  entangled ;  fihifihi,  curled  in  the  grain, 
linked  one  into  another,  inextricable ;  fifihi,  one  who  in  wrestling 
is  dexterous  with  his  limbs  locking  the  limbs  of  his  antagonist; 
J^  to  plait,  to  twist,  to  curl;  fifii,  to  enclose  fish  in  plaited 
coconut  leaf.  Nuguria :  afii,  to  wrap  up.  Futuna :  fifi,  a 
bundle  of  cooked  fish.  Niue :  firika,  a  bunch  of  fish.  Tahiti : 
fifi,  entangled;  faafifi,  to  entangle.  Maori:  whiwhi,  twisted 
together;  whakawhiwhi,  to  wind  around;  whiwhiwhi,  the  fat 
covering  the  intestines.  Hawaii  t^ihijthe  twining  of  vines; 
hoohihia,  to  entangle. 

Viti:  vivi,  to  roll  up  or  around,  to  coil  around. 

Mota :  viv,  vivis,  to  wind  around,  to  bind  around  and  around. 

Malay:  pusing,  to  turn  around,  to  twist.  Malagasy:  fihina,  grasp, 
seizure,  fihitra,  a  clutch,  a  grasp. 

Hebrew :  hobos',  to  bind,  to  bind  on,  to  bind  about. 

In  this  group  we  are  dealing  with  a  stem  fis,  which  may  be  expanded  to 
fisi  and  which  may  be  abraded  to  fi;  see  note  243. 

In  Polynesia  we  find  only  fisi  and  fi,  in  Viti  only  fi,  in  Efate  all  three 
forms,  and  in  Mota  only  fi  and  fis. 

The  Indonesian  suggestions  involve  the  difficulty  of  a  third  radical  con- 
sonant which  has  left  no  vestige  in  our  area;  see  also  note  245. 

The  Hebrew  likewise  entails  a  third  consonant  in  the  root,  differing  from 
the  Indonesian  in  being  applied  frontally. 

224. 

kamut  i,  ngamut  i,  kami,  to  take,  to  grasp  with  the  fingers,  to  nip,  to  nip 

or  cut  with  scissors ;  kam,  native  tongs  (a  split  stick  for  grasping 

hot  oven  stones  and  lifting  them) ;  kamkam,  scissors. 
Tonga :  kamu,  to  cut  off  anything  round.        Futuna :  kamu,  to  cut, 

to  shorten.        Samoa:  'amu,  to  cut  off,  as  part  of  a  beam. 

Hawaii :  amu,  to  shear  or  shave  the  hair  from  the  head,  to  trim 

the  hair. 
Viti :  nggamu,  pincers,  vise ;  nggamuta,  to  take  hold  of  or  hold  with 

pincers  or  between  the  teeth. 
Malay:  cubit,  chvbit,  to  nip,  to  pinch.        Java :  juwit,  id.        Malay: 

angkub,  tongs,  nippers. 
Hebrew:  kamas,  to  squeeze  together,  to  take  with  the  hand;  kamat, 

to  hold  fast  with  the  hand,  to  seize  firmly;  kafas,  to  contract, 

to  shut  (as  the  mouth) ;  kabas,  to  take  or  grasp  with  the  hands. 

Arabic:  kabasa,  to  take  with  the  tips  of  the  fingers;  kabas' a,  to 

grasp  with  the  hand. 


278  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  manifestly  kamut,  yet  the  material  is  so  scanty 
in  Nuclear  Polynesia  that  we  can  establish  it  only  from  Viti,  and  possibly 
from  Hawaii  amuku  to  cut  short,  which,  however,  Andrews  associates  with 
muku  to  cut,  without  pointing  out  or  explaining  the  difficulties  which  such 
derivation  entails. 

225. 
kar  i,  ngar  i,  karu-ti,  ngaru-ti,  to  scratch;  karo  i,  ngaro  i,  to  scratch,  to 
scrape,  to  shave,  to  seize;  tangaru,  to  seize,  to  grasp. 
Samoa :  'Hi,  a  rasp,  a  file,  a  saw.    Tonga :  kili,  a  saw ;  kilifakamata,  a 
file ;  kiliji,  to  saw.       Futuna :  kiliti,  to  file ;  kili,  a  rasp,  a  file. 
Uvea:  kili,  id;  kilisi,  to  file.       Niue:  kili,  a  file,  a  saw. 
Viti:  kari,  to  scrape. 

Melanesian:  all  meaning  to  scratch  or  scrape — Galavi:  girt,  lagiri. 
Nada:  qiri.  Raqa:  kairi.  Wedau:  giai.  Mukawa:  giagiai. 
Kiriwina :  kuriqari.  Panaieti :  kurikuri.  Kubiri,  Kiviri :  gagara. 
Oiun:  kakakara.  Motu:  hekagalo.  Taupota:  karakaroi. 
Wedau:  kakaroi.  Boniki:  kelologi.  Mota,  Nggela:  karu. 
Eugotu:  g'ag'aru.  Wango:  karohi.  Malo:  garasi. 
Malay:  garis,  to  scratch,  to  score;  garut,  to  scratch,  to  scrape,  to 

claw;  garok,  to  scrape.         Java:  garit,  to  scratch,  to  score. 
Arabic:  garra,  to  drag,  to  snatch,  to  sweep,  to  seize.        Hebrew: 
garar,  to  scrape,  to  sweep;  gara',  to  scratch,  to  scrape. 
Dr.  Macdonald  has  amassed  a  number  of  similar  forms,  there  are  many 
more  than  these  in  his  dictionary,  and  we  shall  have  to  disentangle  them. 
The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  kilit,  and  by  a  normal  Polynesian  mutation 
this  becomes  kilis  in  Uvea.     This  permits  us  to  identify  karuti  and  ngaruti. 
Thence  we  may  pass  to  karo  and  ngaro,  kar  and  ngar,  so  long  as  they  carry 
the  meaning  to  scratch,  to  scrape.     Here  we  find  the  Viti  kari  to  fit  into 
the  scheme ;  its  form  shows  that  it  was  not  derived  from  the  neighboring 
Polynesian  kili,  but  came  from  the  stem  by  way  of  Efate\     The  Indonesian 
forms  are  in  closer  accord  with  Efate  and  Viti  than  with  the  Nuclear  Poly- 
nesia and  give  the  impression  of  an  earlier  type. 

It  will  be  observed  in  the  Efat£  that  while  the  scratch  sense  runs  through 
all  the  forms  the  grasp  sense  is  absent  from  those  which  exhibit  the 
radical  t.  We  may,  therefore,  judge  that  there  are  two  stems  interlaced, 
karut-karo-kar  to  scratch,  and  karo-kar  to  grasp,  and  that  the  reduction 
forms  of  karut  have  become  involved  with  the  karo-kar  forms  of  the  other 
stem.  This  will  remove  the  Arabic  identification  entirely  from  considera- 
tion and  will  leave  to  the  Hebrew  but  a  partial  resemblance. 

226. 
kau,  a  collection,  bunch,  herd. 

Tonga :  kau,  plural  sign.     Futuna :  kau,  a  multitude,  a  troop.    Niue : 
kau,  a  troop,  a  company.        Uvea :  kau,  a  company,  herd. 
Mangareva :  kou,  a  multitude  (kouika,  a  shoal  of  fish).    Samoa : 
'au,  a  troop,  a  gang,  a  bunch,  a  cluster.       Tahiti,  Hawaii :  au, 
collective  plural. 
Viti :  kau,  a  bunch. 
Malay :  kawan,  a  herd,  a  troop. 
Arabic:  gam',  gama'a,  a  collection. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  279 

In  view  of  the  fact  that  kau  retains  its  place  in  Nuclear  Polynesia  and 
has  scantily  entered  the  Tongafiti  languages  it  will  be  interesting  to  cite 
Tregear's  note  (Maori  Comparative  Dictionary  s.v.  tekau) : 

It  is  evident  that  there  was  an  original  Polynesian  word  kau,  a  troop  of  persons,  a 
cluster  of  things,  etc.  The  Tongan  kauvaka,  a  crew;  kaugane,  fellow-workmen;  kau- 
mea,  a  companion;  the  Samoan'att,  a  bunch  of  bananas;  a  troop  of  warriors;  'aujale, 
women  living  together  in  a  house;  the  Tahitian  auono,  a  large  fleet  or  company  of 
travelers;  autahua,  a  company  of  priests;  the  Mangaian  kaunuku,  in  groups,  etc.,  all 
point  to  a  word  signifying  collection,  assemblage. 

I  can  not  see  that  the  Arabic  has  aught  to  do  with  it. 

227. 
kinit  i,  nginit  i,  ngunut  i,  to  nip  with  the  fingers ;  nakini  na,  fingers  (nippers), 
toes.     Cf.  57. 
Tonga :  kini,  to  strike,  to  cut  the  hair  short,  to  let  blood ;  kiniji,  to 
strike  with  anything  light,  to  hit  with  a  whip.       Futuna :  kini, 
kikini,  to  beat,  to  strike,  to  whip.        Niue :  kini,  to  beat  down  (as 
bushes).       Uvea :  kini,  to  whip.       Maori :  kini,  to  nip,  to  pinch. 
Samoa:  'ini,  to  take  hold  of  with  the  nails,  to  pinch,  to  pull  up 
small  weeds.       Hawaii :  iniki,  to  pinch  with  thumb  and  finger. 
Viti:  kinita,  to  nip,  to  pinclTbetween  finger  and  thumb. 
Mota :  gin,  ginit,  to  nip,  to  pinch.         Malekula  Pangkumu :  kinji,  id. 
Malay:  gantas,  to  break  off,  to  nip  off,  to  snap  off. 
Arabic:  karasa,  to  nip  with  the  fingers,  to  pinch,  to  snip  off. 
The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  kinit. 

The  distribution  of  this  word  is  striking.  The  nipping  sense  is  found  in 
Mota,  Malekula,  Ffate,  Viti  and  Samoa,  thence  far  north  to  Hawaii,  far 
south  to  New  Zealand;  yet  in  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue  and  Uvea  we  find 
the  word  completely  devoid  of  this  sense  and  charged  with  a  wholly  different 
meaning  which  nowhere  else  appears.  I  find  it  quite  inexplicable. 
The  Semitic  has  no  relation  other  than  that  of  sense. 

228. 
lua,  le,  lai,  to  vomit,  to  put  out  the  tongue  (or  anything),  to  flow  out. 

Samoa:  lua'i,  to  spit  out;  lulua,  to  be  sick,  to  vomit,  to  puke. 
Tonga :  lua,  lulua,  to  vomit,  to  disgorge ;  luaki,  to  be  sick  with ; 
fakalua,  to  nauseate.  Futuna :  lulua,  luaki,  to  vomit ;  fakalulua, 
to  nauseate.  Niue:  lua,  to  vomit;  fakalua,  id.;  fakalue,  to 
spew  out.  Uvea:  lua,  to  vomit.  Fotuna:  noh-lua,  id. 
Rapanui :  rua,  seasick,  to  vomit.  Maori,  Rarotonga,  Nukuoro  : 
_jruaki,  to  vomit.    Paumotu :  ruaki,  to  vomit,  toeructate,  to  belch. 


Tahiti:  ruai,    to    vomit.        Mangareva:  aruai,    akaruta,    id. 

Hawaii :Juai,  id.       Marquesas:  ud,  akaruta,  id. 
Viti:  lu,  to  run  or  leak  out;  lua,  to  vomit;  loloa,  qualmish,  seasick. 
Mota:  lua,  to  spew.       Malo:  lua,  id.       Santo:  lulua,  id.       Baki: 

mjuluo,  id.        Malekula:  ru,  id.        Aneityum:  a-lo,  id;  aluo, 

aluun,  to  put  out  the  tongue. 
Malay:  luwat,  luat,  to  vomit;  luwar,  luar,  out,  away;  luwari,  luwar- 

kan,  to  put  out,  to  expel.       Malagasy:  lua,  to  vomit;  mandua, 

to  vomit;  luatra,  over  and  above,  taken  up,  put  out;  manduatra, 

to  take  out  or  up. 
Arabic :  t'a't,  ta'a,  tai'at,  t'a'at,  to  vomit. 


280  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  lua.  The  Mangarevan  akaruta  is  quite 
singular,  and,  while  not  succeeding  in  identifying  its  primitive  ruta,  I  can 
not  admit  it  as  a  lua  derivative.  The  same  word  akaruta  cited  by  Tregear 
from  the  Marquesas  is  not  found  in  Bishop  Dordillon's  dictionary. 

The  le  and  lai  of  Ef ate  are  profoundly  degenerate  forms  if  they  be  really 
of  the  lua  stem.  The  most  degenerate  form  in  Melanesia  is  the  ru  of  Male- 
kula  and  the  ro  as  a  component  of  Aneityum  a-lo.  The  discovery  of  these 
two  forms  in  the  sense  to  vomit  gives  a  certain  probability  to  the  Viti  lu 
in  a  sense  which,  while  different,  is  not  wholly  irreconcilable  with  this  stem. 
The  Efate  sense  "to  put  out  the  tongue  (or  anything) " — and  I  am  free  to 
acknowledge  that  I  can  not  imagine  what  Dr.  Macdonald  means  within  the 
parentheses — finds  support  in  Aneityum  aluo  and  aluun,  to  put  out  the 
tongue,  to  thrust  out  the  tongue,  respectively.  But  the  sense  is  only 
remotely,  if  at  all,  related  to  the  stem  sense  of  lua. 

The  Indonesian  carries  lua  identifications  with  much  extraneous  matter. 
The  value  of  the  Semitic  identification  wholly  fails  to  appear. 

229. 
ma  i,  to  chew  (softening  food  for  an  infant). 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Tahiti,  Rapanui,  Marquesas :  mama,  to  chew. 
Niue:  mama,  a  mouthful,  that  which  is  chewed.        Hawaii: 
mama,  to  chew  with  a  view  to  spit  out  of  the  mouth.        Man- 
gareva :  mama,  to  chew,  to  bruise  with  the  teeth.       Nukuoro : 
manga,  to  chew.         Uvea :  maanga,  a  morsel. 
Viti:  mama,  to  chew,  used  chiefly  of  the  kava  root. 
Aneityum :  a-mai,  to  chew  (kava  or  any  bark) . 
Malay :  mamah,  to  chew. 
Arabic:  ma" ma" a,  to  chew  meat,  but  not  wholly. 

230. 
manga,  maka,  to  open  out,  to  gape,  to  wonder,  to  speak,  to  open  the  jaws  ; 
mangamanga,  to  gape  often  and  rapidly,  to  pant,  manga,  a 
part  of  the  names  of  places,  as  gorges  and  valleys,  and  especially 
of  the  abysses  of  Hades  below  Bokas. 
Samoa :  manga,  a  branch  of  anything  forked,  as  a  tree,  river,  road 
or  fishhook;  mangamanga,  branched,  forked ;  fa'amanga,  to  open 
the  mouth,  to  gape ;  fa'amangai,  to  set  astride.  Tonga :  manga, 
a  branch  of  a  tree,  road,  fishhook,  stream,  open,  forked,  spread- 
ing; mangamanga,  to  branch  off,  to  spread  open;  mamanga,  to 
stride,  to  extend  the  legs;  fakamanga,  to  open,  to  gape;  faka- 
mangamanga,  to  barb,  to  jag,  to  make  forked.  Futuna :  manga, 
a  branch,  a  fork ;  fakamanga,  to  have  the  legs  spread  out.  Niue : 
manga,  forked ;  mangaua,  cloven ;  fakamanga,  to  open  the  mouth, 
to  gape;  fakamamanga,  to  straddle,  to  open  the  mouth,  to 
spread  out,  to  extend.  Maori:  manga,  the  branch  of  a  tree 
or  a  river.  Mangareva :  manga,  the  branch  of  a  tree,  forked, 
cloven.  Paumotu:  manga,  a  branch,  a  division.  Rapanui: 
mangamanga,  a  branch ;  mangamanga  rima,  a  finger.  Hawaii : 
mana,  a  branch,  a  limb,  to  branch  out,  to  be  divided.  Mar- 
quesas: mana,  a  branch,  as  of  a  river.  Tahiti:  maa,  cloven, 
divided ;  amaa,  the  branch  of  a  tree. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  281 

Viti:  manga,  pudendum  muliebre. 

Mota:  manga,  an  opening  with  lips,  mouth,  to  open,  to  gape. 

Malay:  manga,  open;  mangah,  to  pant,  to  palpitate;  nganga,  to  gape. 

Ethiopic  -.naka'a,  to  gape,  to  yawn,  to  be  rent,  parted,  sundered  ;nka'at, 

an  opening,  gap,  fissure.        Arabic:  naka'a,  to  rend  asunder. 

This  forms  an  excellent  and  consistent  series  from  Polynesia  to  Indonesia. 

The  Semitic  identifications  proposed  by  our  author  have  not  the  least 

connection  with  the  Polynesian  m-ng  root. 

231. 
mina,  pleasant,  nice. 

Samoa;  momona,  fat,  rich  (of  pigeons  and  fish).  Tonga:  momona, 
fat  (as  shellfish).  Futuna:  momona,  flesh  of  sea  food.  Maori: 
momona,  fat,  rich,  fertile.  Hawaii:  mona,  fat,  rich,  fertile, 
round,  plump,  the  fat  of  an  animal.  Tahiti :  mona,  momona, 
sweet,  delicious.  Marquesas:  momona,  delicious,  good  to  taste, 
fat  part  of  an  animal.  Mangareva:  momona,  grease,  fat. 
Paumotu:  momona,  odor,  savor. 
Viti:  mona,  brains. 

Malagasy :  monamonany,  fat,  plump,  of  a  child  or  young  animal. 
Arabic:  'anik',  pleasant,  nice. 
The  Marquesas  combines  the  two  significations  of  fat  meat  and  deli- 
cious.    The  meat  sense  runs  through  Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Maori,  Hawaii, 
Mangareva.     In  142  we  have  seen  a  word  beginning  in  oil  and  ending  in 
brains;  the  Viti  attains  the  same  end  from  an  equally  greasy  beginning. 
The  Paumotu  momona  has  undergone  a  particular  and  independent  special- 
ization.   Taking  a  fresh  start  from  the  Marquesas  and  examining  the  sense 
of  delicious  we  find  that  to  be  the  only  sense  in  Tahiti  and  Ef ate ;  possibly 
it  may  be  inferred  in  the  rich  of  Samoa,  Maori  and  Hawaii. 
Again  Dr.  Macdonald's  Semitic  is  not  even  a  resemblance. 

232. 
tnitei,  breadfruit  fermented  and  preserved.        Cf.  mutrei  6. 

Samoa :  mast,  fermented  breadfruit ;  mati,  stale  (of  water,  coconuts, 
kava) .      Futuna :  mast,  breadfruit  or  bananas  fermented ;  mati, 
wilted  and  yellow,  of  leaves  of  tobacco  and  taro.       Nukuoro : 
mast,  bad-smelling.        Tonga:  mahi,  sour,  acid;  maji,  sour, 
decayed,  as  the  nut  when  kept  too  long.      Tahiti :  mahi,  bread- 
fruit fermented.      Mangareva :  cf.  mahimahi,  cooked  food  kept 
until  the  next  day  to  make  it  better. 
Viti :  masimasia,  the  breadfruit  in  a  certain  state. 
Malay:  masin,  salt.        Malagasy:  masimasina,  saltish. 
Arabic:  masi',  salt  (of  water). 
The  alternative  form  mutrei  I  have  (note  6)  carried  out  to  its  Viti  con- 
gener mandrai. 

This  form  mitei  we  may  adopt  as  related  to  the  Polynesian  masi,  as  set 
forth  above.  I  have  noted  the  Polynesian  mati  as  being  nearer  mitei 
in  form,  but  it  clearly  has  no  connection  in  sense.  Mati  carries  the  impli- 
cation of  being  unfit  to  eat,  and  no  Polynesian  would  think  so  ill  of  his  masi, 
even  though  the  odor  is  overpowering  to  Europeans  and  suggests  the  reflec- 
tion that  stale  would  be  but  a  weak  description.    I  am  not  quite  confident 


282  THE   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 

enough  of  the  Nukuoro  vocabulary  to  accept  bad-smelling  as  the  definition 
of  mast,  though  it  is  fact  none  the  less. 

There  is  no  physical  fact  in  the  fermentation  of  pounded  breadfruit  to 
enable  us  to  connect  it  with  the  Indonesian  and  Semitic  here  proposed.  The 
Malay  masin  finds  its  near  relative  in  Nuclear  Polynesian  masima  salt. 

233. 
sau,  gentle  breeze,  cold  air,  as  in  the  morning  and  evening. 

Tonga :  haua,  to  be  exposed  to  the  wind,  to  blow  to  and  fro.  Niue : 
hahau,  hauhau,  cool.  Maori:  hau,  wind,  to  be  borne  on  the 
wind :  hauhau,  cool.  Tahiti :  hahau,  to  go  aslant  or  beat  in, 
as  the  rain  driven  by  the  wind  into  a  house ;  haumoe,  the  cold 
night  breezes  of  the  valleys ;  mehau,  wind ;  puihauhau,  to  blow 
gently,  as  a  small  breeze;  haumaru,  cool,  grateful.  Hawaii: 
fea«x  the  name  of  the  land  breeze  that  blows  at  night,  any  cool 
breeze ;  hauhau,  cool ;  kehau,  the  mountain  breeze  in  the  morn- 
ing, a  cold  fine  rain  or  mist.  Marquesas :  tohau,  a  gentle  wind. 
Mangareva:  hau,   to  blow  gently.  Rapanui:  hou,  breeze; 

hahau,  hauhau,  air,  breeze ;  hakahahau,  to  expose  to  the  air. 

Viti:  thauthau,  the  land  breeze. 

Malay:  hawa,  wind. 

Hebrew :  nas'af,  to  blow ;  nes'ef,  the  evening  twilight  when  a  colder 
gale  blows,  the  morning  twilight. 

In  discussing  the  sau  stems  which  are  involved  in  this  and  the  next 
two  items  Mr.  Tregear  with  truth  remarks  that  it  is  difficult  to  seg- 
regate the  several  senses  under  proper  headings  since  the  significations  all 
pass  into  one  another.  The  only  contribution  toward  the  classification 
of  the  matter  which  I  can  offer  is  the  note  that  sau  dew  belongs  to  a  stem 
which  is  either  saut  or  saum  in  Proto-Samoan,  and  that  sau  to  cut  derives 
from  a  stem  in  sauf .  True,  this  will  not  avail  much  in  the  present  stage 
of  Polynesian  with  open  stems,  but  it  will  serve  as  a  safe  guide  so  far  as  it 
may  go  in  tracing  out  earlier  affinities.  The  sau  of  wind  and  temperature 
seems  to  be  from  a  primitive  sau. 

The  Semitic  identification  offered  is  distinctly  triliteral.  Even  were  we 
to  grant  that  the  Hebrew  /  might  become  Po^Tiesian  u  we  are  still  left  with 
an  initial  n  upon  our  hands  and  unaccounted  for. 

234- 
sau,  the  dew. 

Samoa :  sau,  the  dew ;  sasau,  heavy  dew ;  fa'asau,  to  bedew.  Fu- 
tuna :  sau,  the  dew ;  fakasau,  to  expose  to  dew.  Tonga :  hahau, 
dew,  mist;  haujia,  hauhau,  wet  with  dew.  Niue:  hahau,  dew; 
haumia,  bedewed.  Uvea:  hahau,  dew.  Maori:  hau,  haurutu, 
hauku,  haunui,  dew;  haumaku,  hautaku,  bedewed,  wet. 
Tahiti:  hau,  dew;  tahau,  to  bleach  clothes  in  the  dew  of  the 
morning ;  tiohau,  to  bleach  in  the  dew ;  toehaumi,  soft  or  damp 
as  by  dew.  Hawaii:  tew,  cold  dew.  Mangareva:  hau,  au, 
dew.      Rapanui,  Marquesas:  hau,  id.        Rarotonga:  au,  dew. 

Viti:  sasau,  dew. 

Malagasy :  andu,  dew. 

Arabic :  nada'  (for  nadau),  dew. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  283 

The  Proto-Samoan  saut  rests  upon  protected  forms  in  Samoa,  Tonga,  and 
Maori.  The  stem  saum  in  the  same  sense  is  preserved  in  Niue,  Tahiti, 
and  Maori.  I  can  find  no  evidence  of  the  interchange  of  t  and  m  except 
the  apparent  instance  in  217,  which,  as  there  shown,  is  susceptible  of  a  far 
simpler  explanation. 

The  Viti  sasau  is  a  dialect  form,  the  Bau  using  tengu  and  mbite,  but  with 
sau  appearing  in  Efat6  it  is  not  necessary  to  consider  sasau  a  recent  acqui- 
sition from  the  Tongan. 

The  Malagasy  and  Arabic  might  better  be  offered  as  homogenetic  with 
dew  itself  than  with  saum  and  saut. 

235- 
sau-f i,  to  scoop  or  shave  the  surface  off  water ;  to  cut  or  shave  off  the  sur- 
face of  wood ;  sau-  baba,  an  adze,  to  strip  off,  to  peel  off  (as  clothes) . 
Samoa:  sasau,  a  large  axe;  saupapa,  saupapa,  to  cut  off  the  outer 
part  of  a  log  of  wood  to  make  it  level  and  even ;  saufono,  to  cut 
planks  for  a  canoe ;  sautasi,  one^wide  plank  of  a  canoe.     Tonga : 
hahau,  to  adze,  to  chip  logs  of  wood  square.        Maori:  hau, 
hauhau,  hahau,  to  hew,  to  chop.       Tahiti:  hauhau,  to  take  off 
the  first  chips  in  hollowing  a  tree .      Hawaii :  hahmij  to  hew  stones . 
Viti:  sautha,  to  cut  (as  bamboos,  reeds),  to  break  a  coconut  for 

drinking  (by  cracking  off  a  piece  at  the  tip). 
Malagasy:  sauka,  saufina,  to  scoop  out  (of  water),  to  draw  water. 
Hebrew :  s'a'ab,  to  draw  water.      The  primary  idea  lies  in  the  raking 
off  the  surface,  sahaf,  to  sweep,  to  scrape  off,  hasaf,  to  strip  off. 
Arabic:  sahaf  a,  to  scrape,  peel  or  rub  off,  to  shave. 
My  recognition  of  a  Proto-Samoan  sauf  is  based  upon  the  Efate,  for  our 
Polynesian  is  scanty  and  affords  us  no  protected  forms  from  which  the  stem 
might  be  revealed.     I  recognize  that  this  stem  does  not  seem  to  apply  to 
the  Viti,  but  that  is  in  sense  a  doubtful  identification. 

The  first  of  Dr.  Macdonald's  definitions  of  sauf,  is  a  treasure;  it  surely 
was  first  drafted  by  one  of  the  Danaids  in  her  aquatic  employment.  The 
reason  for  its  presence  in  the  Efate  dictionary  will,  of  course,  be  found  in 
the  Semitic  suggestion.  The  true  signification  is  to  hew  with  the  adze, 
and  it  is  only  in  the  Maori  that  this  sense  is  not  made  to  appear  in  the 
definition.     This  stamps  the  Viti  identification  as  inconsistent. 

The  Malagasy  has  not  the  Polynesian  sense,  but  it  does  accord  with  the 
Efat£  scooping  of  water. 

236. 
tau-ngi,  to  grasp  firmly  with  the  hand,  to  pluck  off  with  the  hand  (as  fruit). 
Samoa:  tau,  to  pluck  fruit  with  the  hand;  tau,  to  press  out  (as 
juice),  to  milk.     Tonga :  tau,  to  squeeze  or  wring  out.     Futuna : 
tau,  ta-tau,  to  squeeze,  to  express.         Niue:  tau,  to  gather 
gardenias;  tatau,  to  wring,  to  strain,  to  press  out.        Uvea: 
tatau,  to  press;  taut,  to  pluck.        Maori:  tatau,  to  squeeze,  to 
express  juice.       Fotuna :  ko-tauia,  to  wring,  to  express. 
Viti :  taura,  to  take  hold  of. 

Malay:  sambut,  to  lay  hold  of.        Malagasy:  sambutra,  id. 
Hebrew :  sabat,  to  grasp,  to  lay  hold  of  firmly,  to  seize,  to  pluck. 
Arabic:  s'abata,  s/abat'a,  id. 


284  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

It  is  impossible  to  see  how  the  Indonesian  and  the  Semitic,  though  there 
is  a  superficial  resemblance  between  them,  can  have  anything  to  do  with 
the  Efat6  and  Polynesian  of  this  item. 

237- 
tula,  earwax. 

Maori,  Tahiti :  taturi,  earwax.       Mangareva :  teturi,  id.      Paumotu : 
katuri,  id.      Hawaii:  kokuli,  id.       Fotuna :  turituri,  id.      Mar- 
quesas: tetui,  id. 
Viti:  tule,  ndule,  earwax. 
Baki:  tiro,  earwax.        Mota:  tul,  id. 

Malay :  chulik,  to  clear  the  ears  of  wax.       Bicol :  tuli,  earwax. 
Arabic:  salah,  deafness. 

Because  of  the  fact  that  the  island  diagnosticians  regard  cerumen  as 
the  sole  cause  of  deafness  and  in  their  practice  of  medicine  not  infrequently 
produce  deafness  by  their  exploratory  excavation  of  the  ear,  and  because 
of  the  intimate  association  of  this  stem  with  the  most  common  word  for 
deafness,  I  include  the  latter  for  the  extension  of  this  record. 

Samoa:  tuli,  talingatuli,  deaf.  Tonga:  tuli,  id.  Futuna:  tuli- 
tuli,  id.  Uvea:  tuli,  id.  Niue:  talingatuli,  id.  Hawaii: 
kuli,  id.  Tahiti:  turi,  taturi,  id.  Maori :  turi,  id.  Marquesas: 
tui,  to  disobey,  to  turn  a  deaf  ear;  hadtetui,  to  turn  a  deaf  ear; 
putui,  deaf,  disobedient  ;hadputui,  toturnadeaf  ear.  Rarotonga : 
turi,  deaf.  Mangareva:  turi,  noise.  Paumotu:  taringaturi, 
disobedient.  Fotuna:  eturitura,  deaf.  Nuguria:  tarina- 
turi,  id. 

Viti:  ndalingatule,  deaf. 

Motu :  tuia,  to  quiet. 

Malay :  tuli,  deaf.        Matu :  turang,  id. 

From  this  it  apppears  that  in  the  very  center  of  Nuclear  Polynesia  tuli 
means  deaf,  yet  that  the  sense  is  more  precisely  conveyed  by  joining  with 
it  the  organ  affected,  talinga  being,  of  course,  the  outer  ear,  which  is  as  far 
as  their  knowledge  of  aural  anatomy  goes.  This  composite  is  the  only 
means  of  recording  deafness  in  Niue,  which  has  not  retained  the  tuli-stem 
in  independent  existence.  It  is  the  only  means  in  Polynesian  Viti  (for  it 
has  a  Melanesian  term,  ndindivara),  which  retains  tule  (ndule)  for  the  ceru- 
men. In  Samoa  both  talingatuli  and  tuli  exist  side  by  side  in  the  same 
sense.  In  the  remotest  Polynesia  of  all,  the  Paumotu,  an  archipelago  of 
linguistic  problem,  the  word  exists  in  a  tropical  sense  only.  But  the  rest 
of  Polynesia  expresses  its  deafness  satisfactorily  by  tuli,  and  we  find  the 
word  in  Indonesia  and  possibly  in  Motu. 

Now  if  we  regard  the  employment  of  tuli  for  cerumen  we  shall  note  that 
such  use  extends  from  Indonesia  into  Viti.  Of  Nuclear  Polynesia  we  can 
not  speak  with  greater  precision  than  to  say  that  all  our  dictionaries  have 
omitted  this  sense  in  defining  tuli;  at  the  same  time  they  have  neglected 
to  define  cerumen  at  all.  But  in  all  eastward  Polynesia,  the  lands  of  the 
Tongafiti  swarm,  it  is  necessary  to  reinforce  tuli  with  another  element  in 
differentiation  from  the  sense  of  deafness.  This  element  stems  the  same 
throughout  this  second  migration,  subject  to  the  normal  variation.     It  is  ta 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  285 

in  Maori  and  Tahiti,  ka  in  the  Paumotu,  ko  in  Hawaii,  te  in  Mangareva  and 
the  Marquesas.  That  it  was  brought  by  this  migration  from  its  western 
home  is  shown  by  this  uniformity,  and  it  is  in  use  wherever  that  migra- 
tion has  reached.  It  is  so  ancient  that  no  trace  of  its  original  significance 
can  now  be  discovered. 

By  combining  these  two  records  we  find : 

(i)  The  Proto-Samoans  used  tuli  to  mean  the  visible  physical  obstruction 
of  the  ear,  and  to  convey  the  sense  of  deafness  they  employed  a  locution 
signifying  waxed-ear. 

(2)  The  Tongafiti  when  their  migration  swarmed  had  reached  a  stage 
in  which  tuli  had  lost  its  primal  sense,  was  altogether  used  of  deafness,  and 
to  convey  the  cerumen  meaning  a  compound  was  necessary. 

(3)  Nuclear  Polynesia,  being  a  meeting-ground  of  the  two  migrations, 
shows  the  record  of  the  earlier  overlaid  by  the  later. 

The  use  in  Fotuna  of  the  tftt/i-cerumen  and  iw/t-deaf  is  one  of  the  inter- 
esting pieces  of  evidence  to  show  that  the  squadron  which  settled  that  verge 
island  had  been  in  the  area  where  the  Proto-Samoan  and  Tongafiti  swarms 
had  been  in  conjunction,  and  that  the  period  of  its  voyage  must  have  been 
subsequent  to  the  coming  of  the  Tongafiti  fleets  to  Nuclear  Polynesia. 

'  uta  i,  uta  jkji  to  load  (to  make  sink,  to  immerse)  a  canoe ;  uta,  a  canoe  load, 
"■*  a  cargo. 
Samoa:  uta,  the  cargo,  the  load  of  a  boat,  ship  or  canoe.  Tonga: 
uta,  the  cargo  or  freight  of  a  vessel.  Uvea :  uuta,  to  fill  up. 
Futuna:  uta,  cargo,  lading.  Maori:  uta,  to  put  on  board  a 
canoe,  to  freight,  to  load ;  utanga,  cargo,  lading.  Mangareva : 
uta,  to  carry  by  sea  to  land  or  by  sea  to  another  country;  utanga, 
a  big  loading  "or  freight.  Marquesas:  uta,  to  carry,  to 
transport;   utatina,  utaia,  cargo.  Paumotu:   utanga,  bag- 

gage,   burden,    freight,    the   lading  of   a    ship.         Rapanui: 
hakauta,  to  give  passage.       Tahiti :  utaa,  the  burden  or  load  of 
vessel.       Hawaii :  ukana,  baggage  on  or  to  be  put  on  a  canoe 
or  vessel;  hoouka,  to  freight,  to  put  aboard  a  canoe.      Fotuna: 
aula,  cargo;  fakaute,  to  load. 
Viti :  usana,  usa,  to  convey  a  cargo ;  usana,  usausa,  a  cargo. 
Tanna:  (t)auuta,  to  load;  nauuta,  cargo, 
Malagasy:  undrana,  to  load  a  canoe. 
Arabic:  "ata  ("a'tu),  to  immerse. 
There  is  no  evidence  to  show  that  this  is  other  than  an  open  stem,  yet 
Dr.  Macdonald  joins  it  with  utu  (168),  of  which  the  stem  is  demonstrably 
utuf,  and  derives  both  from  a  Semitic  parent  of  an  Arabic  word  meaning  to 
immerse.     In  clinching  the  identification  he  so  defines  this  uta  as  to  lose 
all  sight  of  common  sense.    The  one  aim  of  the  Ffate"  stevedore  and  of 
the  lumpers  aboard  the  greatest  cargo  tramp  that  ever  steamed  away  from 
the  Broomielaw  is  so  to  stow  the  lading  of  his  canoe,  of  their  whaleback, 
as  to  preclude  all  risk  that  he  shall  "make  it  to  sink  or  immerse."     Does 
not  the  man  know  that  in  the  days  when  shipmen  had  the  piety  that  fears 
the  sea  all  ships'  papers,  after  reciting  the  cargo,  wound  up  with  the  prayer, 
at  least  the  formula, '  'and  so  may  God  send  the  good  ship  safe  deliverance"  ? 


286  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

"To  load,  "he  says,  "to  make  sink,  to  immerse,"  and  all  because  the  Arabians 
of  the  nights  use  for  immerse  a  word  which  he  thinks  to  look  like  uta. 

The  word,  belonging  to  both  migration  swarms,  is  practically  one  from 
Melanesia  to  the  Paumotu,  both  in  form  and  in  sense.  Very  little,  there- 
fore, calls  for  comment.  In  the  Marquesas  utatina  involves  the  termination 
Una  peculiar  to  that  language,  but  which  has  the  same  function  as  the 
common  nga^r_jia_wherewith  nouns  arelormed  from"  verbs.  Our  Uvea 
dictionary  is  very  jejune,  but  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  uuta  has  the  char- 
acteristic cargo  sense.  In  Viti  we  encounter  the  t-s  mutation,  which  is  by 
no  means  unusual  in  that  speech  and  will  be  found  elsewhere  in  Melanesia. 
The  Malagasy  has  the  usual  distortion  of  the  resemblance  of  the  words  in 
that  language  which  stem  upon  the  Polynesian. 

EFATE-MELANESIAN-POLYNESIAN-MALAY-SEMITIC. 

239- 
asua,  to  smoke. 

Samoa:  asu,  smoke.  Nuguria:  ohu,  thin  smoke;  au,  thick  smoke. 
Nukuoro:  asu,  smoke.  Rotuma:  aasu,  osu,  id.  Tonga, 
Niue,  Uvea:  jihu,  id.  Futuna:  afu,  id.  Maori:  au,  qughd*. id. 
Tahiti:  au,  smoke,  vapor;  au  auahi,  smoke;  auahi,  fire.  Ma- 
ngareva:  aw, cloudy  mist  on  the  ocean;  ahu,  mist,  cloud ;  auahi, 
smoke.  Marquesas:  auahi,  smoke,  vapor.  Rapanui:  au, 
auahi,  steam,  vapor.  Hawaii:  uahi,  a  cloud,  a  vaporous 
appearance.  Rarotonga:  auai,  smokeT 
Moanus:  kdsu,  kdsumoan  (moan,  fire),  smoke.  Sariba,  Panaieti, 
Mukawa :  kasu,  id.  Awalama :  bogahu,  id.  Malekula  Aulua : 
basua,   id.  Galavi:  basu,   id.  Taupota:  bahubahu,  id. 

Wedau,  Boniki :  bau,  id.     Motu :  qalahu,  id.     Nifilole :  nggasi, id. 
Ulawa,  Bululaha :  .$■  asu,  id.      Alite:  rasu,  id.      Malo,  Tangoan 
Santo,  Maewo,  Merlav,  Gog,  Mota,  Wango,  Fagani,  Suau,  Dobu: 
asu,  id.     Sesake:  asua,  id.     Savo:  azuazu,  id.     Mosin:  as,  id. 
Mafoor  (New  Guinea) :  aas,  id.      Malekula  Pangkumu:  ese,  id. 
Ambrym :  ivalehi,  id.      Vuras:  es,  id.      Sasar,  Alo  Teqel,  Pak : 
os,  id.      Santo:  osun,  id.      Nggao:  ngganggahu,  id.      Bugotu, 
Nggela,  Omba :  ahu,  id .     Motlav,  Volow,  Arag :  aho,  id.    Lakon : 
ahauav,  id.     Lo:  hiev,  id.     Roro:  hiavu,  id.     Norbarbar:  ah, 
suio,\A.      Buka:  uruhu,  orru,  id.       Nada,  Murua:  museu,  id. 
Kiriwina:  umseu,  id. 
Malay:  asap,  smoke.       Malagasy:  etuna,  id. 
Hebrew:  'as' en,  'as' an,  to  smoke.         Arabic:  'at' ana,  id. 
As  between  the  two  migrations  we  observe  that  the  Tongafiti  has  under- 
gone a  loss  of  the  consonant  element.     Our  Melanesian  homogenetic  forms 
are  numerous  and  widely  placed;  we  shall  have  to  examine  several  con- 
siderable changes,  but  in  not  a  single  instance  do  we  find  this  central  con- 
sonant obliterated. 

When  we  look  more  closely  into  the  Tongafiti  languages  we  shall  see  that 
au  has  not  only  lost  the  radical  s;  it  has  scarcely  succeeded  in  retaining  the 
recollection  of  its  own  meaning.  Mangareva  is  the  only  Tongafiti  speech 
which  recalls  the  consonant,  in  ahu,  and  this  is  paralleled  by  au;  and  both 
have  gone  so  far  away  from  the  brands  of  the  fire  as  to  mean  no  more  than 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  287 

any  vapor.  Maori  and  Tahiti  are  the  only  languages  in  which  an  means 
smoke;  in  each  it  means  vapor  in  general,  each  employs  more  freely  a 
definitive  compound,  and  Maori  has  several  other  words  for  smoke.  Hav- 
ing expanded  in  signification  to  mean  vapor  in  general,  the  only  way  in 
which  it  was  possible  to  make  it  plain  when  smoke  alone  was  meant  by  au 
was  to  make  the  definitive  compound  fire-vapor  auahi.  This  we  find  in 
Maori,  in  Mangareva,  in  Rarotonga  to  mean  smoke.  In  the  Marquesas  this 
too  means  vapor  as  well.  By  an  odd  mischance  in  Tahiti  auahi  passed 
from  the  smoke  to  the  fire  itself,  and  to  designate  smoke  it  became  neces- 
sary to  cry  back  once  more  to  au  and  devise  au  auahi.  We  have  seen  that 
in  the  Marquesas  auahi  means  vapor  as  well.  Passing  thence  to  Hawaii 
we  find  that  auahi  has  lost  even  the  memory  of  the  fire  and  it  has  broken 
down  in  form  to  uahi,  used  of  any  vapor.  Judge  Andrews,  ignorant  of  the 
life  history  of  the  word,  etymologizes  this — no  other  description  so  fits — 
as  u  ooze  or  milk,  and  ahi  fire ;  unfortunately  the  author  of  the  very  respect- 
able Hawaiian  dictionary  was  no  philologist.  It  is  proper  to  note  that  in 
Emerson's  English- Hawaiian  dictionary  (1845)  smoke  is  defined  as  uahi. 

In  Nuclear  Polynesia  asu  carries  the  vapor  idea  as  well.  Samoa  differ- 
entiates by  the  use  of  the  primitive  for  smoke  and  the  conduplicate  asuasu 
for  haze  and  mist ;  as  is  commonly  the  sense  of  conduplication  forms,  it  is 
intensive.  Futuna  employs  a}u  for  both.  In  this  area  no  matter  of  form 
change  need  engage  our  attention  except  this  of  Futuna.  It  is  a  particu- 
larly interesting  case,  one  with  a  story  to  tell. 

We  have  in  the  material  here  assembled  no  record  of  an  s-f  mutation; 
in  my  more  extended  studies  in  Polynesia  I  have  encountered  no  other 
instance  and  but  two  which  are  at  all  near  it.  We  know  that  the  Samoan 
has  the  primal  form  asu.  The  normal  mutation  is  to  h,  and  thus  we  have 
ahu  in  Tonga,  Niue,  and  Uvea.  But  Futuna  has  no  aspiration  and  it  does 
possess  the  sibilant.  Now  if  Samoan  users  of  the  word  had  carried  it  to 
Futuna,  Uvea  would  have  learned  to  say  asu.  From  the  Futuna  afu  we 
see  that  the  word  came  to  them  in  the  ahu  form.  Our  charts  will  show 
us  that  of  the  three  languages  which  use  ahu  Uvea  lies  almost  within  sound. 
But  Uvea  uses  both  j  and  h.  If  asu  had  come  to  Uvea  from  Samoa  asu 
it  would  have  remained ;  that  it  is  ahu  shows  that  it  came  to  Uvea  from 
some  language  in  which  ahu  was  the  form,  and,  having  the  aspirate,  Uvea 
was  under  no  compulsion  to  change  the  form  which  it  received.  But 
Futuna  had  to  provide  some  way  of  dealing  with  the  inconvenient  or  dis- 
agreeable h.  In  Polynesia  h  is  a  mutation  result  from  s  and  from  /.  For 
some  reason  Futuna  felt  the  impulse  to  work  back  from  h  to  /  instead  of 
to  s,  which  was  all  wrong,  but,  like  all  error,  the  more  picturesque  it  is  the 
better  does  it  teach.  Now  the  line  is  sharply  drawn  between  the  s-h  and 
the  f-h  mutations ;  s-h  is  general  in  Polynesia ;  f-h  occurs  only  between  the 
Proto-Samoan  and  certain  of  the  Tongafiti  tongues.  If,  then,  Futuna  inter- 
prets the  h  which  is  brought  to  it  in  terms  of  /  it  can  only  be  that  the  Futuna 
folk  have  the  Tongafiti  Sprachgeist,  in  other  words  that  they  are  a  Tongafiti 
folk  left  behind  on  their  exiguous  two  islands  when  the  swarm  of  their 
fellows  swept  along  to  distant  discovery.  At  the  beginning  of  this  excursus 
I  mentioned  two  instances  of  a  near  mutation.  They  involve  Samoan  salo 
to  rasp  (Tonga-Niue  halu)Viti  varo, Samoan  sele  to  snare  Tonga heleViti  veie. 


288  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

We  have  already  seen  that  the  Tongafiti  folk  have  found  it  necessary 
to  particularize  smoke  as  fire-vapor.  The  same  usage  is  found,  though  far 
less  commonly,  in  Melanesia.  We  have  in  Moanus  kasumoan,  in  which 
moan  is  fire  although  by  no  means  of  our  afet-fire  stem ;  Lakon  ahau  av  and 
Lo  hiev  are  clearly  homogenetic  with  auahi;  but  these  are  all. 

The  stem  asu  we  find  intact  in  a  considerable  group  of  languages  in  the 
New  Hebrides  and  two  in  the  southern  Solomons.  This  stem  is  altered  by 
frontal  accretion  of  three  palatals  in  Moanus,  Nifilole,  and  Nggao,  severally 
too  remote  to  be  regarded  as  local  interinfluence ;  of  two  linguals  in  Ulawa- 
Bululaha  and  Alite,  which  only  once  more  in  all  our  material,  sa  (337)  bad 
Tanna  ra,  are  found  interchanging;  of  one  labial.  I  note  Codrington's 
opinion  that  "Nggao  ngganggahu  is  the  Mota  gagavu  thick,  clouded."  But 
is  it  ?  Moanus  kasu  is  nearer  phonologically  and  far  nearer  in  the  migration 
track,  for  a  derivation  from  Mota  to  the  Solomons  is  an  upstream  movement 
and  against  the  current.  I  do  not  incline  to  regard  this  frontal  accretion 
as  a  Melanesian  device;  it  seems  more  reasonable  to  look  upon  it  as  the 
remnant  of  an  earlier  stem  form,  but  what  that  earlier  and  now  vanished 
radical  initial  may  have  been  we  may  not  seek  to  know. 

Savo  shows  asu  with  the  slight  change  from  surd  to  sonant.  Two  lan- 
guages in  the  Solomons  and  one  in  the  New  Hebrides  have  asu  with  equally 
slight  change  from  sibilant  to  aspirate.  Motlav,  Volow  and  Arag,  all  in 
the  New  Hebrides,  carry  the  change  a  small  step  farther  by  the  alteration 
of  the  final  vowel.  A  step  beyond  in  the  change  of  the  final  vowel  brings 
us  to  Lakon.  Efate'  and  Sesake  have  the  asu  stem  unchanged  save  for  the 
terminal  accretion  of  the  vowel  a. 

Thus  far  we  have  kept  close  to  the  primal  form.  Now,  while  holding 
fast  to  the  s,  we  are  to  find  a  greater  vowel  change  in  Malekula  Pangkumu 
ese  and  one  which  sacrifices  the  differentiation  of  the  two  vowels  which  has 
hitherto  been  found  to  persist.  To  this  branch  of  the  stem  belongs  the 
Vuras  es.  With  it  I  have  included  Ambrym  walehi  provisionally;  the  ehi 
can  not  be  a  mutant  of  afi  fire,  for  that  is  av  in  Ambrym ;  I  have  thought 
it  possible  that  ehi  is  a  further  mutant  upon  ese,  and  vial  is  as  yet  unac- 
countable. Santo  osun  with  a  terminal  accretion  introduces  the  o-branch 
which  will  be  noticed  in  Rotuma  as  well  and  in  three  of  the  Vanua  Lava 
languages  with  terminal  abrasion.  Norbarbar  shows  in  one  of  its  forms  a 
terminal  abrasion  deriving  from  either  ahu  or  oho,  but  probably  the  former. 
Lo  suggests  in  hi  a  frontal  abrasion,  and  that  principle  may  also  account 
for  a  part  of  the  second  Norbarbar  form  suio.  One  Buka  form,  uruhu,  quite 
plainly  suggests  in  uhu  another  vowel  change  of  asu,  leaving  ur  unaccount- 
able yet  somewhat  smacking  of  wal  in  Ambrym  walehi,  or  perhaps  in  these 
words  ruhu  and  lehi  are  akin  to  Alite  rasu;  the  second  Buka  form  is  mani- 
festly a  devolution  form  from  the  former. 

In  the  Malay  asap  we  recur  to  the  definitive  compound  of  the  Tongafiti, 
as-ap,  in  which  the  latter  component  is  again  afi  fire.  The  Malagasy  seems 
like  an  asu  derivative. 

In  the  Semitic  there  is  seen  the  initial  palatal  which  appears  here  in 
Melanesian,  the  former  vowel  is  the  same,  the  s  is  present,  and  the  final  n 
is  found  once  at  least  in  Melanesia.  So  far  as  this  one  stem  is  concerned 
the  resemblance  is  striking. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  289 

240. 

aue,  interjection  of  surprise,  commiseration. 

Samoa:  awe,  alas,  oh  (wonder).        Niue:  aue,  alas.        Maori:  aue, 

alas  (surprise).      Hawaii:  aue,  auwe,  alas.       Mangareva:  aue, 

alas  (surprise  and  grief) .    Tahiti,  Rarotonga,  Paumotu :  aue,  aks. 

Tongarewa:  awai, id.      Tonga:  oiaue.alas.      Aniwa:  kawe, alas. 

Futuna:  uei,  alas  (indignation,  surprise).       Marquesas:  aue,  ue 

(surprise).     Fo tuna :  aw6,  alas.     Rapanui:  aue,  aueue,  ue,  alas. 
Aneityum:  awe,   auwe,  iyauwe,  alas.         Nguna:  ai,  id.         Mota: 

awa,  id.         Eromanga:  uwe,  id.        Tanna  Weasisi:  awS,  id. 

Bierian,  Baki:  awa,  id. 
Malay:  ahi,  ayi,  ayue,  alas. 
Arabic:  awwi,  alas. 

It  is  a  sure  identification  from  the  Paumotu  through  all  Polynesia, 
through  all  Melanesia,  through  all  Indonesia,  and  to  the  Semitic  if  one  so 
will.  And  to  the  cow,  if  one  so  will,  for  I  have  caught  it  in  the  calf-call  of 
lowing  kine.  And  why  should  it  not  be  identifiable,  for  the  word  lacks 
all  the  elements  of  strength  which  part  the  word  from  the  cry?  There  is 
not  a  consonant  anywhere  in  it,  for  the  w  is  no  more  than  a  matter  of  tran- 
scription ;  it  might  just  as  well  be  u.  Only  in  Aniwa  do  we  find  a  consonant, 
the  deepest  palatal  and  initial  at  that.  To  me  it  seems  no  more  present 
than  is  the  initial  m  in  the  moo  of  cattle,  a  mere  appulse. 

What  is  this  cry  which  our  primitive  islanders  share  with  the  animals? 
Look  at  its  elements,  all  full-throated.  First  we  have  a,  the  sound  of 
mouth  open,  fauces  open,  lungs  full  of  air.  As  air  expires  the  sound  recedes 
in  the  mouth  toward  the  palate  and  we  find  the  u.  Last  comes  the  con- 
scious finish  of  the  utterance,  the  muscles  begin  to  retract,  the  sound-mak- 
ing point  is  forced  forward  and  the  sound  is  e.  If  the  man  had  but  a  few 
more  cubic  centimeters  of  lung  capacity  he  could  attain  cow  volume  for 
his  cry,  or  interjection,  since  it  amounts  to  the  same  thing. 

241. 

bwala,  bwela,  bwola,  to  incline  to,  to  be  close  to,  to  be  stuck. 

Samoa :  pili,  to  be  near,  to  approach,  to  be  caught,  entangled.  Niue : 
pili,  to  stick  together.  Hawaii :  pili,  near,  close,  to  stick 
together.  Maori:  piri,  to  stick;  pipiri,  to  be  close  together. 
Tahiti:  piri,  to  be  squeezed  or  confined  close.  Rarotonga: 
piri,  to  stick  together;  akapiripiri,  to  get  near.  Mangareva: 
piri,  to  stick  together;  akapiri,  to  patch,  to  glue.  Paumotu: 
piripiri,  glue ;  f akapiri,  to  adhere.  Rapanui :  piri  iho,  to  devote 
oneself  to;  pipiri,  glue,  gum,  sticky;  hakapiri,  to  join  to. 
Marquesas:  pii,  to  be  joined  together,  to  stick. 

Motu:  hebirihebiri,  to  sit  or  stand  close  together,  as  trees  standing 
close  together;  hebirimatemate,  to  be  squeezed,  crowded.  Mota : 
kpwir,  to  be  close  together;  vakpwirkpwir,  to  crowd  together. 
Aneityum:  bili,  promiscuously. 

Malay:  ampiri,  to  bring  near  to;  ambir,  near,  nigh. 

Arabic :  mala,  mayl',  to  incline,  bend,  or  lean  to,  to  be  close  or  near. 


290  THE   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 

The  identifications  here  in  Polynesia,  Melanesia,  and  Indonesia  are  closer 
than  the  Efate,  yet  that  is  not  so  far  away  as  to  be  excluded.  It  will  be 
noticed  that  the  places  in  which  these  Melanesian  identifications  appear — 
Motu,  Mota,  New  Hebrides — are  those  which  go  to  establish  the  Viti  track 
which  I  have  proposed  as  one  of  the  migration  courses. 

In  the  Malay  words  the  pili  stem  is  recognizable  in  company  with  a 
formative  element.     The  m  is  manifestly  not  associable  with  piri-bir. 

It  must  be  upon  these  Malay  words  as  transition  forms  that  our  author 
relies  in  passing  to  his  Arabic.     This  lacks  permissibility. 

242. 
bwinu,  bwin,  bSnge,  to  whistle. 

Samoa :  vivini,  to  crow.         Futuna :  vini,  vinivini,  to  utter  a  cry  of 

alarm,  of  distress  or  of  joy.     Mangareva :  vinivini,  a  soft  sound, 

musical,  music.         Paumotu:  vinivini,  the  cry  of  a  baby,  to 

chirp,  to  warble ;  hakavinivini,  to  whistle,  to  hiss  at. 

Malekula   Pangkumu  and  Uripiv:  puinpuin,   win-win,   to  whistle. 

Ambrym:  mo  fin,  id. 
Malagasy:  enu,  nenu,  manenn,  to  sound,  to  crow,  to  ring,  to  sing. 
Arabic:  ma' mm,   a   singer;  "aniya,    to   sing,    to   coo;  "ina,    song. 
Hebrew :  'anak,  to  sing. 
As  to  the  homology  of  v-bm-pu  see  note  84  dealing  with  Efate  bu.     The 
dialectic  form  bbnge  does  not  seem  such  that  we  may  include  it. 

The  word  is  singularly  rare  in  its  distribution.  The  Malagasy  can  not 
properly  be  included  in  the  identification,  and  the  Semitic  with  its  deepest 
guttural  for  an  initial  is  far  remote  from  the  island  stem. 

.  243- 

bir  1,  to  plait  a  string  or  rope. 

Samoa,  Futuna,  Niue :  fili,  to  plait,  to  braid,  to  twist.     Tahiti :  firi, id. 

Maori:  whiri,  id.         Mangareva:  fan,  id.         Hawaii:  hili,  id. 

Mangaia:  iri,  id.         Tonga:  fi,_, id.         Marquesas :  fit,  to  twist. 

Solomon  Islands:  fili,  a  rope.         Motu:  Mia,  to  twist  round  and 

round.         Mota :  vir,  to  twist,  to  wring,  to  squeeze  with  a  twist, 

to  plait. 

Malay:  pintal,  to  twist.         Beu:  pilin,  id.         Batavia:  bilan,  id. 

Arabic:  fatala,  jail' ,  to  twist,  to  spin.         Ethiopic:  fatlat,  id. 

In  the  Tongan  fi  here  included  because  of  identity  of  signification  we 

encounter  a  form  anomalous  in  the  vanishing  of  the  second  of  the  stem 

syllables.     In  fisi  (223)  it  will  be  observed  that  a  similar  loss  is  observed  in 

Futuna,  Niue,  Viti,  and  the  Tongafiti  identifications.     If  in  this  light  we 

examine  the  Mota  identification  of  that  group,  vivi,  vivis,  it  may  be  proper 

to  separate  them,  vivis  to  go  with  the  fisi  stem,  and  viv to-gp  (as  abraded 

vivi)  with  a  fi  stem.     To  that  would  also  belong  the  Efate  fif  i  and  probably 

the  Samoan. 

The  remaining  identifications  are  satisfactory,  excluding  Malay  pintal, 

until  we  reach  the  Semitic.     This  involves  the  triliteral  ftl.     To  link  this 

with  the  fili  stem  requires  that  we  account  for  the  loss  of  t  without  having 

left  a  transition  form  anywhere  along  the  line,  all  the  more  difficult  to 

account  for  since,  being  centrally  situated,  it  is  protected  from  the  common 

casualties. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  291 

244. 

boro-aki,  bfro-aki,  bero-aki,  baro-aki,  to  bequeath  to  or  order  to  do  (by 
will  when  dying),  to  commission  (one  to  do  something),  to  give 
orders  to. 

Samoa:  poloa'i,  to  send  a  message  to,  to  command  a  person  at  a 
distance,  to  leave  commands,  as  when  going  a  journey  or  dying. 
Futuna :  poloaki,  to  order,  to  command,  to  bid  farewell.  (Niue : 
poaki,  puaki,  to  command.  Tonga :  boboaki,  to  send  a  message.) 
Hawaii :  poloai,  to  send  orders  for  one  to  come.  Maori :  poroaki, 
to  leave  instructions  when  departing,  to  take  leave.  Ma- 
ngareva :  poroaki,  to  command,  to  order.  Marquesas :  poodi, 
poohaki,  to  command,  to  entreat.  Tahiti :  poroi,  a  direction 
given,  a  charge,  to  take  leave.         Mangaia:  poro,  last  words. 

Matupit :  bor,  to  shout  at,  to  scold  harshly. 

Malay:  pasan,  to  commission,  to  enjoin.  Malagasy:  hafatra,  a  will 
or  testament,  order. 

Arabic:  wasa',  to  bequeath  by  will,  to  command,  to  enjoin. 

The  stem  is  polo. 

This  is  seen  in  a  radical  signification  in  Mangaia,  the  only  case  in  which 
the  noun  has  been  preserved.  This  sense  of  the  last  words,  or,  in  the  verb, 
to  impart  dying  injunctions,  has  as  much  importance  to  the  Polynesians  as 
police  attach  to  ante-mortem  statements,  a  fetish  in  the  performance  of 
their  peculiar  functions.  He  dies  well  in  the  Pacific  who,  upon  fine  mats 
and  with  the  members  of  his  family  seated  gravely  about  him,  can  divide 
among  his  kin  not  his  possessions,  for  those  are  largely  communal,  but  the 
functions  in  life  upon  the  successful  performance  of  which  he  can  look  back 
with  pleased  gratification. 

This  is  so  concrete  an  act  that  I  incline  to  the  belief  that  it  is  the  gravely 
underlying  sense  of  the  word.  It  is  found  as  noun  in  Mangaia,  as  verb  in 
Samoa,  where,  however,  the  particular  sense  is  in  modern  usage  more  defi- 
nitely expressed  in  fa' amavaenga  or  parting  words.  A  secondary  sense,  as 
the  word  broke  down,  was  to  cover  the  farewell  of  any  parting;  this  in 
Samoa,  Futuna,  Maori  and  Tahiti.  Next,  with  the  idea  still  persisting  of 
the  inexorability  of  the  death-bed  injunction,  the  word  weakens  still  further 
into  the  sense  of  a  command ;  this  in  Futuna,  Mangareva,  Tahiti  and  the 
Marquesas,  and,  disregarding  now  the  form  anomaly,  in  Tonga  and  Niue. 
All  these  languages  have  other  words  meaning  to  command.  That  this 
command  differs  from  other  orders  is  felt  in  all  these  tongues;  it  is  defi- 
nitely expressed  in  Samoa  "to  command  a  person  at  a  distance"  and  the 
tantamount  Hawaiian. 

Except  for  Ffate'  we  do  not  find  the  stem  in  Melanesia.  I  have  included 
the  Matupit  form  from  New  Britain  because  of  its  form  resemblance;  the 
sense  is  so  far  awry  as  to  make  the  identification  quite  doubtful. 

In  Efate  and  Polynesia,  excepting  Tahiti  and  Mangaia,  we  find  that  the 
word  has  spread  in  its  most  highly  finished  form.  In  general  the  Polyne- 
sian verbs  in  -aki  impress  me  as  a  most  modern  development.  The  diffu- 
sion of  this  one  shows  that  it  must  have  existed  in  this  form  at  the  time  of 
the  expulsion  of  the  Tongafiti  swarm  from  Samoa.     The  form  in  Niue  and 


292  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Tonga  is  anomalous ;  we  do  not  often  find  the  excision  in  Polynesian  of  a 
whole  root  syllable ;  yet  the  sense  and  the  identity  of  the  remnant  seem  to 
prove  these  forms  of  the  polo  stem. 

Backward  of  Efat£,  save  the  Matupit  resemblance,  I  recognize  no  identi- 
fication. 

245. 
bwosi,  to  twist  (a  rope). 

Samoa:  fusi,  a  belt,  a  girdle,  to  tie,  to  bind,  to  gird,  to  clasp,  to 
embrace.  Tonga:  fuhi,  to  fasten  on.  Niue:  fuhi,  a  bunch, 
to  tie  together.  Uvea:  fihu,  to  tie.  Hawaii:  hm,  a  bunch, 
a  cluster.  Mangareva :  hunui,  a  tied-up  bundle  of  fruit,  a 
cluster,  a  bunch. 

Viti:  vusi,  to  suspend  by  a  loop,  to  fasten,  to  tie  up. 

Nengone:  wose,  to  bind;  nawose,  a  band. 

Malay:  pusing,  to  twist,  to  turn  round. 

Arabic :  'afasa,  to  twist. 

Because  Dr.  Macdonaldhas  identified  bwosi  with  fusi  I  have  here  expanded 
the  ramifications  of  that  stem,  the  more  particularly  as  it  has  Melanesian 
affiliations.  Yet  I  do  not  by  any  means  accept  the  initial  identification. 
Principally  from  the  sense  I  regard  bwosi  as  homogenetic  with  fisi  (223) ; 
and  the  form  variety  is  no  more  than  we  find  in  other  Efat£  identifications 
which  we  are  quite  ready  to  accept  as  valid. 

Of  Polynesian  fusi  we  are  to  note  that  it  is  wholly  Nuclear  Polynesian, 
the  Uvea  variant  being  readily  resolvable  as  metathetic  of  the  1432  type. 
This  fusi  we  find  in  Viti,  Nengone,  and  Malay.  The  Arabic  is  a  triliteral, 
'fs,  and  we  can  not  account  for  the  sacrifice  of  the  initial. 

The  Hawaiian  and  Mangareva  forms  I  have  expressly  included  in  order 
that  I  might  clarify  a  Niue  peculiarity.  They  are  not  of  the  fusi  stem; 
their  stem  is  fui,  so  found  in  Samoa  and  in  the  Polynesian  of  each  migration 
swarm.  Niue  fuhi  is  of  the  fusi  stem  in  the  sense  of  tying;  to  the  cluster 
(fui)  sense  it  has  assigned  the  fusi  stem.  This  I  can  not  regard  as  a  transi- 
tion form  between  the  two  stems,  for  neither  s  nor  h  undergoes  extinction 
in  passing  from  Samoa  to  Niue.  I  take  it  as  simply  a  Niue  blunder.  That 
such  blunders  may  happen  I  have  already  made  sufficiently  clear  in  Futuna 
afu  (239). 

Dr.  Macdonald  equally  identifies  the  Malay  pusing  with  fisi  (223). 

246. 
buma,  funga,  to  flower,  to  blossom. 

Samoa:  funga,  a  flower,  a  blossom.        Nukuoro:  hunga,  a  flower. 
Sesake :  vunga,  a  blossom,  a  berry.        Malekula  Pangkumu :  pung, 

to  blossom. 
Malay:  bunga,  flower,  blossom.      Malagasy:  vuni,  flower;  mamuni, 

to  blossom. 
Arabic:  fukah,  flower. 

It  is  impossible  to  avoid  the  impression  that  there  lies  somewhere  a  con- 
nection between  this  relatively  infrequent  word  and  the  widespread  fua 
(360)  fruit.  The  consideration  of  this  stem,  therefore,  will  be  involved, 
so  far  as  may  be  fitting,  in  the  discussion  of  that  item. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  293 

247. 
buto,  the  navel. 

Samoa :  pute,  the  navel. 

Tangoan  Santo,  Lambell,  Lamassa :  buto,  the  navel.     New  Ireland 

(Carteret  Harbor) :  buta,  id.       New  Ireland  (Duffield) :  ambu- 

tang,   id.        Laur,    Pala,    King,    Malo:  bito,   id.        Malekula 

Pangkumu:  bitou,  id.        Baki:  burimbito,  id.        Buka:  vuso, 

bussusse,  id.      Mota:  putoi,  id.      Tanna :  nu-puti,  id.      Tagula: 

bibido.    Roro :  botoa.    Kabadi :  puko.    Mekeo :  fuko.    Motu :  udo. 

VoksiVL-.mudo.     Mukawa :  puso.    Suau:wtt>.    Tubetube :  pusua. 

Awalama:    buhoho.         Wedau:    buo.         Nada,  Murua:    poso. 

Sariba:   post.        Mugula:   poasi.        Panaieti,  Misima:  pohu. 

Hula :  buro.      Rubi,  Keapara,  Galoma :  bulo.      Sinaugoro :  ulo. 

Malay:  pusat,  the  navel.         Malagasy:  fuitra,  id. 

Arabic :  bugrat,  the  navel,  a  knob. 

With  this  should  be  included  the  general  Polynesian  pito  navel.    Samoa, 

which  has  pute  for  navel,  uses  pito  only  in  the  sense  of  the  end  of  a  thing 

and  \pitopito  for  anus,  this  apparently  for  modesty's  sake  in  preference 

over  pu. 

Maori :  pito,  navel,  end.    Tahiti :  pito,  navel,  navel  string ;  pitoraoere, 

the  ends  of  a  leaf  surround  in  fishing.     Marquesas :  pito,  navel, 

navel  string,  end.      Mangaia :  pito,  navel  string.      Mangareva : 

pito,  navel,  end;  pilopito,    button.         Paumotu:  pito,  navel; 

pitopito,  button.    Tonga :  bito,  navel.     Niue,  Rapanui,  Nukuoro, 

Futuna:  pito,  navel.        Hawaii,  ^ifeo,  navel,  end. 

I  have  no  hesitation  in  associating  the  two  as  probable  offshoots  of 

the  same  stem  and  as  certainly  alternate  forms.     I  can  not  yet  produce 

any  one  of  these  languages  in  which  the  two  forms  appear  side  by  side,  yet 

it  is  possible  to  present  evidence  but  little  inferior.     We  have  four  languages 

recorded  from  a  sixty-mile  stretch  of  southern  coast  on  the  west  face  of  New 

Ireland,  and  three  of  these  are  so  intimately  associated  that  the  differences 

are  but  dialect  variations.     In  fact  before  the  casting  of  this  note  into  its 

final  form  the  Pala  speech  has  become  accessible  and  shall  stand  as  a  fifth 

consenting  speech.    In  these  five  we  find  buto  in  Lambell  and  Lamassa,  bito 

in  King,  Laur,  and  Pala,  all  in  the  sense  of  navel.     The  conclusion  is  not 

to  be  gainsaid  that  buto  and  bito  mean  navel  and  that  Samoan  is  the  only 

Polynesian  speech  which  has  retained  the  buto  form  and  thus  avoids 

confusion  with  pito  the  end,  a  confusion  which  exists  in  other  Polynesian 

speech,  particularly  of  the  Tongafiti  swarm. 

The  possession  of  the  j-forms  in  Buka  and  New  Guinea  leads  the  way  to 
the  acceptance  of  the  Malay  pusat,  regarding  the  final  t  as  due  to  local  needs. 
But  we  have  no  evidence  for  the  Malagasy. 
The  Arabic  is  scarcely  a  resemblance. 

248. 
goro,  koro,  to  snore. 

Maori:  ngongoro,  to  snore.  Mangareva:  ngoro,  id.  Paumotu: 
ngooro,  id.  Hawaii:  nonolo,  id.  Tahiti:  ooro,  id.  Niug: 
tungolo,  id.       Samoa,  Tonga :  tangulu,  id. 


294  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Viti :  nggonggori,  a  man  that  a  god  enters  when  asleep,  indicated  by 

a  singular  kind  of  snore. 
Motu :  urn,  stertorous  breathing.       Mota :  ngora,  to  grunt,  to  snort, 

to  snore. 
Malay :  ngorok,  to  snore. 
Hebrew :  nahar,  to  snort,  to  breathe  hard  through  the  nose.     Syriac : 

nhar,  id.       Ethiopic :  nlhira,  to  snore. 

In  Nuclear  Polynesia  we  find  the  stem  in  association  with  an  element 
whose  function  we  can  not  explain,  ta  in  Samoa  and  Tonga,  tu  in  Niue. 
The  remaining  identifications,  including  the  Malay,  are  free  of  difficulty. 
The  Paumotu  ngooro  is  a  rare  form  of  duplication ;  that  it  is  a  case  of  pre- 
duplication  is  established  by  comparison  with  the  Maori. 

The  Semitic  exhibits  the  usual  difficulty  in  that  it  calls  for  the  reduction 
of  a  triliteral,  nhr,  by  internal  loss. 

249. 

kita,  to  divine;  kikita,  ngkita,  to  perceive  or  feel  with  the  eye  or  mind. 

Samoa:  'i'ite,  to  predict,  to  foretell;  fe'ite'ilea'i,  to  see  indistinctly 
as  in  the  twilight,  to  be  just  distinguishable.  Tonga :  kite,  to 
appear,  to  see  at  a  distance  when  at  sea;  kikite,  fakakikite,  to 
divine,  to  foretell,  to  augur,  to  prophesy;  fekitengdki,  to  be  in 
sight  of  each  other;  fakakite,  to  look  anxiously  and  narrowly 
at  anything,  as  at  what  may  be  reported  (land  at  sea  or  a  vessel 
in  sight) ;  fakakitekite,  anything  new  or  strange  done  or  said  by 
a  person  just  before  his  decease  and  afterwards  referred  to  as  a 
prognostication.  Futuna :  kite,  to  appear ;  kikite,  to  predict, 
to  foresee,  clairvoyant.  Niue :  kitekite,  to  look  at,  to  examine ; 
fakakite,  to  make  known,  to  show;  fakakiteanga,  a  vision, 
Uvea:  kikite,  fakakikite,  to  augur,  to  divine,  to  prophesy;  kite. 
to  appear.  Maori :  kite,  to  see,  to  know,  to  perceive ;  whakakite, 
to  reveal,  to  disclose.  Mangareva :  kite,  to  see,  to  understand, 
to  perceive.  Rarotonga:  kite,  to  see.  Marquesas:  kite,  to 
see,  to  know ;  haakitea,  to  appear.  Paumotu :  kite,  to  perceive, 
to  know;  fakakite,  to  show,  to  presage.  Tongarewa:  kite, 
kikite,  to  see ;  hakakikite,  to  cause  to  see.  Nukuoro :  kite,  to  see ; 
hakakitea,  to  show ;  matakite,  a  soothsayer,  a  prophet.  Manahiki : 
kitea,  to  know.  Sikayana:  kite,  to  see.  Aniwa:  citi,  id. 
Tahiti:  ite,  to  know,  to  understand,  to  perceive;  faaite,  to  teach. 
Hawaii :  ike,  to  see,  to  understand,  to  perceive  ;Jwike,  to  show. 
Motu:  kito,  to  spy,  to  watch  for. 

The  following  mean  to  see: 

Panaieti:  kite.        Sariba:  kita.        Galavi,  Boniki,  Mukawa:  kitai. 

Sariba :  gita.     Sinaugoro,  Tubetube :  gitai.     Motu,  Rubi,  Kubiri, 

Kiviri:  itai.      Doura:  ikai.     Suau,  Dobu:  ita.     Roro:  itana. 

Raqa:  iti.      Oiun:  itin.     Pokau:  ikala.     Hula,  Keapara:  gia. 

Galoma:  ia.       Kabadi:  is' ana. 
Tagalog:  quita,  to  see.        Malagasy:  hita,  mahita,  id. 
Arabic :  wagada,  to  find  with  the  eye  or  the  mind,  to  perceive.  • 


DATA   AND  NOTES.  295 

I  suggest  an  identification  in  Viti  ndike  to  look  at,  to  scrutinize.  This 
is  permissible  if  we  regard  this  as  metathetic  and  in  the  32 14  type,  a  rarity 
in  metathesis,  yet  exactly  paralleled  in  the  same  language  in  uila-liva. 

If  it  were  not  for  its  occurrence  in  Efat6  and  in  Motu  I  should  class  this 
word  as  of  the  Tongafiti  migration,  for  in  very  few  instances  do  we  find  a 
stem  so  well  nigh  universal  in  Polynesia  which  has  left  vestiges  so  rare  and 
so  widely  scattered  in  Melanesia.     It  seems  quite  as  rare  in  Indonesia. 

The  Semitic  involves  Dr.  Macdonald's  favorite  principle  of  whittling 
down  a  triliteral  (wgd)  in  any  way  which  will  fit  it  to  his  proof,  in  this 
instance  by  excision  of  the  first  syllable. 

250. 
kufangufa,  to  fly,  to  flap  the  wings,  to  flutter. 

Tonga:  kapakau,  wing;  kapakajpa,  the  side  fins  of  sharks,  to  flicker, 
to  flutter,  to  hover  on  the  wing.         Futuna:  kapakau,  wing; 
kapakapatau,  the  movement  of  birds  about  to  perch.        Niue : 
tapakau,  wing,  fin ;  kapakapa,  to  flap,  to  flutter.       Uvea :  kapa- 
kau, wing.        Maori,  Mangaia:  kakapa,  kapakapa,  to  flap,  to 
flutter.       Samoa:  'apa^cm,  wing;  'apa'apa,  fin;  'apata,  to  clap 
the  wings.      Nuguria:  kapaukau,  upper  arm.      Tahiti:  apaapa, 
to  flap.       Fotuna,  pahkau,  wing.       Rotuma:  papau,  id. 
Ulawa,  Saa,  Bululaha,  Ugi :  apaapa,  wing.     Wango,  Alite:  abaaba, id. 
Mota :  gava,  to  fly  with  flapping  wings.       Fagani :  kakafo,  wing, 
Marina:  gave,    id.         Arag:  gapaun,    id.        Pak,    Sasar,   Alo 
Teqel:  gapugi,  id.         Savo:  gavara,  id. 
Magindano :  kapakapa,  a  fan.       Malagasy :  kepakepaka,  flounced  in 
the  wind.        Malay:  kapak,  to  fly  with  flapping  wings;  kepak, 
wing.       Kawi:  paksa,  bird.       Basakrama:  paksi,  id.     Magin- 
dano: papak,  a  wing.        Baliyon:  papak,  a  bird.        Tagalog, 
Bicol:  pacpac,  wing. 
Arabic :  h'ajaka,  to  fly,  to  flap  the  wings. 
In  Polynesia  gliding  flight  is  expressed  by  lele,  flight  on  flapping  wing 
by  kapa.     In  Nuclear  Polynesia  kapa  does  not  pass  into  the  wing  sense 
except  through  the  aid  of  a  composition  member  kau.     In  Samoan  'au  we 
find  this  to  mean  a  stalk,  a  handle ;  in  reference  to  the  body  its  sense  as 
that  of  some  projecting  member  is  exhibited  in  'aualuma  (the  'au  in  front) 
as  a  very  delicate  euphemism  for  the  penis.     So  'apa'au  would  mean  liter- 
ally the  projecting  member  that  flaps.     We  encounter  kapakau  in  Tonga, 
Futuna,  Uvea,  and  in  Samoan  'apa'au.     In  Niue  we  find  a  change  that  can 
only  mean  failure  to  comprehend  and  to  preserve  the  primal  signification 
of  the  composite,  for,  while  kapakapa  is  to  flutter,  tapakau  shows  a  modi- 
fication that  has  no  reason  either  in  sense  or  in  phonology.     I  am  no  little 
doubtful  as  to  Rotuma  papau.     But  as  that  interesting  language  has  many 
irregularities  which  as  yet  quite  elude  systematic  reduction  I  deem  it 
advisable  to  class  papau  with  kapakau;  it  does  seem  an  echo  form. 

Fotuna  pahkau  shows  a  frontal  abrasion  of  kapakau.  This  is  character- 
istic of  the  Tongafiti  word  for  wing. 

Maori:  pakau,  wing.  Moriori:  pakau,  arm.  Tahiti:  peheu,  fin. 
Marquesas:  pe&heu,  pekeheu,  wing.  Mangareva:  peh.au,  wing. 
Hawaii:  peheu,  wing,  fin. 


296  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

There  is  a  uniformity  about  these  Tongafiti  words  which  indicates  a 
reason  acting  upon  them  all  which  was  not  in  action  upon  the  Proto- 
Samoan  swarm,  and  we  see  that  the  change  is  progressive  in  the  Tongafiti. 
As  I  feel  it  this  reason  is  that  by  the  time  the  Tongafiti  were  ready  to  leave 
Indonesia  they  had  lost  all  recollection  of  kapakau  as  the  flapping  member, 
and  being  a  mere  vocable  used  uncomprehendingly  as  a  label  for  a  natural 
object  it  was  subject  to  the  humors  of  speakers  in  making  changes.  Thus 
we  may  comprehend  the  changes  in  Indonesia.  Malay,  Magindano  and 
Malagasy  alone  retain  the  first  syllable.  All  the  others  received  the  word 
when  that  syllable  was  gone,  received  it  at  the  same  time  probably,  received 
it  certainly  from  the  Tongafiti  after  they  had  reduced  the  word.  The 
Magindano  papak  wing  and  Baliyon  papak  bird  smack  more  than  a  little 
of  Rotuma  papau. 

Next,  when  we  turn  to  Melanesia,  we  find  forms  variant  only  of  the  kapa 
stem.  Mota,  Marina,  Arag,  Pak,  Sasar,  Alo  Teqel,  Savo,  and  Fagani  all 
retain  the  initial  palatal.  It  is  only  in  the  Solomons  that  we  find  this 
vanishing,  and  the  mere  dropping  of  the  k  is  yet  a  long  way  from  the 
dropping  of  the  first  syllable  entirely. 

The  Arabic  has  more  than  we  can  digest  for  our  plain  kapa,  and  even 
were  we  to  admit  the  propriety  of  Dr.  Macdonald's  method  of  obtaining 
pleasing  results  by  dropping  out  inconvenient  elements  the  consonants  of 
the  Arabic  stem,  hfk,  which  might  be  identifiable  with  kp,  appear  in  the 
inverse  order. 

251- 
kusue,  kusuiie,  rat,  mouse. 

The  following  words  all  signify  rat : 

Samoa:  'isumu.      Nuguria:  kisumu. 

Sesake:  kusuwe.  Mota:  gasuwe.  Vaturanga:  ngasuve.  Fagani: 
gasufe.  Wango:  gasuhe.  I,o:  gahuwa.  Merlav:  gasuw. 
Sasar,  Vuras,  Alo  Teqel,  Norbarbar :  gosow.  Pak:  gosog.  Gog: 
gosug.  Tanna:  yasuk.  Mosia  :gusuw.  Motlav,  Volow :  gohow. 
Lakon:  wohow.  Alite:  nguaua.  Ulawa,  Saa,  Bululaha: 
asuhe.  Malekula  Pangkumu :  asua.  Nggao :  kusi.  Nggela, 
Bugotu: kuhi.     Savo: kuzi.     Malekula:  khasup,  akasu. 

Malay,  Java,  Baju:  tikus.        Massaratty:  tikuti.        Gah:  karufei. 

Arabic:  kutrub'. 

This  is  a  peculiarly  interesting  word,  for,  if  Polynesian,  it  seems  to  be  a 
form  that  in  the  travel  from  Indonesia  was  widely  disseminated  by  the  way 
and  yet  not  carried  the  whole  distance. 

The  Samoan  'isumu  differs  in  one  element  from  kusuwe,  and  nowhere  in 
the  many  forms  in  Melanesia  do  we  find  a  trace  of  this  m.  Yet  the  two 
earlier  syllables  in  Samoan  'isumu  and  Nuguria  kisumu  strongly  indicate  a 
connection  with  the  Melanesian  in  the  backward  past.  Samoa  has  three 
rat  names.  It  has  this  'isumu;  it  retains,  but  little  uses,  the  Tongafiti 
'iole;  it  employs  most  frequently  the  word  'imoa,  which  is  identifiable  only 
in  Nukunau. 

Codrington  (Melanesian  Languages  87,note)  says  that  "the  old  black  Fiji 
rat  is  ngatho,"  a  clear  equivalent  of  kusuwe.    This  is  not  in  Hazlewobd's 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  297 

dictionary,  but  Dr.  Codrington  had  the  benefit  of  notes  on  Viti  by  Lorimer 
Fison,  a  most  competent  authority;  therefore  this  does  not  contravene  but 
supplements  the  earlier  dictionary. 

In  the  order  in  which  I  have  arranged  the  Melanesian  material  it  will 
be  seen  that  there  is  a  simple  and  easily  followed  sequence  down  to  Alite, 
except  for  three  items  which  need  comment.  In  Gog  -g  suffixed  to  a  stem 
determines  its  use  as  a  noun,  the  same  holds  true  of  Pak;  the  two  taken 
together  argue  the  same  explanation  of  the  Tanna  form.  These,  therefore, 
are  not  to  be  taken  for  a  mutation  to  the  final  palatal.  So  little  is  known 
of  Alite  that  we  are  not  in  a  position  to  judge  nguaua  satisfactorily.  I 
have  examined  all  my  material  carefully  with  a  view  of  identifying  con- 
sonant mutations  between  Alite  (and  its  neighbors  Saa  and  Bululaha)  on 
Malanta,  and  Vaturanga  across  the  strait,  and  to  no  result.  It  will  be 
plain  that  ngua  echoes  Vaturanga  ngasuve,  thus  ng(a)(s)u(v)a;  but  this 
wholesale  amputation  of  vowel  and  consonants  too  much  resembles  the 
freehand  proof  of  Semitic  origins  to  meet  with  cordial  approval.  Malekula 
khasap  and  akasu  belong  somewhere  in  this  sequence  which  retains  the 
initial  consonant.  So,  too,  do  Nggao,  Nggela,  Bugotu,  and  Savo,  in  which 
the  final  syllable  has  been  abraded.  We  find  a  small  group  in  which  the 
initial  consonant  has  been  abraded,  Ulawa,  Saa,  Bululaha,  and  Malekula 
Pangkumu;  and  in  the  last  the  third  consonant  has  vanished,  although 
under  the  protection  of  a  final  vowel,  but  compare  fua  (360)  Malekula 
Pangkumu  mi  uan  for  a  vanishing  /. 

The  Indonesian  offered  by  Macdonald  and  by  Codrington  does  not  seem 
susceptible  of  coordination.     The  Arabic  is,  of  course,  out  of  the  question. 

252. 
laso,  the  testicles. 

Samoa:  laso,  the  scrotum.         Tonga,  Niue:  laho,  id.         Hawaii, 

Nuguria:  laho,  the  testes  in  man  and  animal.     Fotuna:  raso,  id. 

Tahiti:  raho,  pudendum  muliebre.       Maori:  raho,  the  testicles. 
Ambrym:  luho,   testicles.  Paama:  hsi,   id.  Malekula:  list, 

erasi,  rason,  id.       Bierian:  loho,  id.       Malo:  laso,  id.       Mota: 

lasoi,  the  male  genitalia. 
Macassar:  laso,  penis. 
Arabic:  h'isy',  h'usy',  h'usyat,  h'usa',  testicles. 

It  is  quite  uncertain  what  was  the  primal  sense  of  this  stem.  In  Samoa, 
Tonga,  and  Niue  it  distinguishes  the  scrotum,  and  in  Samoa  the  testes  are 
designated  by  the  name  fua  (360)  fruit,  to  which  Codrington  assigns  the 
root  sense  of  anything  globular.  This  use  of  fua  extends  into  eastern 
Polynesia.  Tahiti:  hud,  testes.  Marquesas:  hud,  genitalia  in  general. 
Hawaii:  hua,  testes.     Mangareva:  ua,  genitalia. 

In  the  area  of  Tongafiti  colonization  (Futuna  therein  inclusible)  and  in 
Melanesia  wherever  the  word  is  identified,  laso  has  passed  definitely  from 
the  scrotum  to  its  contents.  In  the  latter  subdivision  Mota  exhibits  for 
laso  the  same  comprehensiveness  that  fua  exhibits  in  the  Marquesas  and 
Mangareva,  if  it  be  not  too  violent  an  interpretation  of  our  vocabulary 
definitions  to  assume  this  to  apply  only  to  the  male  parts.  The  switch  of 
sex  in  Tahiti  raho  is  unexpected ;  the  entry  is  derived  from  Tregear's  com- 


298  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

parative  dictionary  without  opportunity  to  check  his  record  by  consul- 
tation of  his  original  source ;  in  Bishop  Jaussen's  dictionary  the  word  finds 
no  entry. 

In  Macassar  the  word  passes  to  yet  another  part. 

The  only  resemblance  which  the  Arabic  bears  to  laso  is  that  its  forms 
also  contain  a  modification  of  the  radical  j  as  the  second  consonant,  no 
sufficient  proof  of  identity. 

253- 
ma,  me,  with,  and. 

Samoa:  ma,  with,  and.      Tonga,  Rotuma:  ma,  and.      Futuna:  mo, 

with.         Niue:  ma,  and;  mo,  and,  with.         Uvea:  mo,  with. 

Tahiti :  ma,  and,  with.      Hawaii :  me,  with ;  a  me,  and.      Rapa- 

nui,  Marquesas :  ma,  and  (in  a  particular  numeral  use) ;  me,  with. 

Mangareva:  we,  with,  and.        Paumotu :  ma,  together  with ;  me, 

with.      Rarotonga:  ma,  and.      Maori:  ma,  and;  me,  with,  and. 

Nuguria,  Aniwa:  ma,  and.       Fotuna:  ma,  for,  with,  along  with. 
Mota:  ma,  me,  with,  and.       Santo:  we,  with:  mo,  and.       Pala:  ma, 

and,  with. 
Malagasy:  amana,  with. 
Hebrew:  'im,  with,  and.         Arabic:  ma',  id. 

I  can  not  do  better  in  comment  upon  this  item  than  to  repeat  the  ana- 
lytic conclusions  which  I  reached  in  an  earlier  study  of  root  reducibility 
(27  American  Journal  of  Philology,  389) : 

Let  us  now  look  at  the  root  ma.  In  its  paradeictic  function  we  find  it  serving  as  a 
connective;  it  is  the  spoke  that  joins  tire  and  hub  into  the  effective  unit  of  the  wheel. 
It  is  the  conjunction  "and,"  yet  its  development  is  in  a  dual  sense  incomplete;  it  is 
available  to  connect  words  of  the  same  grammatical  function;  it  has  not  yet  become 
sufficiently  conjunctive  to  link  clause  with  clause.  At  the  same  time  another  function, 
that  which  we  know  and  employ  as  prepositional,  exhibits  in  the  sense  of  "with,"  "for" 
(for  the  sake  of),  thence  differentiating  to  "from"  and  "on  account  of";  these  different 
uses  we  in  analytic  speech  find  it  necessary  to  distinguish  by  varying  words;  to  the 
Samoan  it  is  sufficiently  clear  to  use  ma  and  trust  to  inference  from  existing  conditions 
to  elucidate  the  character  of  the  relation  the  existence  of  which  is  thereby  indicated. 
Stated  in  terms  coordinate  with  those  employed  in  the  preceding  particulars  of  this 
series  of  roots,  we  may  say  of  ma  that  it  points  to  the  non-ego  and  not-here  and  links  it 
to  the  central  concept  of  that  which  is  active  and  present. 

In  the  elaboration  of  my  theory  of  explanation  in  the  paper  from  which 
the  foregoing  is  extracted  I  dissected  the  central  signification  of  the  a  and 
sketched  out  the  coefficient  value  of  the  several  consonantal  modulants 
which  might  be  prefixed  thereto.  In  dealing  according  to  that  theory  with 
the  other  forms  associated  in  this  item,  we  and  mo,  we  should  hold  the 
consonantal  value  as  carrying  the  linking,  conjunctive,  associating  sense;  the 
shade  of  variety  in  meaning  would  be  found  to  exist  as  the  nucleus  of  the 
e  and  of  the  o  respectively. 

254- 
manifenife,  to  be  thin. 

Samoa, Nukuoro :  manifinifi, thin.      Tonga,  Futuna :  manifi,manifi- 

nifi,  id.        Uvea:  manifi,  id.        Fotuna:  mafinfini,  id. 
Omba :  manivinivi,  thin.     Mota :  mavinvin,  id.     Baki :  menivinivi,  id. 
Malekula :  meniveniv,  id.     Malo :  tanivinivi,  id.     Roro :  nivinivi, 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  299 

id.  Mekeo:  mangipina,  id.  Galoma:  magipi,  id.  Keapara: 
magivi,  id.  Kabadi:  kevekeve,  id.  Galavi,  Boniki:  kavaka- 
vana,  id.  Taupota:  wogevagevana,  id.  Awalama:  wogewoge- 
wana,  id.        Wedau:  avavana,  id. 

Malagasy:  manifi,  thin. 

Arabic:  nahifa,  nahafat,  nahif,'  manhuf,'  thin,  slender. 

The  word  exists  for  us  only  as  a  composite,  for  the  element  ma  is  most 
clearly  the  prefix  of  condition  which  so  frequently  occurs ;  the  stem  nifi  is 
nowhere  apparent,  either  independently  or  in  other  composition.  Simple 
metathesis  occurs  in  the  Fotuna  and  Mota  forms.  The  word  is  confined 
to  the  Proto-Samoan.  The  Malagasy  identification  is  far  better  than  is 
commonly  the  case  with  that  speech.  Macdonald's  Semitic  identification 
entails  laparotomy  of  a  syllable  protected  by  its  inner  position. 

255- 
maso,  mahi,  to  be  cooked,  done. 

Futuna:  moso,  cooked.       Tonga:  moho,  cooked,  ready  to  be  eaten, 
rotten ;  momoho,  ripe,  brown  in  color,  ready  to  burst.        Niue : 
moho,  cooked,  done;  momoho,  ripe,  mature.         Uvea:  moho, 
cooked. 
Santo :  mda,  cooked. 

Malay:  masak,  cooked.  Malagasy:  masaka,  id. 
Arabic:  nas'iga,  to  be  ripe,  cooked. 
The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  absent  in  Samoa,  for  the  reason  that  Moso  is 
the  name  of  one  of  the  great  terrestrial  gods.  The  mere  suggestion  of 
cookery,  the  plaiting  in  coconut  leaves  and  the  slinging  on  a  pole  like  a 
pig  ready  for  the  oven,  added  the  pitch  of  indignity  to  the  Samoan  ifonga 
or  solemn  rite  of  submission.  It  must  therefore  be  clear  that  moso  would 
never  be  permitted  in  the  land  where  Moso  was  revered.  How  little  Moso 
would  put  up  with  any  such  disgraceful  kitchen  verb  in  the  very  accents 
of  his  name  may  be  inferred  from  one  of  the  prayers  addressed  to  him: 
"Oh,  Moso,  make  haste,  show  thy  power,  send  down  to  down-below-here, 
sweep  them  away  like  a  flood,  may  they  never  see  the  light  of  another 
day!"  Oh,  no,  it's  not  strange  that  moso  does  not  mean  cooked  in  Samoa. 
I  can  not  accept  Macdonald's  Santo  identification.  This  involves  the 
dropping  of  s  from  the  inner  and  protected  position.  This  is  not  only 
objectionable  in  itself,  but  is  contraindicated  bya.ra  (239)  smoke  Santo  osun, 
and  except  as  to  position  by  hifo  (206)  down  Santo  siwo. 

The  Malay  and  Malagasy  may  be  sound ;  in  the  dearth  of  other  instances 
in  that  area  we  may  not  accept  them  definitely. 

Dr.Macdonald  undoubtedly  relies  upon  mahi,  a  dialectic  form  in  Efat6  and 
nowhere  else  found,  and  upon  the  k  in  the  Malay  and  Malagasy,  to  bolster 
up  his  Semitic  identification,  which  furthermore  involves  the  m-n  mutation. 
This  is  too  much  to  rest  upon  premises  so  insufficiently  established. 

256. 
meta,  raw,  unripe,  crude,  green.  c 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Maori,  Mangaia,  Tongarewa,  Rapanui, 
Mangareva:  mata,  raw,  unripe.  Hawaii:  maka,  id.  Fotuna: 
mata,  raw.       Nuguria:  oimata,  raw;  koimoto,  unripe. 


300  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Aneityum:  emetmat,  raw,  not  dry  or  seasoned;  mat,  new,  raw. 
Bierian:  nmata,  raw.        Tanna:  (t)e'mta,  id. 

Macassar:  mata,  raw,  unripe.  Malay:  matang,  mantah,  id.  Mala- 
gasy: manta,  id. 

Arabic :  'anut'a,  to  be  raw. 

The  dissimilant  duplication  of  Aneityum  emetmat  establishes  perfectly 
the  unity  of  Efat£  meta  and  the  mata  which  belongs  to  the  Polynesian  of 
both  migrations.  The  other  Melanesian  forms  are  readily  recognizable,  and 
in  Indonesia  the  series  is  confirmatory  inter  se.  The  Arabic  is,  of  course, 
entitled  to  no  consideration.  -   f 

257-  {<■■'"" 

miel,  mimiel,  red. 

Samoa:  melomelo,  memelo,  red.        Tonga:  melo,  melomelo,  brown, 

ripe.         Futuna:  memelo,  red.         Hawaii:  meomeq,  omeomeo. 

red,  orange,  blushing.       Mangareva:  metometo,  yellow,  orange. 

Rarotonga :  muramura,  red.      Bukabuka :  kura  melo,  light  red. 
Mota:  mera,  red  light  in  morning  or  evening  sky.         Vaturanga: 

mera,  yellow.     Wango:  meramera,  red.     Fagani :  merameraga,  id. 

Baravon:  meramere,  id.     Bugotu:  mela,  id.     Buka :  marara,  id. 

Eaur:  mirik,  id.         Sesake:  miala,  id. 
Malay,  Gah,  Baju :  merah,  red,  bay.     Bouton :  merai,  red.     Awaiya : 

meranate,  id.     Salibabo:  maramutah,  id.     Malagasy :  mena,  id. 
Arabic:  ma"ir',  reddish;  'am"aru,  of  the  color  of  red  clay. 

In  the  Polynesian  the  stem  is  melo.  Its  appearance  as  meto  in  Mangareva 
is  unusual,  but  not  without  the  precedent  of  an  l-t  mutation.  The  Raro- 
tonga mula  is  a  valuable  transition  form  in  respect  of  the  final  vowel,  to 
link  the  Polynesian  and  the  Melanesian.  In  the  Bukabuka  locution  we  find 
melo  used  in  limitation  of  the  more  widely  diffused  word  for  red,  kura. 

In  Melanesia  the  stem  is  mera,  with  which  mara  in  Buka  marara  is  readily 
associable;  while  Baravon  merame're  naturally  leads  to  Laur  mirik. 

In  Indonesia  also  the  stem  is  mera,  both  independently  and  in  composi- 
tion, and  mara  also  appears.  Malagasy  mena  is  more  remote  yet  not 
improbable. 

We  have  yet  to  discuss  two  puzzling  forms,  Efate  miel  and  Sesake  miala, 
which  are  evidently  in  close  consociation.  If  it  were  not  for  the  intrusive  i 
they  would  fall  into  ready  alignment  with  the  mela-mala  stem  of  Melanesia, 
but  in  the  present  stage  of  our  knowledge  we  are  quite  at  a  loss  to  account 
for  the  intrusion  of  the  vowel.  We  may  feel  that  these  anomalous  forms 
derive  from  the  common  stem,  but  we  have  no  proof  which  we  may  bring 
to  bear.  The  preduplicated  Efate  mimiel  shows  that  the  vowel  i  is  no  mere 
accident,  but  is  regarded  as  an  essential  part  of  the  syllable  »n,and  therefore 
structural. 

To  bring  our  author's  Semitic  into  alignment  calls  for  the  evisceration  of 
an  interior  consonant,  the  strongest  palatal  at  that  and  perfectly  supported. 
Even  if  that  were  permissible,  which  is  open  to  grave  doubt,  the  Arabic 
ma"ir  would  be  brought  only  imperfectly  into  likeness  with  no  more  stand- 
ard a  form  than  the  miel-miala  which  we  have  just  seen  to  be  wholly 
unaccountable  deviations  from  regular  stem  forms. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  301 

258. 
mitaku,  mataku,  mitau,  matau,  to  fear,  to  be  afraid  of. 

Niue:  matakutaku,  to  fear;  matakumataku,  dreaded,  inspiring  fear. 
Maori:  mataku,  to  fear,  to  be  fearful,  inspiring  fear.  Uvea, 
Fakaafo,  Nukuoro,  Aniwa,  Fotuna.Vate,  Rarotonga,  Mangareva, 
Bukabuka,  Manahiki:  mataku,  to  fear.  Rapanui:  mataku, 
alarm,  dread,  fear.  Samoa:  matgLu,  to  fear,  to  be  afraid. 
Tahiti :  matau,  fear,  dread,  to  be  in  terror.  Hawaii :  mqfeaM,  id. 
Marquesas:  hadmetau,  id. 
Sesake,  Bierian:  mataku,  to  be  afraid  of.  Malo:  matacu,  id.  Arag: 
matagu,  id.  Nggela :  matagu,  fear,  to  be  afraid  of;  mamataguga, 
fearful.  Belaga:  matagu,  to  fear;  'mamataguga,  fearful.  Mota 
Maligo :  matagut,  to  be  afraid  of;  tagut,  to  be  startled.  Fagani : 
maguta,  afraid.  Mota  Maligo:  matagtag,  to  fear.  Motlav: 
metegteg,  fear.  Ambrym :  matehag,  to  be  frightened  at.  Vatu- 
ranga:  matahuni,  to  fear;  mataku,  fear.  Malekula:  metoh,  id. 
Aneityum:  i-mtac,  afraid,  timid,  cowardly;  imiimtac,  to  fear, 
to  reverence.  Suau,  Tubetube :  matausi,  id.  Dobu,  Wedau: 
matauta,id.  Oiun:  matautei,  id.  Sariba:  matousi,id.  Tavara, 
Awalama:raafowto,id.  Pokau:ma£a'w,id.  Kabadi :  mekau,  id. 
King:  matut,  to  fear.  Tanna :  meheker,  id.  Lemaroro :  marau, 
afraid.  Baki:  menu,  to  fear.  Tagula:  mar  ode,  id. 
Malay:  takut,  fear.         Malagasy:  tahutra,  fear;  matahutra,  to  fear, 

to  be  afraid. 
Arabic:  taka',  to  fear;  takiyyat,  fear,  caution. 
The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  matakut,  and  it  is  not  only  in  form  a  com- 
posite of  the  ma  of  condition  with  takut,  but  we  have  the  stem  preserved 
in  independent  existence  in  Mota  Maligo,  in  Malay,  and  in  Malagasy.  In 
the  Mota  tagut  to  be  startled,  taken  in  conjunction  with  Uvea  mataku  a 
trembling  with  fear,  we  may  find  the  primal  sense  of  the  stem,  the  quivering 
of  the  body  in  expectant  poise  to  seek  refuge  in  flight  when  some  unwonted 
noise  in  the  forest  home  has  at  last  become  identified  with  danger  too 
overpowering  to  face. 

The  final  t  has  vanished  except  in  Samoa  objective  aspect  mata'utia,  where 
it  is  protected,  in  Mota  Maligo  matagut,  and  in  the  Indonesian  forms.  The 
stem  vowel  u  remains  in  Mota  Maligo,  Sesake,  Bierian,  Malo,  Arag,  Nggela, 
Belaga,  Fagani,  Vaturanga.  By  abrasion  of  that  vowel  we  find  a  new 
closed  form  in  which  the  final  stem  syllable  has  disappeared ;  Mota  Maligo 
matagtag,  Motlav,  Malekula,  Aneityum.  The  following  irregularities  call 
for  comment.  In  Nggela  and  Belaga  occur  forms  involving  the  duplication 
of  the  conditional  ma;  this  is  of  very  rare  occurrence  and  may  perhaps 
argue  that  the  mataku  stem  was  so  archaic  that  the  recollection  was  lost 
that  this  was  the  ma  of  condition.  This  mamatagu  in  these  two  Solomon 
Island  languages  may  be  understood  as  introducing  a  g  in  the  stem  £-place ; 
Ambrym  matehag  seems  to  do  the  same ;  Vaturanga  matahuni  has  an  n  in 
that  place.  We  have  not  sufficient  information  as  to  these  languages  to 
warrant  venturing  an  opinion  as  to  whether  these  are  mutations  of  the 
stem  consonant  or  local  devices  of  word  formation.  I  have  refrained  from 
including  Aneityum  imiimtac  with  mamatagu  as  duplication  of  the  condi- 


302  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

tional  prefix,  for  we  recognize  in  imi  a  verb-formative  prefix  of  a  causative 
value.  Fagani  maguta  is  metathetic  from  the  neighboring  Bugotu  matagu. 
To  associate  King  matut  with  the  matakut  stem  involves  the  extirpation  of 
an  inner  and  therefore  abundantly  protected  syllable,  a  syllable  of  a  type 
(ak)  to  class  which  as  a  syllable  would  be  doing  violence  to  the  whole 
structure  of  the  Polynesian  word ;  furthermore  I  can  find  in  the  brief  King 
vocabulary  no  other  word  of  Polynesian  resemblance  which  depends  upon 
such  a  procedure.  Against  these  valid  objections  we  raise  in  support  of 
matut  only  its  resemblance.     Tanna  meheker  is  another  case  of  resemblance. 

These  resemblances  are  by  no  means  without  their  value.  On  the  theory 
that  the  Polynesian  content  of  Melanesian  is  loan  material  we  should  expect 
to  find  for  many  words  no  more  than  the  ghost  and  echo.  On  a  far  higher 
culture  plane  it  is  notorious  that  Hodge,  when  he  marries  according  to  the 
ordinances  of  the  Church  of  England  as  by  law  established,  solemnly  avers 
"with  all  my  worldly  goods  I  thee  and  thou,"  the  echo  of  a  word  of  his 
native  language. 

To  establish  Lemaroro  marau  and  Baki  merou  as  even  a  resemblance  it 
will  be  necessary  to  maintain  the  t-r  mutation ;  this  is  found  in  our  material 
four  times:  in  fatu  (294)  stone  Malekula  var,  talinga  (350)  ear  Malekula 
Pangkumu  riringa,  ate  (276)  liver  Malekula  Uripiv  ere,  futi  (329)  banana 
Moanus  mbur.  If  this  be  considered  sufficiently  well  established  we  find 
in  marau  a  variant  of  the  Efate  matau,  a  reduced  form  involving  the  loss 
of  the  k,  which  nowhere  else  appears  until  we  encounter  it  ultimately  in 
extreme  eastern  Polynesia. 

The  Indonesian  identifications  have  already  been  mentioned  as  preserv- 
ing the  primal  stem. 

In  the  Semitic  offered  for  our  consideration  the  verb  has  a  partial  resem- 
blance to  the  takut  stem,  the  t  being  represented  by  a  palatal.  The  resem- 
blance of  the  noun  is  more  specious  than  real,  for  it  is  hard  to  see  why,  when 
there  is  already  a  verb  or  bare  stem,  we  are  to  accept  an  almost  inflected 
form  as  a  noun  to  enter  upon  a  new  course  of  activity  in  the  Pacific  as  a 

verb. 

259. 

nabati,  tooth. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Niue,  Futuna,  Uvea,  Fakaafo,  Fotuna,  Vate,  Moiki: 
nifo,  a  tooth.  Nukuoro,  Aniwa,  Maori,  Tahiti,  Hawaii,  Mar- 
quesas, Mangareva,  Manahiki,  Rapanui,  Paumotu:  niho,  id. 
Sikayana:  nitcho,  id.  Mangaia,  Raro tonga:  nio,  id.  Nuguria: 
ngiho,  id. 
Ulawa,  Saa,  Bululaha :  niho,  tooth.  Buka:  niho,  liho,lihon,uliho,  id. 
Lifu:  nyo,  id.  Iai:  niou,  id.  Fagani:  lifo,  id.         Alite, 

Vaturanga,  Nggela,  Bierian,  Fpi:  livo,  id.  Arag:  liivo,  id. 
Mota,  Maewo:  liwoi,  id.  Motlav:  lewo,  ne-lwo,  id.  Ugi, 
Bougainville:  liho,  id.  Wango:  riho,  id.  Mukawa:  nibo,  id. 
Awalama:  niwo,  id.  Tavara:  niuwo,  id.  Taupota,  Wedau: 
ivo,  id.  Roro:  nihena,  id.  Kabadi:  nise,  id.  Pala:  ngise,  id. 
Motu:  hise,  id.  Mekeo:  ni'e,  id.  Pokau:  nike,  id.  Doura: 
ike,  id.  Uni:  igeo,  id.  Galavi,  Boniki:  oke,  id.  Panaieti: 
ni,  id.  Tubetube,  Misima:  nini,  id.  Tagula:  nungi,  id. 
Makekula:  ribo,  id. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  303 

Matabello:  nifoa,  tooth.       Saparua:  nio,  id.       Malagasy:  nify,  id. 
Guam:  nifin,  id.     Manatolo,  Sula :  nihi,  id.     Bouton:  nichi,  id. 
East  Vaiqueno:  nmy,  id.       West  Brissi:  nissin,  id.       Savo: 
nuhsi,  id.    ,Kisa:  nihan,  id.     Kayan:  knipan,  id.     Magindano: 
nipun,  id.         Tagalog:  ngipin,  id. 
Arabic:  «o6',  nubub',  tooth. 
Dr.  Macdonald  does  record  that  this  is  frafo'  (39)  with  the  article,  and  he 
does  set  it  down  that  Polynesian  nifo  is  "another  word  for  tooth,  teeth," 
and  he  includes  his  Semitic  within  the  same  brackets  as  the  lower  set  of 
these  teeth.     But  why  does  he  collate  the  nifo  material  with  this  nabati  if, 
despite  his  protestations,  he  did  not  think  it  added  to  his  Semitic  scheme? 
The  n-form  which  holds  without  exception  through  Polynesia  is  found  in 
the  western  Pacific  only  in  Ulawa,  Saa,  Bululaha,  and  Buka,  stages  in  the 
northern  Solomons  on  the  Samoa  track,  and  in  Lifu  and  Iai  at  the  extreme 
south,  the  terminus  of  a  migration  concerning  which  Codrington  notes 
(Melanesian  Languages,  1 7)  "more  archaic  they  well  may  be,  belonging  to  an 
earlier  movement  of  population,  carried  forwards  by  an  earlier  wave  of 
speech  passing  onwards  among  the  islands,  but  having  somewhere  a  com- 
mon origin  with  those  which  have  since  and  successively  passed  among 
them."     Yet  in  the  instance  of  this  word  we  observe  as  a  curious  fact  that 
they  most  closely  resemble  Mangaia  and  Rarotonga  of  the  Tongafiti  swarm, 
known  to  be  the  most  modern  of  the  successive  waves  of  the  speech. 

Buka  with  its  niho  and  liho  is  the  sure  identification  of  the  transition 
phase  of  the  passage  to  the  /-forms  which  are  so  characteristic  of  Melanesia. 
These  forms  differ  in  the  second  consonant  from  the  primal  /  in  Fagani  lifo 
and  the  immediately  proximate  h  in  Ugi  and  Bougainville  liho  and  Wango 
riho,  all  these  in  the  Solomon  Island  crop  colonies  of  the  Samoa  track ;  up 
the  labial  column  to  v  in  Alite,  Vaturanga,  Nggela,  Bierian  and  Epi  (if  this 
be  not  a  reference  to  the  Bierian) ;  thence  to  the  semivowel  approximating 
the  labials,  w,  in  Mota,  Motlav,  and  Maewo;  finally  down  the  column  to 
b  in  Malekula  ribo.  So  far,  in  all  Polynesia  and  in  all  Melanesia,  the  two 
vowels  have  remained  unaltered  in  quality  and  fixed  in  position. 

When  we  examine  the  Indonesian  retention  of  the  nifo  stem  we  shall  find 
but  one  of  the  four  elements  of  the  word  which  has  been  treated  with  care, 
namely,  the  former  vowel,  which  preserves  its  place  unaltered  in  all  except 
Savo.  Matabello  alone  has  nifo  and  has  added  a  decoration  of  its  own; 
Saparua  has  the  form  which  we  have  seen  in  the  Loyalties  and  in  Mangaia 
and  Rarotonga.  There  are  here  no  Z-forms ;  the  n  is  found  intact  in  Mata- 
bello, Saparua,  Malagasy,  Guam,  Manatolo,  Sula,  Bouton,  East  Vaiqueno, 
West  Brissi,  Savo,  Kisa,  Magindano ;  in  Kayan  it  is  prefaced  by  a  palatal, 
and  in  Tagalog  it  has  become  the  palatal  of  its  own  group.  The  second 
consonant  is  kept  as  /  in  Matabello,  Malagasy,  Guam.  It  becomes  h  only 
in  Manatolo,  Sula,  and  Kisa,  and  in  Bouton  nichi  it  follows  the  same  change 
as  in  Sikayanam'te/w.  It  passes  irregularly  to  ^  in  East  Vaiqueno  and  West 
Brissi,  and  to  a  gruffer  sibilant  in  Savo.  This  mutation  we  explain  as 
meaning  that  the  first  change  is  to  an  aspirate  lying  close  to  the  labial  posi- 
tion of  the  buccal  organs;  then  that  the  mouth  can  not  hold  in  this  position 
so  amorphous  a  sound  as  this  aspirate;  that  the  aspirates  lying  near  all 
three  series  tend  to  assume  the  position  of  the  central,  or  lingual,  aspirate ; 


304  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

thence  easily  pass  into  the  sibilant,  regardless  of  the  source  from  which  the 
aspirate  derived.  In  eastern  Indonesia  the  mutation  down  the  column  to 
the  p  of  Kayan,  Magindano  and  Tagalog  correlates  the  b  form  in  Malekula. 
The  final  vowel,  o  in  Matabello  and  Saparua  only,  is  i  in  Malagasy,  Guam, 
and  all  the  rest  save  only  Kisa  and  Kayan,  in  which  it  becomes  a,  and  in 
Magindano  which  has  u.  An  ephelkustic  n  is  found  in  Guam,  West  Brissi, 
Kisa,  Kayan,  Magindano,  and  Tagalog. 

To  bring  the  Arabic  in  nab'  into  identity  with  the  nifo  stem  requires  but 
the  establishment  of  the  following  laws  of  mutation: 

(i)  That  a  shall  pass  into  i  without  a  vestige  of  transition  form. 

(2)  That  b  shall  represent  /  against  the  universal  practice  of  the  Poly- 
nesian users  of  the  word,  and  the  occurrence  of  this  change  among  the  less 
careful  Melanesians  and  Indonesians  only  in  a  single  instance  among  the 
former  and  but  three  times  among  the  latter. 

(3)  That  a  final  palatal,  a  strong  guttural,  shall  drop  off  unnoticed. 

(4)  That  an  o  strong  enough  to  hold  throughout  the  Pacific  area  and  to 
be  represented  by  some  substitute  in  all  of  Indonesia  shall  be  acquired 
somewhere  and  somehow. 

The  initial  n,  however,  withstands  all  hostile  assault;  it  is  there  in  the 

Semitic. 

,         ,  260. 

ra  na,  a  branch. 

Samoa:  la,  a  branch  of  a  tree;  laid,  small  branches.        Nukuoro: 
la  o  te  manu,  a  branch.        Niue :  la,  laid  (plural),  branch  of  a 
tree.       Hawaii :  lala,  limb  or  branch.        Futuna:  laa,  branch. 
Maori:  rara,  a  twig,  a  small  branch.      Tahiti:  rara,  a  branch; 
ara,  small  twigs  or  branches.        Rarotonga,  Mangareva:  rara, 
branch.         Fotuna:  ra,  id. 
Sesake:  ndara,  a  branch.     Aneityum:   in-r an,  id.     Bierian:  la,  id. 
Malay:  daan,  a  branch.         Malagasy:  rdhana,  rahaka,  id. 
Arabic :  s'agnat,  s'agan',  a  branch. 
The  Polynesian  stem  is  found  in  Efate,  Aneityum  and  Bierian,  and  in 
Malagasy.     In  all  this  range  we  find  no  transition  forms  to  account  for  the 
d  which  occurs  in  Sesake  and  in  Malay.    Yet  an  l-t  mutation  is  by  no  means 
unknown;  in  fact  it  occurs  in  the  next  item. 

I  fail  to  see  on  what  score,  even  of  mere  resemblance,  it  is  sought  to 
include  this  Semitic. 

ral,  re,  the  forehead,  aspect,  face. 

Samoa:  lae,  the  part  between  lip  and  chin  without  hair;  ta'alaelae, 
a  wide  or  bald  forehead,  a  beardless  chin.  Tonga,  Futuna, 
Uvea,  Nuguria,  Hawaii :  lae,  the  brow,  the  forehead .  Sikayana : 
moalae,  id.  Niue:  le,  matale,  muale,  id.  Maori,  Tahiti, 
Paumotu,  Rarotonga:  rae,  id.  Mangareva:  raemata,  the  face, 
the  countenance ;  akarae,  to  cut  the  hair  on  the  forehead ;  korae, 
to  cut  the  hair  of  women  on  the  forehead ;  akakorae,  to  cut  the 
ends  of  the  hair  short  behind.       Rapanui:  korae,  the  brow. 

Nguna:  rae,  the  front.        Malo:  rai,  forehead. 

Malay,  Matu:  dai,  the  brow,  the  forehead.        Java:  rai,  id. 

Ethiopic :  rey,  the  sight,  aspect. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  305 

The  stem  signification  relates  to  something  which,  by  being  clear,  comes 
into  prominence  from  out  of  its  surroundings.  This  we  see  from  the  refer- 
ences to  the  hair  in  Samoa  and  in  Mangareva.  In  Niue  matale  and  Ma- 
ngareva  raemata  we  have  the  same  two  elements ;  the  meaning  is  the  clear 
spot  of  the  face,  and  in  a  people  so  bushily  bearded  as  are  the  men  of  Niue 
this  must  be  localized  upon  the  brow  so  long  as  the  primal  significations  per- 
sist. In  Niue  and  Sikayana  we  find  in  muale  and  moalae  composites  which 
define  the  forehead  as  the  bare  spot  in  front.  The  town  green,  malae  (315), 
is  in  form  a  conditional  derivative  of  this  stem.  The  sense  is  equally 
clear,  for  the  malae  is  distinctly  a  place  clear  of  growth  and  of  the  habita- 
tions of  men;  it  must  be  clear  in  order  to  fit  it  to  be  the  stage  of  the  public 
activities  of  the  simple  island  life. 

The  Melanesian  identifications  are  satisfactory,  but  in  the  brevity  of  our 
vocabulary  material  we  have  no  means  of  knowing  if  aught  of  the  primary 
sense  here  persists.  The  alternative  Efate'  re  finds  a  parallel  in  Niue  le, 
the  change  of  ae  to  e  being  notably  common  in  the  latter  tongue  (17  Journal 
of  the  Polynesian  Society,  91). 

The  Indonesian  identifications,  though  few,  are  found  in  the  strongest 
languages  of  that  area  and  are  acceptable,  continuing  from  the  preceding 
item  the  note  as  to  l-t  mutation. 

The  Semitic  proposed  is  at  least  in  form  a  resemblance,  but  the  sense  is 
widely  remote  from  the  stem  signification  of  lae. 

262. 

rau,  rarau,  to  grope  for  with  the  hand,  to  seize,  to  snatch  out  or  away. 
Tonga :  lau,  lalau,  lauji,  to  pinch  with  the  fingers,  to  nip.     Hawaii : 

lau,  to  feel  after  a  thing;  lalau,  to  extend  (as  the  hand),  to 

seize,  to  catch  hold  of. 
Mota:  rau,  to  thrust  the  hand  into  a  bag;  raun,  to  thrust  in  the 

hand  and  take  out  something.         Aneityum:  rap,  raprap,  to 

grope  for. 
Malay:  raba,  to  feel  for,  to  grope;  rawa,  to  handle. 
Arabic :  lamaa,  to  feel  for,  to  grope,  to  take  away. 

It  is  by  no  means  certain  that  Tonga  lau  is  herewith  correlated,  for  in  that 
the  sense  is  particularly  to  nip  and  in  the  Efate,  Mota,  and  Hawaii  to  grope 
for  and  take  hold  of.  The  Tonga  stem  is  laut,  and  this  does  not  elsewhere 
appear.  In  Mota  raun  it  is  explained  that  n  is  a  suffix  to  make  verbs  defin- 
itely transitive;  yet,  as  no  less  than  seven  of  the  Mota  consonants  are 
stated  to  be  thus  employed  indifferently,  I  incline  to  view  this  n  as  radical, 
the  stem  being  laun. 

Aneityum  rap  involves  a  most  infrequent  mutation  from  the  vowel  u  to 
the  labial  mute.  The  sense  is  satisfactory,  but  this  change  is  not  to  be 
accepted  until  a  better  knowledge  of  this  crabbed  tongue  shows  this  muta- 
tion to  be  normal  though  violent. 

The  same  consideration  casts  grave  doubt  upon  the  validity  of  the  Malay 
raba. 

Of  course  the  Arabic  lamaa  is  too  remote  for  attention. 


306  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

263. 
soa  (saisai),  so,  companion,  follower,  especially  of  the  opposite  sex. 

Samoa,  Futuna:  soa,  friend,  fellow,  companion.  Ticopia:  soa, 
friend.  Sikayana:  tosoa,  id.  Nuguria:  haisoa,  id.  Maori: 
hoa,  a  friend,  a  mate ;  hoahoa,  a  spouse.  Tonga,  Tahiti,  Hawaii, 
Marquesas,  Rapanui,  Paumotu:  hoa,  friend,  fellow,  companion. 
Mangareva:  hoa,  oa,  id.  Rarotonga:  oa,  id.  Fotuna:  soa, 
brother's  brother,  sister's  sister.  Nukuoro :  soa,  soka,  a  friend. 
Bierian:  ohoa,  wife,  husband.     Baki:  koa,  id.     Mota:  soai,  member, 

component  part  of  an  organic  whole. 
Kayan :  hawa,  a  wife. 
Arabic :  s'ai',  an  associate,  follower. 
Dr.  Macdonald  associates  soa  and  so  with  saisai  to  assemble,  with  less 
attention  to  the  eytmology  of  Efate  than  to  the  Semitic  with  which  he 
wishes  to  affiliate  it. 

The  sex  idea  is  widely  extended ;  in  Efat6,  Maori,  Bierian,  Baki,  and 
Kayan  the  opposite  sexes,  distinct  statement  of  the  same  sexes  only  in 
Fotuna.  In  Nukuoro  the  intrusion  of  k  in  the  alternative  form  soka  is  not 
understood.  In  Baki  koa  the  change  from  h  to  k  is  so  violent,  particularly 
when  it  is  recalled  that  the  small  island  of  Epi  is  the  home  both  of  Baki 
and  Bierian,  that  we  suspect  the  not  unnatural  error  of  a  printer  in  reading 
foreign  manuscript. 

Without  cognate  forms  in  Indonesia  we  may  neither  quite  accept  nor 
wholly  reject  the  Kayan  word. 

The  Arabic  is  greatly  in  need  of  proof  before  it  can  be  accepted. 

264. 
song  i,  sung  i,  sum  i,  to  kiss. 

Samoa :  songi,  to  rub  noses,  to  salute ;  songisongi,  to  smell.  Futuna, 
Nukuoro:  songi,  to  kiss.  Tonga:  hongi,  to  smell,  to  sniff. 
Niue:  hongi,  hohongi,  honungi,  id.  Uvea:  hongi,  hohongi,  id. 
Rapanui:  hongi,  to  kiss,  to  smell;  hongihongi,  joy.  Paumotu, 
Tongarewa:  hongi,  to  rub  noses,  to  kiss.  Marquesas:  honi, 
hoki,  to  kiss,  to  smell.  Hawaii:  honi,  id.  Rarotonga, 
Mangareva:  ongi,  to  smell,  to  kiss,  to  salute  by  rubbing  noses. 
Tahiti:  hoi,  hohoi,  id. 
Lambell :  isong,  to  smell.  King :  sangopi,  id.  Aneityum :  aijumnyi, 
to  kiss.  Maewo:  cf.  mbunimbuni,  mbunimbunisi,  to  smell, 
to  kiss. 
Malay:  chyum,  to  smell,  to  kiss. 

Ethiopic:  sa'ama,  to  kiss.         Arabic:  s'amma,  to  smell  (there  is  no 
trace  of  this  meaning  in  Efat6). 
The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  songit. 

Outside  of  Efat6  we  do  not  recognize  this  stem  in  Melanesia  until  we 
reach  the  New  Ireland  coast  at  the  east  gate  of  migration.  The  Maewo 
forms  noted  are  quite  irreconcilable  with  this  stem  even  in  abrasion,  and 
the  Aneityum  word  is  more  a  puzzle  than  a  comparable  form.  The  Lambell 
isdng  is  clearly  homogenetic.  King  is  in  geography  and  speech  so  close  to 
Lambell  that  we  have  no  doubt  in  the  recognition  of  sang-  in  sangopi,  but 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  307 

the  language  is  yet  so  little  known  that  we  can  not  explain  the  change  of 
vowel  or  the  latter  member  of  the  composite. 

The  Malay  is  not  at  all  to  be  considered .  It  seems  to  me  that  Dr.  Macdonald 
has  brought  in  the  Aneityum  and  the  Malay  to  establish  a  chain  running 
sungi-sumi-aijumnyi-chyum-s'amma.  Inasmuch  as  there  is  no  strength  in 
the  inner  links  the  chain  scarcely  supports  the  Semitic  load. 

265. 
suma,  uma,  himwa,  house.  ^  <-  •  . 

Maori:  ruma,  a  room,  an  apartment. 

The  following  words  mean  house: 

Duke  of  York,  Motu,  Uni,  Doura,  Kabadi :  ruma.  Wango :  rumwa. 
Lambell,  Lamassa :  rumai.  New  Guinea,  Laur :  rum.  Buka : 
luma,  aluma,  lumu.  Bougainville,  Alite,  Ugi,  Uni,  Pokau: 
luma.  Iai,  Epi,  Rubi:  uma.  Lifu,  Uea:  uuma.  Lakon: 
umwa.  Waigiou,  Moanus:wm.  Tubetube :  yuma,  id.  Treas- 
ury Island,  Sinaugoro,  Hula,  Keapara,  Galoma,  Suau,  Sariba, 
Tavara,  Awalama,  Taupota,  Wedau,  Galavi,  Boniki:  numa. 
Saa :  numwe.  Tubetube :  numi,  id.  Fagani :  rima.  Ulawa, 
Bululaha :  nimwa.  Tangoan  Santo,  Ambrym :  ima.  Eromanga: 
imo.  Aneityum:  im.  Mota,  Arag:  imwa.  Deni,  Nengone: 
mwa.  Merlav,  Mosin :  imw.  Lo  :emwa.  Motlav,  Volow :  emu). 
Norbarbar,  Pak,  Eeon :  eng.  Makura :  na-ingma.  Aneityum : 
neom,  niim. 

Malay,  Baju,  Liang,  Eariko:  rumah.  Matabello:  oruma.  Kisa: 
rome.  Aniblaw :  lumah.  Cajeli,  Caimarian :  luma.  Gah :  lume. 
Mayapo :  humah.     Java :  humah,  uma.     Teluti,  Nikunau :  uma. 

Arabic:  h'a'mat,  h'im',  house. 

Tregear  is  by  no  means  convinced  that  Maori  ruma  is  not  the  borrowing 
of  the  English  room.  Since  the  word  does  not  anywhere  else  enter  the 
Polynesian  area  I  prefer  to  let  our  best  Melanesian  authority  argue  the 
case  for  his  client.  I  cite  herewith  Codrington's  highly  interesting  note 
(Melanesian  Languages,  77) : 

This  is  an  interesting  and  important  word.  The  very  wide  range  of  the  word,  which 
in  Malay  is  ruma,  and  the  great  variety  of  its  forms  point  to  the  great  antiquity  of  this 
as  a  common  possession  of  these  languages.  As  is  the  case  with  the  very  widely  pre- 
vailing name  for  a  canoe,  we  may  argue  that  a  word  which  has  spread  so  far  and  changed 
so  much  goes  to  show  that  the  thing  which  it  names  was  known  to  the  undivided  people 
whose  dispersion  spread  the  word  so  widely  abroad.  If  the  presence  of  certain  common 
words  in  Aryan  languages  shows  that  the  Aryans  did  not  separate  till  certain  arts  were 
known  and  practised  by  the  common  ancestors,  so  we  may  argue  that  the  ocean  lan- 
guages testify  that  the  ancient  speakers  made  canoes,  built  houses,  cultivated  gardens, 
before  the  time  came  when  their  posterity  branched  off  on  their  way  to  Madagascar 
and  Fiji. 

The  word  now  immediately  in  view  as  the  name  of  a  house  ranges  from  the  Malay 
Peninsula,  through  the  islands  of  the  Indian  Archipelago,  to  the  very  extremity  of 
Melanesia  in  the  Loyalty  Islands.  It  has  not  a  continuous  range,  it  appears  and  dis- 
appears at  intervals,  but  in  that  line  and  chain  of  islands  it  is  never  absent  long.  It 
appears  in  Mafoor  at  the  northwest  of  New  Guinea,  and  in  Motu  at  the  southeast,  and 
in  the  Marshall  Islands  of  Micronesia.  In  Polynesian  languages  it  does  not  appear; 
in  the  Kingsmill  it  is  im.    The  fact  that  the  word  has  in  this  way  established  itself 


308  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

generally,  but  not  universally,  at  intervals,  and  not  in  a  continuous  line,  shows  that 
it  is  not  one  which  can  be  traced  to  one  center,  from  whence  it  may  be  thought  to  have 
been  introduced  by  commerce  or  modern  intercourse.  The  same  conclusion  is  enforced 
by  the  consideration  of  the  great  variety  of  the  form  of  the  word,  which  ranges  from 
ruma  to  eng.  If  a  word  appearing  in  its  full  form  in  Malay  were  to  appear  corrupted 
and  changed  as  it  receded  in  distance  from  the  region  in  which  Malay  is  spoken,  we  might 
well  suppose  the  Malay  the  original.  But  when  the  changes  in  form  bear  no  certain 
relation  to  the  distance  from  Malayan  regions,  and  the  variations  are  local  and  discon- 
nected, it  is  not  so ;  some  center  there  must  have  been,  but  it  can  not  now  be  pointed  out. 
The  geographical  range  of  the  word  must  be  observed  by  comparing  the  vocabularies 
with  the  map.  The  variation  of  the  form  can  be  seen  in  the  vocabularies.  In  Mr. 
Wallace's  list  the  Malay  rumah  and  the  Javanese  umah  give  at  once  typical  forms,  one 
with  and  the  other  without  an  initial  consonant.  Of  the  first  type  there  are  also  luma 
and  huma,  of  the  second  um  and  probably  om.  (The  Ceram  word  jeiom,  used  by 
Alfuros,  is  probably  om,  a  form  of  uma,  with  the  collective  prefix  }ei,  Fiji  vei.)  Out  of 
thirty-three  words  twenty-two  are  forms  of  these  types.  The  variety  of  forms  in 
Melanesia  is  greater,  but  the  types  are  the  same;  ruma  is  in  Duke  of  York  and  San 
Cristoval,  uma  in  Api  and  Lakona.  The  vowel  also  changes,  and  ruma,  with  changes 
of  initial  consonant  and  vowel,  becomes  luma,  nume,  huma,  rima,  nima.  By  similar 
change  uma  becomes  ima,  ema,  and  dropping  the  vowels  at  the  beginning  or  end,  'ma, 
im,  eom,  em,  eng.  To  account  for  this  last  change  it  is  enough  to  say  that,  in  the 
neighborhood  where  it  is  made  at  any  rate,  the  m  is  the  nasal  one  which,  as  mentioned 
above,  regularly  changes  into  ng;  ima,  im,  makes  eng,  as  lima  "a  hand"  makes  Fiji 
linga,  Maori  ringa.  This  m  in  Nengone  is  written  'm,  and  the  Nengone  'ma  is  identical 
with  the  Santa  Cruz  mwa. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  Efat6  has  three  forms,  all  more  or  less  remote  from 
the  primal  stem.  Suma  is  found  nowhere  else,  this  being  the  only  language 
in  which  the  word  has  initial  s.  Himwa,  so  far  as  the  initial  is  concerned, 
seems  to  be  a  transition  form  leading  to  the  general  imwa-ima  of  the  north- 
ern New  Hebrides.     Uma  is  found  in  Epi  and  the  distant  Loyalties. 

As  to  the  Arabic  I  venture  the  suggestion  that  it  taxes  philological  prin- 
ciples far  less  to  present  its  affiliation  with  the  German  Heimath  and  Heim. 

266. 
tanu-mi,  tanu-maki,  to  cover  with  earth,  to  put  into  the  ground;  tan  i, 
tun  i,  to  earth  it,  to  cover  with  earth  and  then  with  anything; 
tano,  tan,  earth  of  any  kind,  soil,  clay,  ground. 
Samoa :  tanu,  to  bury,  to  pave ;  tanufale,  to  cover  a  house  with  coco- 
nut leaves  in  a  storm;  tanuma'i,  to  cover  up  with.  Tonga: 
tanu,  tanua,  to  bury,  to  conceal,  to  hide ;  tanuanga,  a  burial  place ; 
tanuma,  to  bury  the  dead  by  numbers;  tanumaki,  to  earth  up 
any  plant  or  tree,  to  hoe,  to  cover  up;  tanumia,  to  be  buried 
by  falling  of  earth  dehris ;  tanutanu,  to  bury,  to  cover  over  with 
earth ;  tano,  a  burial  place.  Futuna :  tanu,  to  bury,  to  inhume, 
to  cover  with  earth ;  tanuma,  a  tomb,  ditch,  trench.  Nuguria : 
tanu,  to  bury;  taruma  (?  tanuma),  a  grave.  Niue:  tanu,  to 
bury,  to  cover  up.  Uvea:  tanu,  to  bury;  tanuma,  tano,  ceme- 
tery, sepulcher;  tanumanga,  a  pit.  Maori:  tanu,  to  bury,  to 
plant,  to  fill  up.  Tahiti:  tanu,  to  plant,  to  bury.  Mangaia: 
tanu,  to  plant.  Mauke :  tanu,  to  bury.  Rapanui :  tanu,  to 
hide,  to  conceal,  to  plant ;  tangata  tanu  kai,  a  cultivator.  Man- 
gareva :  tanu,  to  plant,  to  bury,  to  inhume.  Paumotu :  tanu, 
to  cultivate.  Eotuna :  no-tanu,  no-tanumia,  to  bury.  Hawaii: 
kanu,  to  bury,  to  cover  up  in  the  earth. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  309 

Mota:  tano,  ground;  tanu,  to  bury  with  earth.  Maewo,  Nguna: 
tano,  ground.  Malo:  tanomia,  to  bury.  Kabadi:  kano, 
land.  Deni :  ndano,  ground.  Saar'cwo,  id.  Tanna:  tana, 
land;  (t)anum,  to  bury.  Tarawa:  tan,  id.  Ambrym:  tan, 
ground.  Aneityum:  in-tan,  id.  Lo:  ten,  id.  Laur,  Lambell, 
Lamassa:  tun,  a  grave.         King:  nutun,  id. 

Malay:  tanam,  tanuman,  to  bury,  to  inter,  to  plant.  Basakrama: 
tanam,  id.         Malay:  tanah,  land. 

Arabic:  tana,  to  cover  with  clay;  tino,  tano,  earth,  clay. 

After  defining  tanumi  and  tan  as  burial  with  a  covering  of  earth  Dr. 
Macdonald  says  boldly  "hence"  and  proceeds  to  join  therewith  tano-tan, 
earth,  soil,  ground. 

We  have  clearly  two  distinct  stems  mingled  here. 

That  which  means  the  ground  does  not  at  all  appear  in  Polynesia.  In 
Melanesia  it  is  tano,  ndano,  kano,  'ano,  tana,  tan,  ten.  In  Indonesia  we  find 
Malay  tanah  land.  With  this  stem  the  Arabic  certainly  has  an  identity  of 
form  and  of  sense. 

The  stem  signifying  to  bury  is  in  the  Proto-Samoan  tanum,  and  the  radi- 
cal m  holds  in  Polynesia  almost  without  exception  when  under  the  protec- 
tion of  a  succeeding  vowel.  This  radical  m  is  found  in  two  instances  in 
Melanesia  and  it  persists  in  Indonesia.  The  stem  in  use  in  Polynesia  is 
tanu,  but  in  Tonga  and  Uvea  tano  is  found  along  with  tanu.  Similarly 
in  Malo  we  find  tano,  but  with  the  radical  m  to  fix  the  word.  It  would  seem, 
therefore,  that  in  these  instances  abraded  tanum  and  tano  have  been  con- 
fused. The  Efate  tun  to  bury  is  confirmatory  of  the  New  Ireland  grave 
words  tun  and  nutun.  With  the  tanum  stem  the  Semitic  proposed  is  in 
no  great  accord. 

This  word  has  been  exhaustively  examined  in  the  inner  record  of  its 
structure  in  my  paper  on  root  reducibility  (27  American  Journal  of  Phi- 
lology, 383). 

267. 

tail,  a  season,  time,  year. 

Samoa :  tau,  a  season,  a  year;  tausanga,  a  season,  a  year  of  six  months. 
Tonga:  ta'u,  &  season,  a  crop,  a  year;  ta'ube,  annual.  Futuna: 
tau,  season  for  planting  and  particularly  for  yams.  Uvea :  tau, 
era ;  tau,  year.  Niue :  tau,  a  year,  a  season.  Maori :  tau,  a 
year.  Tahiti,  Raro tonga:  tau,  a  season.  Marquesas:  tau, 
a  year  (of  ten  months).  Rapanui:  tau,  a  year,  a  season. 
Mangareva :  tau,  a  year,  the  season  of  the  breadfruit.  Paumotu : 
tau,  a  season,  a  period.  Nukuoro :  tau,  ngatau,  a  year.  Aniwa: 
tou,  a  year.  Hawaii:  kau,  a  season,  the  summer  or  warm 
season,  a  lifetime. 

Mota :  tau,  a  season.        New  Britain :  taun,  a  year. 

Java,  Sulu:  tahun,  a  year.  Matu:  ta'un,  id.  Ilocan:  taoen,  id. 
Tagalog:  toon,  id.  Bugi:  taung,  id.  Macassar:  taoeng, id. 
Malagasy:  taona,  a  year,  a  time,  a  season. 

Arabic:  zaman,  a  year.  Syriac:  ziban,  id.  Modern  Syriac: 
zona,  id. 


310  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

The  Samoan  tausanga  seems  to  suggest  a  taus  stem.  This  can  not  further 
be  recognized  in  Polynesia;  therefore  we  are  not  justified  in  putting  it 
forward  adversely  to  the  taun  stem  which  appears  in  all  the  Indonesian 
identifications  and  in  Melanesia  is  found  in  New  Britain. 

The  Semitic  is  impossible  except  Modern  Syriac  zona,  and  that  is  but  a 
partial  resemblance. 

268. 

trfei,  talai,  the  ancient  axe  or  adze-like  axe  (a  shell). 

Samoa :  talai,  to  adze.  Tonga :  talai,  to  smooth  off  rough  edges. 
Futuna:  talai,  to  cut  off  knots  or  thorns.  Niue:  toki  talai, 
an  adze.  Maori:  tarai,  tarei,  to  chop  or  smooth  as  with  an 
adze.  Tahiti:  tarai,  to  chop  or  adze  a  piece  of  timber;  toi 
tarai,  an  adze.  Mangaia :  tarai,  to  adze,  to  hew.  Mangareva : 
tarai,  to  rough  hew.  Paumotu :  tarai,  to  cut,  to  hew.  Hawaii : 
kalai,  id.        Marquesas :  tadi,  to  smooth  with  an  axe  or  tool. 

Motu :  talai,  to  chop.  Mota :  tara,  to  hew,  chop,  cut.  Merlav : 
tar  a,  to  cut.  Massim:  tara,  to  cut  off.  Gog:  tar,  to  cut. 
Volow:  ter,  id.        Aneityum:  inpas  aterei,  adze. 

Malay:  charai,  to  part,  to  separate. 

Arabic :  s'araha,  to  cut,  to  slice,  to  carve,  to  dissect. 

This  stem  is  readily  identified  as  homogenetic  in  Polynesia  and  Mela- 
nesia, and  it  preserves  the  verb-formative  i  as  far  away  as  Motu.  The 
undoubtedly  earlier  verb  tara  exists  in  Mota  and  Merlav,  and  has  undergone 
terminal  abrasion  in  Gog  and  Volow.  In  the  Aneityum  locution  aterei  has 
altogether  the  appearance  of  identity  with  talai;  but  Inglis  in  his  vocabu- 
lary of  that  language  defines  the  word :  aterei,  crooked,  bent ;  inpas  aterei, 
an  adze.  Inference  should  not  be  allowed  to  outbalance  the  record  of  the 
reporter;  therefore  we  leave  the  matter  open  pending  further  research  in 
the  field. 

In  the  Malay  charai  we  find  a  change  of  initial  t  which  is  not  wholly 
without  precedent,  but  of  far  greater  moment  is  the  change  of  sense;  the 
identification  is,  therefore,  doubtful. 

The  Semitic  is  remote  from  talai  both  in  form  and  in  sense. 

269. 
toki,  an  axe ;  t5k,  violence,  force. 

Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea,  Nukuoro,  Fotuna,  Mangaia,  Marquesas: 
toki,  an  axe,  a  hatchet.        Maori,  Mangareva:  toki,  an  axe,  an 
adze,  or  similar  tool.      Tongarewa:  toki,  an  adze.     Rapanui: 
toki,  a  stone  axe.        Nuguria:  toki,  a  shell  axe.        Paumotu: 
toki,  to  hit,  strike,  drive  in,  the  edge  of  tools.        Samoa:  to'i, 
a  hatchet.        Tahiti :  toi,  a  hatchet  or  tomahawk.        Hawaii : 
,kqi,jL  small  adze. 
Duke  of  York:  torki,  toki,  to  cut  or  lance,  to  cut  out  a  spear  point. 
Mota:  toto,  totogag,  to  chop.        Aneityum:  cf.  etuko,  to  split 
wood. 
Baliyon :  tuk,  to  chop. 
Arabic :  takka,  to  cut.        Hebrew :  tok,  violence. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  311 

The  Kfate  tok  violence  is  visible  nowhere  within  the  horizon  of  our  studies, 
and  is  suspicious  in  view  of  its  positive  resemblance  to  Hebrew  tok  violence. 

In  Polynesia  we  find  no  variation  from  the  axe  signification  except  in 
the  Paumotu,  which  in  many  particulars  represents  a  very  primitive  type 
of  the  language.  The  Paumotu  meanings  make  it  possible  to  accept  with- 
out hesitation  the  Duke  of  York  signification,  which  is  not  readily  associable 
with  a  hatchet  sense. 

The  second  form  in  Mota  totogag,  of  which  ag  is  recognized  as  a  verb 
definitive  suffix,  yields  us  an  abraded  form  tog,  which  undergoes  yet  further 
abrasion  into  toto.  The  Aneityum  etuko  is,  like  most  of  the  identifications 
in  that  obscure  speech,  by  no  means  distinctly  established. 

We  meet  the  stem  but  once  in  Indonesia,  an  abraded  form  as  in  Mota 
and  with  a  vowel  change  like  that  in  Aneityum. 

The  Arabic  is  a  resemblance ;  more,  however,  to  the  eye  than  to  the  ear, 
for  when  spoken  the  triliteral  is  at  once  apparent. 

270. 

tuai,  tuei,  old,  ancient,  long  ago,  a  long  time  hereafter;  bakatuai,  to  pro- 
long, to  put  off,  to  delay. 

Samoa:  tuai,  former,  olden,  to  be  a  long  time;  tuatuai,  somewhat 
long,  to  delay;  fa'atuai,  to  prolong,  to  put  off,  to  defer,  to 
delay.  Tonga:  tuai,  delay,  procrastination,  slow,  dilatory, 
to  be  long,  to  defer;  fakatuai,  fakatuotuai,  to  linger,  to  delay, 
to  defer,  to  procrastinate,  to  protract.  Niue :  tuai,  old,  ancient ; 
fakatuai,  slow.  Uvea :  tuai,  to  delay,  to  loiter.  Nukuoro : 
tuai,  ancient.  Aniwa,  Vate:  tuai,  old.  Rapanui:  tuhai, 
old,  ancient. 

Eromanga  1  itetuai,  of  old ;  etuai,  some  time  ago.  Sesake :  tuai, 
formerly.  Mota :  tuai,  old  times.  Bierian :  tuai,  long  ago. 
Malo:  tuai,  old.  Malekula:  tue,  old.  Aneityum:  itu,  old, 
former.         Baravon:  kua,  old.         Pak:  'ue,  id. 

Malay:  tuwah,  old.        Java:  tuwa,  id. 

Arabic:  'adiyy',  old,  ancient. 

It  seems  that  here  we  are  dealing  with  a  tua  stem  of  which,  with  conditional 
ma,  matua  (216)  may  be  a  derivative.  That  the  stem  really  is  tua,  and  i 
but  the  definitive  suffix,  appears  in  the  duplicated  Tonga  faka-tuotuai. 

In  tracing  the  stem  in  Melanesia  we  find  in  Eromanga  and  Aneityum  pre- 
fixes of  uncertain  value.  Most  of  the  identifications  in  the  western  Pacific 
maintain  the  full  tuai  form.  Absence  of  the  definitive  suffix  is  found  in 
Baravon,  if  we  accept  the  t-k  mutation  despite  the  fact  that  this  is  its  only 
appearance  among  eight  cases  of  t  found  in  our  material,  and  in  Malekula. 
In  this  group  belongs  Pak  'ue,  for  it  is  characteristic  of  that  tiny  speech 
to  throw  out  t.    The  last  stage  of  abrasion  is  found  in  Aneityum  i-tu. 

The  Indonesian  identifications  are  scanty  but  valid. 

The  Polynesian  has  a  t  in  tuai;  a  Semitic  word  meaning  old  has  been 
found  which  has  a  d  in  it  somewhere.  Another  link  has  been  forged  in  the 
chain  of  Semitic  origins. 


312  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

271. 

un,  a  fish  scale. 

Samoa :  una,  a  scale  of  a  fish,  a  plate  of  tortoise  shell;  unafi,  to  scale 
a  fish.  Futuna :  una,  tortoise  shell ;  unafi,  fish  scale.  Niue: 
una,   tortoise  shell;  hinafi,   fish   scale.  Maori,  Marquesas, 

Rapanui,  Mangareva:  unahi,  fish  scale.  Tahiti,  Marquesas, 
Paumotu :  unahi,  to  scale  a  fish.  Hawaii :  wwo,  tortoise  shell ; 
unahi,  fish  scale.  Tonga:  uno,  fish  scale,  tortoise  shell. 
Uvea:  uno,  fish  scale.  Fotuna:  ano-na-unafi,  id.  Nuguria: 
unafi,  id. 

Motu:  una,  fish  scale;  unahia,  to  scale  a  fish.  Aneityum:  ninihen, 
fish  scale. 

Malay:  unus,  to  pull  out. 

Hebrew:  halas,  to  pull  out,  to  pull  off.        Arabic:  h'ala'a,  id. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  unaf .  In  general  these  closed  stems  are  better 
preserved  in  the  Proto-Samoan  migration  than  in  the  Tongafiti;  here, 
however,  the  strong  stem  oddly  appears  where  least  it  would  be  expected. 
Unafi  is  in  form  a  verb ;  the  verb -formative  suffix  i  is  added  to  the  simple 
stem.  In  Samoa  and  Motu  unafi  is  a  verb  and  distinct  from  the  noun,  in 
which  the  final  consonant  has  been  abraded ;  in  Maori,  Mangareva,  Futuna, 
Niue,  Fotuna,  and  Hawaii  unafi  is  the  noun  and  una  is  either  absent  or  else 
specialized  to  mean  one  of  the  plates  in  a  head  of  turtle ;  in  the  Marquesas 
it  is  both  noun  and  verb. 

The  only  phonetic  variants  in  the  Polynesian  are  these:  in  Niue  the 
frontal  accretion  by  an  aspirate,  this  seeming  to  be  sporadic,  since  a  primal 
aspiration  in  the  stem  would  have  been  represented  in  other  languages 
of  the  stock  in  some  mutation  form ;  in  the  same  speech  the  change  of  u  to 
i,  a  change  which  we  shall  find  again  only  in  Aneityum ;  in  Tonga  and  Uvea 
the  change  of  a  to  o  in  the  second  vowel. 

In  Motu,  that  very  remote  colony  of  the  swarm  which  left  Indonesia  by 
the  southern  gate,  we  find  noun  and  verb  used  exactly  as  in  Samoa.  The 
only  other  identification  which  Melanesia  has  afforded  us  is  n-inihe-n  of 
Aneityum.  In  this  the  initial  n  is  clearly  the  article ;  the  final  n  is  observed 
upon  a  great  many  noun  stems  which  end  in  a  vowel.  For  the  initial  vowel 
of  inihe  we  have  already  observed  a  precedent  in  Niue.  The  mutation  f-h 
is  common  in  Polynesia  and  we  have  several  instances  of  its  occurrence  in 
Aneityum. 

The  Malay  identification  is  not  only  presented  as  fact  by  Macdonald.but 
has  also  received  very  respectful  consideration  by  Tregear,  who  is  by  no 
means  cordially  disposed  to  the  Malayo-Polynesian  theory.  Yet  to  accept 
this  identification  requires  us  to  assume  the  equivalence  of  unaf  and  unus, 
an  assumption  far  too  violent  to  be  satisfactory ;  and  then  in  addition  to 
disregard  the  fact  that  in  the  sense  of  the  Malay  unus  to  pull  out  Samoa  has 
unusi,  Tonga  has  unuhi  and  so  have  several  of  the  Tongafiti  languages. 

About  the  only  point  of  identity  upon  which  the  Semitic  could  be  hung 
is  the  final  s  in  Malay  unus.  Now  that  that  is  removed  from  consideration 
the  Hebrew  can  show  no  resemblance. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  313 

EFATE-MELANESIAN-VITI-POLYNESIAN-MALAY-SEMITIC. 

272. 

abu,  afu,  au,  ashes;  abuabu,  afuafu,  to  be  dusty,  to  fly  in  the  air  (dust) ; 
libu,  lifu,  to  be  ashy,  ash-colored,  dirty  or  covered  with  ashes, 
as  in  mourning  for  the  dead;  mafu,  a  thick  vapor  like  dust, 
uncleanness  (ritual)  which  makes  the  sight  dim. 
e    ne-buL-^efuf ' ' 

Samoa:  efu,  efuefu,  dust,  to  become  dust.  Tonga:  efu,  dust; 
efuefu,  ashes;  efuhia,  dusty,  covered  with  dust;  fakaefu,  to 
raise  a  dust;  maefu,  dust;  ngaehu,  muddy,  turbid.  Futuna: 
efu,  dust  in  general.  Niue :  efu,  efuefu,  dust ;  efuefu-afi,  ashes. 
Uvea:  efu,  ashes;  efuefu,  dust.  Marquesas:  ehu,  fragments, 
to  fall  in  particles ;  ehu  ahi,  ashes ;  ehuehu,  twilight  of  morning 
and  evening.  Maori :  §Jzu,  turbid,  mist.  Tahiti :  ehu,  dis- 
colored, muddy.  Hawaii :  ejm,  spray,  steam ;  ehuehu,  darkness 
arising  from  dust,  fog  or  vapor;  kuehu,  to  shake  the  dust  from 
a  mat.  Mangareva:  ehu,  dust,  ashes.  Rapanui:  ehu,  fire- 
brand, ashes. 

lefu. 

Samoa :  lefu,  ashes ;  lelefu,  to  be  burnt  to  ashes ;  fa'alelefu,  to  reduce 
to  ashes.  Niue:  polefu,  mist,  fog.  Futuna:  lefu,  ashes 
slacked  in  water  for  dressing  the  hair.  Uvea :  lefulefu,  ashes. 
Nukuoro:  lefu,  ashes;  rehu,  dust.  Nuguria:  lehulehu,  ashes. 
Hawaii:  lehu,  ashes;  lelehu,  to  see  with  difficulty,  to  become 
blind.  Maori:  rehu,   mist;  pungarehu,   ashes;  rehutai,   sea 

spray;  turehu,  indistinctly  seen.  Tahiti:  rehu,  ashes,  soot, 
powder  in  general;  rehurehu,  the  dusk.  Rapanui:  rehu,  dust. 
Mangareva :  rehu,  reu,  ashes ;  rehurehu,  the  morning  soon  after 
sunrise ;  reureu,  morning.  Sikayana :  rehu,  lime.  Rarotonga : 
reu,  ashes;  reureu,  dark.  Moriori:  purungehu,  ashes. 
nefu. 

Samoa:  nefu,  to  be  stirred  up,  turbid,  muddy;  nenefu,  to  be  dim, 
indistinct.  Tonga:  nenefu,   twilight,   dimness,   dim,   dull, 

uncertain.  Futuna:  nenefu,  dimness  of  vision.  Uvea: 
nefunefu,  darkness,  gloom,  mist,  vapor,  turbid,  dusty.  Maori: 
nehu,  dust,  steam;  nehunehu,  dusky.  Mangareva:  panehu, 
to  dry  up,  to  wither;  paneu,  gray,  covered  with  dust. 

Viti:  ndravu,  ashes;  ndravundravua,  ashy;  ndravukasi,  dust,  dusty; 
ndravusa,  ashes,  to  rub  the  head  with  ashes.  Rotuma:  roh, 
ashes. 

Marina:  avuavu,  ashes.  Arag:  taniavu,  id.  Lakon:  tangehav,  id. 
Maewo :  ndigevu,  id.  Fagani,  Vaturanga,  Nggela,  Guadalcanar : 
ravu,  id.  Bugotu:  pindaram,  id.  Nggao:  parafu,  id.  Motu: 
rahurahu,  ashes,  a  fireplace.  Doura :  kokorahu,  ashes.  Kabadi : 
rauna,  id.  Savo:  lavu,  id.  Roro:  r abu,  id.  Uni:  labu,  id. 
Wedau,  Galavi,  Boniki :  lapukare,  id.  Duke  of  York :  kabu,  id. 
Taupota:  gabuwari,  id.        Wedau:  ai-gabuwari,  id.        Sesake: 


314 


THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 


tano  au,  ashes.  Mota:  rav,  dusk;  ravrav,  dusk  of  evening; 
malurav,  id. ;  marav,  dim,  misty.  Pak,  Sasar,  Alo  Teqel :  uwus, 
ashes.  Mosin:  twwus,  id.  Mota,  Gog:  tarowo,  id.  Vuras, 
Motlav:  wowo,  id.  Lo:  wowa,  id.  Norbarbar:  powo,  puio,  id. 
Keapara:  abu,  id.  Mekeo:  ae-apu,  id.  Motu:  gahu,  id. 
Tavara:  gahue,  id.     Awalama:  gahuwe,  id.     Sariba:  gavara,  id. 

Malay:  abu, dabu,  labu,  dust,  ashes ;  kalabu,  klabu,  ashy,  ash-colored. 
Java:  aw,  kluwu,  dust,  ashes.         Malagasy:  vuvuka,  id. 

Arabic:  M>a  (habu),  to  rise,  to  float  in  the  air  (dust),  to  become 
like  dust,  ashes;  habwat,  dust;  habut,  dust,  dust  mixed  with 
ashes;  hebwa,  fine  dust,  powder;  mutahabbi,  weak  in  sight. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  that  an  intimate  relationship  obtains  between 
efu,  lefu,  and  nefu.  It  is  too  early  to  establish  the  relation,  yet  from 
the  form  I  am  hopeful  that  further  inquiry  along  the  lines  which  I  have 
already  discussed  in  the  presentation  of  my  theory  of  development  by 
consonantal  modulants  will  lay  bare  the  life  history  of  this  interesting 
group.  The  only  backward  glimpse  which  our  material  affords  is  that 
which  Tonga  efuhia  gives  us  of  a  Proto-Samoan  stem  ef us,  and  this  is  found 
again  to  the  westward. 

As  the  stems  indicate  relationship  by  their  form,  so  do  the  several  signifi- 
cations show  that  the  stems  are  so  near  that  it  is  possible  for  a  certain 
meaning  to  appear  first  in  one  and  then  in  another.  The  following  tabu- 
lation will  make  that  clear : 


Dust. 

Ashes. 

Vapor. 

Darkness. 

Twilight. 

Muddy. 

Tonga 

Niue 

Nukuoro 

Morion 

Tahiti 

Marquesas  .  .  . 
Rarotonga  .  .  . 
Mangareva .  .  . 
Hawaii 

efu 

efu 

efu 

efu,  nefu 

efu 

rehu 

nehu 

rehu 
ehu 

ehu,  neu 
ehu 

lefu 

efu 

efu 

efu,  lefu 

lefu 

lefu 

rehu.  .  .  . 

rehu 

rehu 

ehu 

reu 

ehu,  rehu 

lehu 

lefu 
nefu 

(ehu  ' 
inehu 
[rehu  _ 

ehu 

nefu 
nefu 

nefu 
nefu 

rehu,  nehu 

reu 
ehu,  lehu 

nefu 

rehu 
ehu 

nefu 
ehu 

nefu 

ehu 

ehu 

A  glance  down  these  columns  will  show  how  the  sense  plays  from  one 
stem  to  each  of  its  associates ;  there  is  but  one  column  that  does  not  carry 
all  three  stems,  and  the  Maori  employs  all  three  to  express  the  signification 
vapor.  We  are,  therefore,  wholly  justified  in  dealing  with  the  three  as  a 
unit  in  examining  their  exterior  relations. 

In  the  three  Polynesian  lists  there  is  little  which  calls  for  explanation, 
for  we  scarcely  need  pause  here  to  dissect  the  few  simple  composites.  The 
Moriori  purungehu  ashes  is  readily  reducible  as  a  metathesis  upon  the 
Maori  pungarehu.  The  crepuscular  sense  is  plain  in  Tonga,  Tahiti,  and  the 
Marquesas  as  an  immediate  development  out  of  the  yet  more  general 
meaning  of  darkness  and  indistinctness  of  vision ;  yet  in  Mangareva  rehurehu 
we  find  the  word  transferred  from  the  gloaming  before  the  dawn  to  a  posi- 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  315 

tion  after  sunrise,  when,  in  the  clear  light  of  day,  the  primal  sense  is  lost. 
The  Sikayana  rehu  lime,  a  specialized  powder,  finds  a  far-eastern  parallel 
in  Tahiti  rehu,  which  is  distinctly  applicable  to  any  powder. 

In  Efate"  we  find  efu  (abu,  afu,  au)  and  lefu  (libu,  lifu);  mafu  is  not  to  be 
correlated  with  any  of  the  Polynesian  stems. 

Viti  ndravu,  both  dust  and  ashes,  recalls  the  vowel  found  in  Efat6  abu, 
and  at  the  same  time  the  ndr  is  evidential  that  the  Proto-Samoan  stem 
was  refu  with  the  r  grasseyd  (Samoan  Phonetics,  17  Journal  of  the  Poly- 
nesian Society,  152). 

In  Melanesia  we  shall  institute  our  search  for  the  simple  stem.  I  have 
already  remarked  that  this  was  efus.  This  enables  us  at  once  to  pick  up 
the Vanua  Lava  forms,  the  uwus  of  Pak,  Sasar,  and  Alo  Teqel ;  the  s,  in  fact 
the  us,  is  clear  at  first  sight,  the  f-w  mutation  is  confirmed  by  a  widely 
extended  range  of  examples.  Mosin  tuwus  is  this  identified  uwus  with 
frontal  accretion  of  some  sort.  Vuras  is  but  a  few  miles  from  Sasar  along 
the  same  beach,  therefore  wowo  is  readily  acceptable  as  a  dialectic  variant ; 
the  terminal  s  has  dropped  off  and  the  then  final  wu  has  undergone  modifi- 
cation to  wo  and  later  duplication.  Motlav  has  the  same  form,  and  Lo 
wowa  but  slightly  differs.  Having  now  established  wo  as  the  vestige  of  efu 
we  find  it  a  composition  member  of  puwo  of  Norbarbar  and  tarowo  of  Gog 
and  Mota.  Starting  afresh  with  efu,  we  find  it  in  Hfati  afu,  abu;  in  Marina 
avuavu;  as  a  composition  member  in  Arag,  Eakon  and  Maewo  forms ;  having 
lost  its  labial  we  have  au  in  Efate  and  Sesake,  this  identification  being 
open  to  such  doubt  as  our  lack  of  cordiality  to  internal  loss  may  warrant. 

We  next  examine  the  lefu  stem.  In  Efate"  lifu  and  libu  are  clear.  Ravu 
is  well  distributed,  both  independently  and  in  composition,  rafu,  rahu,  lavu, 
and  in  Mota  rav. 

The  Duke  of  York  kabu  ashes  is  to  be  rejected,  but  I  have  left  it  with 
this  material  because  of  its  reappearance  in  Viti  kambu  vapor,  which  is  one 
of  the  senses  pertaining  to  this  protean  efu  stem. 

Our  Indonesian  material  is  scanty,  but  efu  and  lefu  stems  are  recognizable. 

In  the  Semitic  offered  for  our  consideration  it  must  be  acknowledged 
that  there  is  a  certain  resemblance,  but  the  disclosure  of  a  final  t  where  our 
Polynesian  has  the  ^-terminal  is  enough  to  stamp  this  as  not  a  family 
resemblance. 

273- 

(a)  afa  ki,  5fa  ki,  to  bury. 

Samoa :  ufi.  a  lid,  a  cover,  to  cover,  to  conceal ;  ufita'i,  to  cover  with. 
Tonga:  uufi,  a  cover,  to  cover,  to  overspread;  ufiufi,  to  cover, 
to  conceal.  Futuna:  uufi,  to  cover,  to  hide,  to  conceal,  to 
disguise ;  iifia,  covered ;  ufiufi,  to  cover  things  without  envelop- 
ing them.  Uvea :  ufi,  uufi,  to  cover.  Niue :  ufi,,  a  covering, 
to  cover  up,  to  conceal.  Maori :  m/mj,  uwhi,  to  cover,  a  cover- 
ing. Hawaii :  uhi,  a  covering,  a  veil,  to  cover  over  a  thing  so  as 
to  hide  it.         Mangareva :  uhiuhi,  to  hide,  to  cover. 

Viti:  umbia,  to  cover  over;  umbi,  the  top,  lid,  cover,  a  quilt. 

Malagasy :  afina,  to  be  concealed ;  manafina,  to  conceal,  to  bury. 

Arabic:  "aba,  to  conceal,  to  be  concealed,  to  bury. 


316  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

(6)  ui,  uui  (uwi),  the  yam. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea,  Aniwa,  Sikayana :  ufi.  Vate: 
uf.  Maori:  uwhi,  uhi.  Nukuoro,  Moiki,  Tahiti,  Hawaii, 
Mangareva,  Rapanui,  Paumotu:  uhi.  Marquesas:  buauhi. 
Mangaia,  Rarotonga:  ui.        Fotuna:  aufi. 

Viti:  uvi.        Rotuma:  uk. 

British  New  Guinea,  Murua,  Kiriwina,  Galavi,  Boniki:  kwvi,  yam. 
Nggela :  kuikuvi,  a  cover,  to  cover ;  kuvihia,  to  cover ;  kuikuvi, 
a  leaf  used  as  an  umbrella.  Mukawa:  kubi,  yam.  Nada: 
kuva,  id.  Fagani:  uvi,  id.  Pokau:  veu,  id.  Wango,  Saa: 
uhi,  id.  Motu:  uhe,  the  end  of  the  yam,  which  is  kept  for 
planting.  Aneityum :  n-uh,  yam.  Tanna :  n-uk,  id.  New 
Caledonia:  ubi,  id.  Vanikoro:  upie,  id.  Baki:  yubi,  id. 
Eromanga:  n-up,  id.  Baravon:  up,  id.  Makura:  na-u,  id. 
New  Ireland  (Carteret  Harbor):  u,  id.         Pala:  uh,  id. 

Malay:  ubi,   yam.  Kayan:  uvi,   id.  Java,   Kisa:  uwi,   id. 

Malagasy:  ubi,  ovy,  id. 

Arabic:  "ayab,  roots  (so  called  because  buried  in  the  ground). 

The  cause  of  this  collocation  is  the  satisfaction  of  Macdonald's  Semitic 
theory  in  his  naif  interpretation  that  roots  are  things  buried  in  the  ground. 


It  is  highly  problematical  whether  there  is  any  identity  between  afa  ki  and 
ufi.  The  Polynesian  and  the  Viti  make  no  reference  to  burial ;  the  dominant 
sense  is  to  cover  by  setting  the  covering  agent  upon  the  object  to  be  con- 
cealed. It  is  not  until  we  reach  the  Malagasy,  and  a  secondary  form  at 
that,  that  we  find  any  recognition  of  the  burial  sense.  In  general  I  am 
opposed  to  the  acceptance  of  any  Malagasy  identification  where  there  is 
any  but  the  closest  resemblance  of  form  and  meaning,  except  where  we  find 
it  upheld  by  a  satisfactory  suite  of  transition  forms  in  Indonesia.  The 
Arabic  is  quite  as  imperfectly  correlated  with  Polynesian  ufi  as  is  Ffat6 
afa-ki,  in  fact  more  so,  for  we  should  need  evidence  as  to  the  abrasion  of 
so  strong  a  palatal  as  ".  Furthermore  the  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  uf  it.  Its 
only  Melanesian  appearance  is  in  Nggela  kuvihia,  which  bespeaks  a  kuvis 
stem,  not  wholly  to  be  accepted  as  to  fe-accretion  and  t-s  mutation  in  the 
absence  of  transition  forms,  although  we  have  some  evidence  tending  to 
establish  this  mutation. 

B. 

The  absence  of  the  inner  labial  spirant  in  the  Efat6  forms  finds  a  true 
Polynesian  parallel  in  Mangaia  and  Rarotonga;  in  Melanesia  it  is  found 
only  in  the  most  degenerate  forms,  in  which  naught  survives  of  the  word 
but  its  initial  vowel. 

The  Polynesian  life-history  of  the  word  is  plain ;  it  is  written  about  the 
successive  mutations  of  the  central  consonant,  /-fl-A-extinction. 

In  Melanesia  we  shall  examine  the  identifications  by  the  same  criterion. 
The  form  kuvi  is  anomalous  in  the  frontal  fe-accretion  and  it  is  loosely 
accredited  to  a  territory  too  wide  and  heterogeneous  to  admit  of  more  pre- 
cise identification.    The  ufi  form  is  absent  from  this  area.    The  first  stage 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  317 

of  the  upward  progression  therefrom,  uvi,  is  found  in  Fagani,  and  probably 
in  Pokau  if  we  regard  veu  as  a  231  metathetic  form.  The  next  stage,  the 
passage  to  the  aspiration,  is  found  in  Wango  and  Saa  uhi,  Motu  uhe,  and 
in  the  abraded  uh  of  Aneityum  and  Pala.  A  further  step  is  represented 
by  the  uwi  of  Efate.  I^ast  of  all  we  find  that  the  consonant  has  vanished 
to  extinction  in  ui,  also  of  Efate.  In  the  downward  progression  the  first 
step  rests  upon  the  ubi  of  New  Caledonia  and  the  Baki  yubi;  the  next  upon 
the  abraded  up  of  Eromanga  and  Baravon.  The  last  degeneration  is  shown 
in  the  u  of  Makura  and  New  Ireland.  In  Tanna  n-uk  shows  a  mutation, 
labial  to  palatal,  which  we  should  scarcely  be  able  to  support  if  it  were  not 
that  Rotuma,  far  more  intimately  within  the  Polynesian  sphere,  has  also 
the  form  uk. 

In  Indonesia  we  find  five  identifications  of  the  most  satisfactory  character. 

The  Arabic  "ayab  offers  several  difficulties  in  form  besides  its  manifest 
lack  of  connection  in  sense,  even  after  the  pleasing  parenthetical  informa- 
tion. The  guttural  "might  readily  pass  into  k  as  in  kuvi,  but  that  is  an 
uncertain  form  at  best  and  in  the  wide  range  of  the  stem  the  initial  k  is 
nowhere  else  discoverable.  The  duplicated  u  in  Tonga,  Uvea,  and  Futuna 
is  in  no  sense  a  parallel  to  argue  a  double  vowel  sound  persisting  after  the 
dropping  of  the  y  in  "ayab,  for  the  uu  in  these  three  languages  is  no  more 
than  a  device  to  express  the  long  vowel  in  a  font  of  mission  type  which 
lacked  the  macron. 

274. 

angiengi,  the  air,  breeze;  in,  the  wind,  the  air;  langi,  the  wind. 

Samoa :  angi,  to  blow  (of  the  wind) ;  angiangi,  to  blow  gently. 
Tonga:  angi,  to  blow;  angiangi,  to  begin  to  blow.  Futuna: 
angi,  angiangi,  to  blow.  Niue :  angi,  id.  Uvea :  angiangi,  id. 
Nukuoro:  angi,  the  wind;  angiangi,  a  fan.  Maori:  angi,  a 
gentle  breeze;  hengi,  to  blow  gently.  Mangareva:  angi,  a 
light  wind;  angiangi,  to  blow  gently.  Moriori:  hokaangi,  to 
shake  in  the  wind.  Hawaii:  ani,  aneane,  to  blow  gently. 
Marquesas :  ani,  the  air. 

Samoa,  Tonga,  Fakaafo,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea,  Maori,  Mangaia,  Mana- 
hiki,  Rarotonga,  Mangareva :  matangi,  the  wind.  Paumotu : 
matangi,  the  air.  Rapanui:  matangi,  the  air,  a  squall. 
Sikayana,  Nuguria,  Liueniua:  matani,  the  wind.  Hawaii: 
makani, id.  Tahiti:  matai, id.  Marquesas:  metani, melaki, id. 
Aniwa:  tu-mtangi,  id.         Fotuna:  mtangi,  id. 

Viti :  thangi,  the  wind,  the  atmosphere ;  thangina,  to  be  blown  away 
by  the  wind.        Rotuma:  lang,  the  wind. 

Tanna,  Eromanga:  matangi,  the  wind.  Tanna:  mtangi,  id.  Anei- 
tyum: nimtinjop,  id.  Lemaroro:  langi,  id.  Sesake,  Paama, 
Mota:  lang,  id.  Nengone:  'nlang,  id.  Ambrym :  leng,  ling, 
ying,  id.     TJ ea. :  ang,  id.     Malekula :  ni-en,  id.     Tobi:  yang,  id. 

Malay:  angin,  the  wind,  air,  atmosphere.  Java,  Visayas,  Tagalog, 
Magindano :  hangin,  the  wind.  Bicol:  hagnin,  id.  Bugi: 
anging,  id.       Kisa:  ange,  id.       Malagasy:  anina,  id. 

Arabic :  nasama,  to  blow  gently ;  nasam',  na' sam,  nasim',  a  light  wind. 


318  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

In  Polynesia  angi  is  generally  the  verb ;  the  noun  matangi  is  a  composite 
of  angi  in  its  earlier  attributive  value  with  mata  (324).  Only  in  Nukuoro 
and  in  Maori,  Mangareva,  and  the  Marquesas  does  angi  function  as  noun. 
The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  hangi,  this  being  the  true  light  aspiration  which 
has  wholly  vanished  in  the  current  phase  of  the  languages  and  is  recoverable 
only  from  Viti  thangi.     With  this  angi  is  affiliated  the  angiengi  of  Efate\ 

So,  too,  in  an  abraded  and  degraded  form  is,  in  my  opinion,  Efate  in. 
In  its  first  stage,  the  simple  abrasion,  we  find  Uea  (Loyalties)  ang;  parallel 
with  this,  but  in  the  remoter  Micronesian  area,  is  Tobi  yang.  Thus  we 
reach  Ambrym  ying,  from  which  it  is  but  a  simple  step  to  in.  Another 
short  step  thence  leads  us  to  ni-en  of  Malekula. 

The  common  Polynesian  matangi  appears  intact  in  two  of  the  languages 
of  the  New  Hebrides,  of  which  Tanna  has  a  shortened  form  mtangi,  which 
also  appears  in  the  Polynesian  verge  islands  Aniwa  and  Fotuna.  A  yet 
further  deviation  from  this  stem  is  the  rude  ni-mtinjop  of  Aneityum. 

Interwoven  with  these  wind  words  we  find  langi.  I  feel  that  this  is  the 
Polynesian  langi  sky  borrowed  with  only  a  general  regard  for  its  sense. 
We  find  it  in  the  wind  meaning  and  in  its  full  langi  form  in  Efat6  and 
Lemaroro;  abraded  in  Sesake,  Paama,  Mota  and  Nengone;  abraded  and 
subjected  to  vowel  deterioration  in  Ambrym  leng,  ling.  Of  these  Nengone 
and  Mota  express  the  sky  by  Melanesian  words.  The  Melanesian  lang  wind 
occurs  in  Rotuma,  which  uses  langi  for  the  sky. 

In  Indonesia  the  primal  aspiration  is  retained  in  Java,  the  Visayas,  Tag- 
alog,  Magindano  and  Bicol;  and  in  these  and  in  the  other  instances  cited 
the  identification  is  wholly  satisfactory  except  for  the  apparent  inversion 
gn  in  Bicol. 

Between  hangi  and  Semitic  triliterals  nsm  it  is  impossible  to  see  any 
relation. 

275- 

(a)  aka,  koa,  stringy,  fibrous ;  akoa  na,  ako  ana,  root  (literal  and  figurative) ; 

aka  na,  ek,  eka  na,  a  relative,  family  connection  (considered 
as  root  or  offshoot  from). 

Samoa:  a' a,  fibers  of  a  root,  family  connections,  a  plant  whose  root 
is  sometimes  eaten.  Tonga:  aka,  the  root  of  trees,  to  take 
root  in  the  earth.  Futuna :  aka,  root  in  general,  a  vine  with  an 
edible  root.  Niue :  vaka,  a  root ;  aka,  a  soft- leaved  creeping 
plant  whose  root  is  eaten  in  time  of  scarcity.  Uvea:  aka, 

root.  Maori :  aka,  long  fibrous  roots,  a  climbing  plant.  Tahiti : 
aa,  roots.  Hawaii :  .aaj^small  roots.  Marquesas:  aka,  a 
root;  eka,  young  roots  of  trees  from  which  native  cloth  is  made. 
Rarotonga,  Nukuoro,  Rapanui,  Paumotu :  aka,  root.  Nuguria : 
haka,  id. 

Viti :  yaka,  a  creeper  whose  root  is  edible. 

(b)  kaka  naniu,  the  fibrous  substance,  like  coarse  cloth,  that  grows  around 

the  stem  of  the  coconut. 
Samoa :  'a' a,  lau'a'a,  the  fibrous  stipule  of  the  coconut  leaf.    Tonga : 
kaka,  thin  fibrous  substance  found  around  the  young  coconut. 
Futuna:  kdk&,  species  of  tissue  which  grows  on  the  coconut. 
Maori :  kaka,  anything  fibrous  or  stringy.       Marquesas :  kaka, 


DATA  AND  NOTES. 


319 


web  or  cloth  covering  the  leaves  of  coconut  trees,  a  sack. 
Mangareva:  kaka,  the  envelope  of  coconut  leaves.  Tahiti: 
aa,  the  fibrous  substance  which  grows  on  the  coconut,  the  husk 
or  covering  on  the  young  breadfruit  branches.  Hawaii:  aa, 
the  cloth-like  covering  near  the  roots  of  coconut  leaves,  a  coarse 
kind  of  cloth. 

Viti:  waka,  the  fibers  or  roots  of  a  tree.         Rotuma:  va'a,  root. 
These  all  signify  root : 

Murray  Island:  sip  kak.  Duke  of  York:  akar.  New  Britain 
okor.  Bugotu:  oga.  Savo:  ogni.  Arag:  garo.  Alite 
kalokalo.  To:  gurah.  Merlav:  gari.  Gog:  gerin.  Mota 
gariu.  Motlav:  goren.  Sasar:  gorgi.  Pak,  Alo  Teqel 
gergi.  Volow:  girigi.  Mosin:  sigrigi.  Omba:  goarigi. 
Maewo:  goarii.         Lakon:  gegi.         Marina:  goe. 

Malay :  akar,  the  roots  of  a  plant,  a  scandent  plant,  the  parts  of  a 
plant  that  climb ;  akar,  root,  origin,  principle,  foundation  (this 
last  word  is  said  by  Crawfurd  to  be  Arabic).  Kayan:  aha, 
root.         Salayer,  Gah:  akar,  id.         Sula:  kao-akar,  id. 

Arabic :  'akka,  'akak,  to  be  split,  fissured ;  'akko,  a  fissure ;  'akikat',  a 
bag;  'awako,  small  sprouts  shooting  from  the  upper  part  of  a 
palm;  'ikkano,  shoots  sprouting  from  the  roots  of  palms  and 
vines;  'akka,  to  send  forth  such  shoots  from  the  roots. 


In  aka  we  find  two  words  alike  in  form,  aka  a  root  and  aka  the  vine.  In 
general  these  two  words  have  exactly  the  same  form,  but  in  Niue  and  Viti 
they  are  distinguished  and  in  practically  the  same  way.  The  root  signifi- 
cation in  Niue  is  expressed  by  vaka  (vaka  is  also  canoe) ;  in  Viti  waka  (canoe 
being  wangga),  and  Rotuma  va'a  (vaka  being  canoe)  are  the  same.  If  this 
•z/-initial  were  radical  we  should  expect  its  recurrence  somewhere  along  the 
line;  the  frontal  accretion  of  Polynesian  stems  is  so  unusual  that  we  are 
without  data  for  its  intelligent  study.  The  plant  name  in  Niue  is  aka,  as 
in  the  rest  of  Polynesia.  In  Viti  it  is  yaka.  This  Viti  y-initial  is  of  great 
interest  and  therefore  I  give  in  the  following  list  all  the  instances  in  which 
I  have  identified  the  word  in  which  it  is  used  with  a  Polynesian  stem. 


Viti. 

Samoa. 

Meaning. 

Viti. 

Samoa. 

Meaning. 

yambia 

pia 

arrowroot 

yate 

ate 

liver 

yandra 

ala 

awake 

yatu 

atu 

a  row  in  series 

yaka 

aka 

a  plant 

yava 

vae 

foot 

yane 

ane 

a  moth 

yava 

pa 

barren,  of  women 

yam 

ane 

directive 

yavato 

afato 

a  maggot 

yasi 

as% 

sandalwood 

yawa 

ava 

a  fish 

In  yambia  and  in  both  identifications  of  yava  it  will  be  seen  that  it  is  not 
merely  y-initial  but  the  syllable  ya.  There  is  nothing  in  the  life-history  of 
these  words  (cf.  276  for  the  only  other  instance  included  in  these  data)  to 
indicate  that  the  Viti  y-initial  retains  the  impress  of  something  radical. 
Yet  one  must  regard  the  impression  unavoidably  acquired  that  Viti  yaka, 
e.  g.,  retains  some  delicate  intonation  of  vowel  which  characterized  in  the 
Proto-Samoan  the  initials  of  these  words. 


320  THE   POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Efat6  aka  of  relationship  is  repeated  only  in  Samoa.  The  word  for  root, 
akoa,  despite  its  extra  syllable,  may  be  found  to  come  into  concord  with 
Polynesian  aka  through  the  equivalence  of  aka-koa  fibers.  The  type  of 
root  embraced  in  this  word  is  the  fibrous  roots,  as  reappears  here  and  there 
in  these  definitions. 

In  Melanesia  the  identification  is  intricate.  The  Murray  Island  locution 
seems  to  include  a  form  of  this  word.  The  Duke  of  York  akar  is  a  certain 
identification.  New  Britain  okor  is  clearly  the  same  word,  and  Bugotu  oga 
comes  readily  into  line,  and  Savo  og-ni  is  recognizable.  If  now  we  accept 
an  abraded  form  ka,  not  found  independently,  we  shall  find  a  chain  of 
development  as  follows : 

gar  Savo,  Merlav,  Mota,  Alite.       gor  Motlav,  Sasar,  Omba,  Maewo. 
ger  Gog,  Pak,  Alo  Teqel.  gur  1,0. 

gir  Volow,  Mosin. 

Lakon  gegi  and  Marina  goe  are  not  to  be  omitted,  but  they  are  highly 
irregular. 

The  Indonesian  identifications  are  very  clear. 

Unfortunately  for  the  Semitic  identifications  offered  their  correlation 
depends  on  the  harmonizing  of  aka  and  kaka.  Even  then  they  have  no 
significations  which  mean  fiber,  root,  or  this  specialized  stipule. 

B. 

It  is  not  improbable  that  aka  and  kaka  are  homogenetic,  but  the  lan- 
guages have  not  yet  been  sufficiently  studied  after  my  theory  of  coefficient 
modulants  to  enable  us  to  present  any  sort  of  proof.  Ex  hypothesi  we 
should  have  a  stem  ka  with  a  broad  meaning  of  fiber ;  the  element  a  should 
determine  the  ka  fiber  in  some  such  manner  as  to  limit  it  to  root  fibers; 
the  reduplicated  kaka  with  its  intensive  force  should  picture  the  interlacing 
fibers  of  this  natural  product.  Unfortunately  we  can  not  yet  prove  a  single 
one  of  these  points.  Our  kaka  is  limited  to  Polynesia  and  restricted  to  the 
coconut  fabric  except  that  in  Tahiti  it  extends  to  the  breadfruit,  the  bam- 
boo, and  the  sugarcane,  and  that  among  the  Maori,  who  have  not  in  their 
colder  land  the  coconut,  it  has  possibly  reverted  to  the  primordial  sense  of 
anything  fibrous. 

276. 

ate,  the  liver  (of  a  shark),  the  spleen;  are,  the  liver;  uateam,  the  kidneys. 
Samoa,  Tonga,  Futuna,  Niue,  Uvea,  Fotuna,  Nuguria,  Maori,  Tahiti, 

Marquesas,  Mangareva,  Rarotonga:  ate,  the  liver.     Rapanui: 

ate,  the  liver,  the  lungs.         Hawaii:  ake,  id. 
Viti :  yate,  the  liver. 
Solomon  Islands:  ati,  the  chest.       Malekula  Uripiv:  ere,  the  liver. 

New  Guinea  (Maclay  Coast):  arre,  the  liver.        Mota:  varai, 

vare,  the  chest,  the  liver.       Rubi,  Suau,  Dobu :  ate,  the  liver. 

Wedau :  ate,  the  gall  bladder.     Motu :  ase,  aze,  the  liver.     Roro : 

ahe,  id.        Mekeo:  ae,  id.       Nada:  ata,  id.       Sariba:  kate,  id. 

Mukawa:  katekate,  id.     Kiriwina:  kata,  id.     Murua:  katu,  id. 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  321 

Sinaugoro:  gase,  id.     Galoma:  gae,  id.      Hula:  aie,  id.     Awa- 

lama:  ade,  id. 
Malay:  ati,  the  liver,  the  heart  (morally).        Java:  ati,  the  heart. 

Kisa:  akin,  id.        Magindano:  ati,  the  liver.        Pampangas: 

ate,  id.     Ternati:  hut,  id.     Matu:  atai,  id.     Tagalog:  oto^,  id.; 

ati,  the  middle. 
Arabic:  kabd',  kabid',  the  liver.        Hebrew:  kabed,  id.      Ethiopic: 

kabde,  id. 

In  the  Efate  are  several  puzzles.  The  general  name  for  the  liver  in  all 
Polynesia  is  here  the  spleen  of  men,  and  it  should  be  borne  in  mind  that 
in  an  anthropophagous  society  the  works  of  one's  own  kind  are  far  more 
familiar  objects  than  in  communities  of  a  wider  dietary.  The  word  does 
appear  as  the  liver,  but  of  the  shark;  the  human  liver  is  are. 

It  is  possible  that  ate  may  become  are,  this  depending  on  the  validity  of 
the  proof  establishing  the  t-r  mutation  presented  in  note  258.    Are  is  readily 
identifiable  as  ere  in  Malekula  Uripiv,  arre  in  New  Guinea.     Mota  vare  may 
indicate :  (1)  that  there  is  a  stronger  stem  from  which  are  develops  byfrontal 
abrasion — in  which  case  the  ate-are  identification  is  scarcely  probable;  (2) 
that  Mota  has  acquired  v  by  frontal  accretion,  a  process  which  is  by  no 
means  satisfactorily  established ;  (3)  Mota  vare  in  conjunction  with  Viti  yate 
(see  note  275)  may  indicate  some  light  initial  sound  in  Proto-Samoan,  too 
light  to  becaught  in  the  general  scheme  of  Polynesian  consonant  mutation, 
but  attracting  the  ear  of  the  Melanesians  as  a  sound  to  them  difficult  and 
unusual,  therefore  requiring  special  effort  to  preserve,  thus  accounting  for 
the  variance  of  the  result  in  Mota  and  Viti.     My  own  opinion  inclines  to 
the  third  view.    The  fact  that  in  Mota  the  liver  word  includes  the  chest 
leads  naturally  to  the  inclusion  of  Solomon  Island  ati  chest  and  Tagalog 
ati  the  middle  in  these  identifications. 
The  Indonesian  citations  are  perfectly  satisfactory. 
The  Semitic  is  the  triliteral  kbd.     No  trace  of  the  d  is  found  in  the 
three  eastern  areas.     The  subject  of  an  initial  sound  has  already  been  dis- 
cussed.    We  know  it  only  as  astronomers  know  invisible  celestial  bodies 
by  the  regularity  of  certain  perturbations  in  their  computations.     We  do 
not  certainly  know  what  this  echo  of  an  initial  sound  may  have  been,  but  we 
do  know  beyond  any  doubt  that  it  could  not  have  been  k,  for  the  mutation 
scheme  of  that  palatal  is  abundantly  understood. 

There  remains  to  us  the  consideration  of  Efate  uateam.  I  cite  Dr. 
Macdonald  in  extenso: 

In  Efat6  uateam'  (d.  uateau)  the  kidneys  is  ua  ate  am',  lit.,  fruit  of  the  liver  (or  inside) 
of  the  belly  {am'  the  belly);  ua-naie-natuo  or  ua-nate-tuo,  the  calf  of  the  leg,  in  one 
dialect  is  denoted  by  uateau  natore,  lit.,  kidneys  of  the  shin  (i.  e.,  the  leg  from  the  knee 
to  the  foot),  and  uateau  laso  denotes  kidneys  of  the  scrotum;  ua,  fruit,  is  used  because 
the  parts  spoken  of  are  round  or  fruit-shaped. 

The  validity  of  this  determination  of  uateam'  as  pertaining  to  the  ate 
liver  stem  rests  upon  ua-ate,  fruit  of  the  liver,  becoming  uate  through  crasis. 
In  my  judgment  it  is  simpler  to  avoid  all  reference  to  ate  liver  and  to  find 
in  uate  an  identification  with  fuata,  the  stronger  form  from  fuat  fruit,  as 
to  which  see  note  360. 


322  the;  Polynesian  wanderings. 

277. 

aiia  (awa),  naiia,  ua,  veins,  muscles. 

Samoa :  ua,  sinews,  tendons,  veins,  arteries.  Tonga :  uoua,  sinew, 
tendon;  uouatanu,  deep,  out  of  sight,  the  veins  of  the  arms. 
Futuna:  ua,  vein,  sinew,  muscle;  uaua,  veins  which  show. 
Uvea:  ua,  vein.  Maori:  uaua,  a  sinew,  vein,  artery.  Tahiti: 
uaua,  sinew,  tendon,  ligament,  vein.  Marquesas :  uaua,  vein, 
artery,  nerve,  tendon.  Mangareva:  ua,  tendon,  vein,  nerve. 
Rapanui:  ua,  sinew,  tendon;  uaua,  vein.  Paumotu:  tareua, 
tendon.  Moriori:  uau,   artery.  Nuguria:  nauka,   vein. 

Hawaii:  aa,  vein. 
Viti :  ua,  a  vein,  muscle ;  vakaua,  uauana,  muscular,  strong. 
Laur:  urat,  vein. 

Malay:  urat,  nerve,  sinew.         Matu:  urat,  vein,  sinew.         Ilocan: 
urat,  vein.     Tagalog:  ugat,  id.     Pampangas:  uy at, id.     Kayan: 
uat,  sinew.         Java:  wad  (through  uhat,  uat),  vein,  muscle. 
Bugi:  tirok,  vein.         Malagasy:  uzatra,  huzatra,  vein. 
Arabic:  'irk',  'araka,  veins. 
Excising  the  article  a(na)  the  Efate"  ua  accords  with  the  ua  of  Polynesia 
in  form  and  general  signification.     In  the  crude  anatomical  knowledge  of 
these  races  it  is  easy  to  see  what  wo  really  is,  the  cordlike  bodies  in  the  flesh 
which  appear  under  the  skin.     Thus  vein  and  tendon  are  the  same  thing 
and  one  word  describes  them.     It  is  not  until  we  reach  Hawaiian  aa  that 
we  find  any  variant  of  ua. 

Our  only  Melanesian  identification  is  Eaur  urat.  This  is  a  form  which 
appears  exactly  in  three  Malayan  languages.  Eaur  is  right  in  the  east  gate 
in  a  region  where  it  is  possible  to  suspect  a  late  Malayan  source  of  the  word 
after  the  Polynesian  migration  had  passed  through. 

The  Indonesian  forms  exhibit  a  remarkable  treatment  of  the  ua  stem,  so 
remarkable  that  we  may  entertain  grave  doubts  of  their  identity.  There 
is  everywhere  one  consonant  unaccountable  and  generally  two,  the  Polyne- 
sian stem  nowhere  exhibiting  the  slightest  trace  of  any  consonant.  Kayan 
uat  is  the  nearest  approach  to  ua;  from  that  to  Malay  urat  we  have  a  steadily 
strengthening  chain.  These  two  consonants  are  such  as  the  Polynesian 
would  have  had  no  difficulty  in  preserving  had  they  been  primordial. 

The  Semitic  here  offered  is  yet  farther  removed  from  ua;  it  is  even 
stronger  than  urat,  which  only  imperfectly  does  it  resemble. 

278. 
bwa,  ua,  boua,  to  rain. 

Samoa,  Fakaafo,  Futuna,  Uvea,  Fotuna,  Nuguria,  Maori,  Tahiti, 
Hawaii,  Rarotonga,  Marquesas,  Mangareva,  Rapanui,  Manahiki : 
wa,  rain.     Aniwa:  ua,  towa,  id.     Sikayana :  oua,  id.     Nukuoro: 
mata-ua,  raindrop.         Tonga,  Niue:  uha,  rain. 
Viti:  utha,  rain.         Rotuma:  uas,  id. 

The  following  signify  rain : 

Sesake,  Marina,  Tangoan  Santo,  Suau,  Maewo:  usa.  Dobu,  Kubiri: 
usana.  Kiviri :  usan.  Sariba :  kuse.  Vaturanga,  Bugotu, 
Nggela:  uha.         Deni:  ua.         Epi:  ua,  yua.         Baki:  yuo. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  323 

Bierian :  nihua.  Arag,  Omba :  uhe.  Aneityum,  Eromanga :  ehe. 
Guadalcanar :  utha.  Alite:  uta.  Santo,  Vat6,  Malekula :  us. 
Lakon :  uh.  Ambrym :  o.  New  Ireland  (Duffield) :  eyiis,  eus. 
Rubi :  ura.  Buka :  urata,  uroto,  uruotta.  Bougainville :  urata. 
Gog :  urei.  Arag,  Merlav :  reu.  Pak :  wat.  Sasar,  Alo  Teqel : 
wet .  Lo :  weta.  Volow :  wend.  Norbarbar,  Vuras,  Mosin :  wen. 
Mota:  wena.  Wango,  Fagani:  rangi.  Nggao:  hani. 
Kayan:  usan.  Togean  Islands:  udjan.  Rotti:  udan.  Matabello: 
udama.  Kaili :  uda.  Malay,  Sandol :  hujan.  Java :  hudan. 
Gani,    Wahai,   Salu,   Timor,   Visayas:  ulan.  Tobo:  u'lan. 

Cajeli,  Caimarian:  ulani.         Bual:  ulanu.         Awaiya:  uldne. 
Liang,  Morella :  hulan.      Batumerah :  hulani.     Amblaw :  ulah. 
Ende :  ura.     Tidore,  Pampangas :  uran.     Ceram :  urana.     Sali- 
babo:  wrong.     Kisa:  ungang.     Gah:  uan.     Malagasy:  orana. 
Galela:  hura.      Baju:  huran.     Teor:  hurani.     Lariko:  haran. 
Sula :  huya.       Bolanghitam :  oka.       Mysot :  golim. 
Arabic:  ba'a,  to  rain  continuously;  ba'a'a,  rain,  rain  water. 
The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  uha.     This  is  shown  by  Viti  utha,  which  might 
derive  with  equal  facility  from  uha  or  usa,  but  if  the  latter  were  radical 
Samoa  would  have  preserved  it  as  usa,  and  it  would  have  appeared  as  uha 
in  the  long  list  of  sister  languages  which  represent  a  Proto-Samoan  sibilant 
by  the  aspiration.     It  does  appear  as  uha  in  Tonga  and  Niue,  which  nor- 
mally preserve  the  Proto-Samoan  h.     In  Rotuma  it  has  become  usa  and 
has  then  undergone  metathesis  to  comply  with  the  local  idiosyncrasy  for 
closed  stems.     In  Efat6  the  prefixing  of  b  is  unexplained. 

The  Proto-Samoan  uha  is  preserved  in  Vaturanga,  Bugotu,  Nggela ;  with 
one  vowel  change  in  Arag  and  Omba,  with  alteration  of  both  vowels  in 
Aneityum,  and  with  terminal  abrasion  in  Lakon.     Guadalcanar  repeats  the 
Viti  utha.     The  mutation  to  s  is  seen  in  the  usa  of  Sesake,  Marina,  Tangoan 
Santo,  and  Maewo;  the  us  by  abrasion  in  Santo,  Vate\  and  Malekula;  prob- 
ably in  Duffield's  New  Ireland  ejus,  eus.     The  ua  of  the  modern  phase  of 
Polynesian  is  found  in  Deni  and  Epi,  and  in  the  latter  island  both  Baki 
and  Bierian  preface  it  with  weak  sounds.     The  uta  of  Alite  is  a  degeneration 
form  of  Guadalcanar  utha  arising  from  a  second  borrowing  of  loan  material 
and  without  knowledge  of  the  true  form  of  the  original.     This  is  no  merely 
theoretical  deduction.     In  Fiji  I  have  observed  that  Melanesians  in  learning 
the  Viti  almost  uniformly  reproduce  the  dh  of  that  speech  with  t,  d,  nt,  nd, 
where  the  sound  (though  the  Fijians  had  no  knowledge  of  the  fact)  was  the 
preservation  of  Polynesian  stems  containing  the  aspiration.     The  o  of  Am- 
brym is  explicable  as  a  degeneration  form  to  which  we  are  led  by  Lakon  uh. 
We  must  postpone  further  consideration  of  the  Melanesian  material  until 
we  have  examined  the  Indonesian  record.     We  shall  compare  these  forms 
with  the  primal  and  successive  forms  hereinbefore  developed. 
uha.  This  appears  in  but  a  single  instance,  Bolanghitam  oha. 
usa.  This,  too,  is  found  but  once,  Kayan  usan,  in  which  appears  the 
final  Indonesian  n  which  is  so  prevalent  in  this  area  and  will  not 
be  further  noticed  here. 
ua.  In  Gah  uan  and  in  Sula  huya  with  the  prefix  of  the  aspiration 
which  is  found  in  Bierian  ni-hua  and  freely  in  Indonesia. 


324  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

We  now  enter  upon  a  great  group  of  forms  in  which  the  primal  aspiration 
has  undergone  greater  mutation.  The  majority  of  these  mutations  are 
in  the  lingual  series,  a  proof  that  the  original  is  the  h  near  the  lingual 
closures.  In  this  series  we  shall  consider  the  weakening  mutations,  those 
upward  in  the  vowel  direction,  disregarding  the  initial  accretion  of  h  and 
the  formative  terminal  n. 

ula.  Gani,  Wahai,  Salu,  Timor,  Visayas,  Tobo,  Cajeli,  Caimarian, 
Bual,  Awaiya,  Liang,  Morella,  Batumerah,  Amblaw.        Mysot 
golim  may  be  considered  in  this  series,  but  with  no  great  insistence. 
ura.  Ende,  Tidore,  Pampangas,  Ceram,  Salibabo,  Malagasy,  Galela, 
Baju,  Teor,  Lariko. 
We  next  examine  the  strengthening  mutations,  the  downward  movement. 
The  first  of  these  is  usa,  already  presented  as  a  normal  variation. 
udja.  Togean  Islands,  Malay,  Sandol. 
uda.  Rotti,  Matabello,  Kaili,  Java. 
We  have  a  single  example  in  which  occurs  h-ng  mutation ;  this  represents 
a  resultant  of  the  first  weakening  variation  to  ula  and  then  the  horizontal 
strengthening  by  movement  to  the  palate,  l-ng  being  a  mutation  of  which 
the  tabular  view  will  supply  examples  in  Melanesia.    These  are  to  be 
regarded  as  specifically  Indonesian  mutations;  they  are  not  found  at  all 
in  Polynesia,  and  h-j  and  h-d  very  sparingly  in  Melanesia  outside  this  stem. 
We  shall  now  resume  the  consideration  of  the  Melanesian  material.    The 
ula-ura  which  has  occupied  so  large  a  space  in  Indonesia  may  with  consider- 
able probability  be  identified  in  Buka  and  Bougainville  urata  and  variants. 
In  case  this  identification  be  considered  acceptable  I  would  ascribe  it  to  a 
Post- Polynesian  period,  a  raid  along  the  ancient  track  conducted  by  Indo- 
nesian peoples,  for  these  two  northern  outliers  of  the  Solomons  are  within 
reach  of  the  prahus.   In  note  277lhave  already  introduced  this  explanation. 
But  Gog  urei  and  Arag-Merlav  reu,  metathetically  derived  therefrom,  lie 
geographically  too  remote  to  be  susceptible  of  this  explanation  in  view  of 
the  fact  that  no  intervening  record  appears.     But  is  such  the  case? 

In  Buka  uruotta,  readily  seen  to  be  a  variant  of  urata,  we  find  the  pos- 
sibility of  a  transition  form,  a  stem  in  which  the  final  t  is  established  for 
this  area.  It  is  possible  that  in  further  borrowings  uruotta,  losing  its  first 
two  letters  (not  a  true  syllable),  might,  as  uotta,  lead  us  to  weta  of  Lo,  wet 
of  Sasar  and  Alo  Teqel,  wat  of  Pak.  From  wet  to  Volow  wend  is  easier  than 
it  might  seem,  for  wet  varying  toward  wed  would  encounter  the  idiosyncrasy 
that  Volow  and  several  other  Melanesian  languages,  as  well  as  Viti,  can  not 
essay  the  d  without  the  supporting  preface  of  the  nasal  of  the  same  series. 
From  wend  to  wen  and  wena  is  very  simple  on  the  explanation  of  secondary 
borrowing,  as  already  pointed  out  in  the  case  of  h-th-t,  the  reinforced  con- 
sonant being  objectionable  to  later  borrowers,  and  on  that  score  they  reject 
the  final  one  of  two  linked  sounds  in  their  ignorance  that  this  it  is  which 
represents  the  primal  sound.  Thus  we  may  bring  the  second  group  of 
Melanesian  identifications  into  line,  representative  of  a  Post-Polynesian 
movement. 

The  third  Melanesian  group,  Wango-Fagani  rangi  and  Nggao  hangi,  is 
the  Polynesian  langi  the  sky,  which  we  have  already  seen  (274)  pressed  into 


DATA  AND  NOTES.  325 

Melanesian  service  to  denominate  the  wind.  The  reason  is  not  far  to  seek, 
for  it's  the  wind  and  the  rain  and  the  sky  above  us  all,  for  it's  all  one  and 
naught  lies  beyond  but  the  great,  the  pitiless  gods. 

And  this  Semitic,  foolishly  treading  on  the  heels  of  so  wide  a  unity,  has 
but  this  plea  to  make,  that  Efate  has  added  to  uha  a  b,  which  nowhere  else 
appears  to  have  left  a  trace. 

279. 

bwabwa,  a  hollow,  channel  or  bed  of  a  stream  dry  except  after  heavy  rains, 
an  opening  through  the  jungle,  a  board ;  bwala,  level. 
Samoa:  Papapapa,  the  name  of  a  rocky  path  among  cascades  in 
the  bed  of  a  stream  just  south  of  the  tuasivi  on  the  alasopo 
from  Apia  to  Safata;  papa,  a  rock,  a  board,  plane,  level,  flat; 
papapapa,  level,  as  a  rocky  road.  Tonga:  papa,  a  board, 
plane,  even  (as  a  road  much  trodden);  papapapa,  smooth. 
Uvea,  Futuna :  papa,  a  board.  Niue :  laupapa,  a  board,  a  floor. 
Nuguria :  papa,  rocks.  Maori :  papa,  anything  broad,  flat  and 
hard,  to  lie  flat,  a  flat  rock,  a  slab,  a  board,  a  door,  a  shutter. 
Tahiti :  papa,  sl  board,  a  flat  rock.  Hawaii :  papa,  applied  to 
many  substances  having  a  hard  flat  surface,  a  board.  Mangaia : 
papa,  a  base,  a  foundation.  Mangareva :  papa,  a  foundation, 
a  plank.  Marquesas:  papa,  stones  on  the  shore;  papahua,  a 
board ;  papapoho,  a  plank,  a  gate,  a  door.  Paumotu :  papa,  a 
rock ;  tipapa,  lying  flat.  Nukuoro :  papapa,  flat ;  papapapa,  low. 
Viti:  mbamba,  a  board. 

Motu :  papapapa,  a  flat  rock.        Mota :  taptapapa,  flat-sided ;  tapa,  a 

board ;  papalak,  papalaota,  thin.     Aneityum :  apalapal,  thin,  flat. 

Malay,  Basakrama:  papan,  a  board.     Macassar:  papang,  id.     Bugi: 

papon,  id. 
Arabic :  baba-t',  surface,  board,  table,  slab ;  bib',  channel ;  bob',  door, 
gate,  hall ;  baba,  to  dig  a  hole.        Hebrew :  babah,  a  gate. 
A  particularly  interesting  coincidence  of  specialized  significations  lies  in 
Efat6  bwabwa  and  the  Samoan  Papapapa. 

In  the  Polynesian  which  we  can  mass  this  stem  appears  as  a  duplication 
of  pa.  But  Efat£  ^oto,  paralleled  by  Aneityum  apalapal  and  Mota  papa- 
lak and  papalaota,  very  strongly  suggests  a  stronger  closed  stem  pal.  The 
other  Mota  forms  seem  to  be  composites  of  ta  and  pa,  for  taptapapa  is 
explained  by  Codrington  as  a  duplication  form,  although  highly  irregular 
when  referred  to  Polynesian  duplication  mechanics. 

If  this  pal  stem  be  acceptable  it  interposes  difficulty  in  the  way  of  Semitic 
identification  through  form  resemblance. 

280. 
balu-sa,  to  paddle,  row;  balusa  sa,  paddle  or  row  with  it  (a  paddle  or  oar). 
Epi  dd.  mbeluo  ka,mbahuakin,v.  t.,  Aneityumaheleth,to paddle, 
to  row,  to  sail,  Ambrym  fuloh,  to  paddle,  Fijian  ai  vothe,  an 
oar,  vothe,  to  paddle,  to  row,  -vothe-taka,  v.  t.  (=balu-saki,  to 
paddle  a  canoe,  to  row  a  boat),  Paama  palusa,  Malekula  d. 
masu,  Malekula  Aulua  sua,  Malo  mo  sua,  Tanna  asua,  Futuna 
sua,  Malagasy  vui,  act  of  rowing ;  mivui,  to  row ;  vuizina,  rowed ; 
fivui,  an  oar;  Malay  dayung,  an  oar;  dayung,  bardayung,  to  row. 


326  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

Note:  Balu-saki  is  the  same  as  volhe-taka.  The  verb  "  to  row  "  is  balu,  vothe,  (m)beluo, 
(m)bahua,  vui,  masu,  and  without  the  preformative  V ,  (v',  m'),  asua,  sua,  dayung,  and 
the  I  in  balu,  th  in  -vothe,  h  in  mbahua,  s  in  sua,  d  in  dayung,  all  are  variations  of  the 
same  original  consonant  which  is  elided  in  vui.  The  word  for  oar,  ai  vothe,  fivui,  is  in 
Efat6  uose,  d.  uohe  (wose,  woke),  Futuna  foi.  In  Futuna  the  connection  between  sua, 
to  paddle,  and  foi,  an  oar  or  paddle,  is  not  so  apparent  as  that  between  Malekula  Pang- 
kumu  su,  to  paddle,  and  bos,  a  paddle,  because  in  }oi,  as  in  vui  (Viti  vothe)  the  s  has 
been  elided;  and  the  connection  between  Efate  balu,  to  paddle,  and  uose,  a  paddle,  is 
not  so  apparent  as  that  between  Epi  mbahua,  to  paddle,  and  voho,  a  paddle,  Epi  d. 
bahua,  to  paddle,  and  boho,  a  paddle.  Arabic  gadafa,  kadafa,  (or  'at'afa),  Amharic  kazaf 
(or  'azaf),  to  propel  with  oars,  to  row,  Modern  Arabic  kaddaf,  or  'addaf,  part,  mo'addif 
(anc.  mo'addif,  or  mo'azzif,  cf.  vothe,  bose,  uose,  vui,  foi).  Sua  is  without  the  preforma- 
tive, cf.  'azafa,  'addaf:  balu  seems  to  have  the  same  prefix  as  Samoa  pale,  to  row,  with- 
out which  is  Samoa  alo  (ps.  alofia),  and  alo-fa'i,  to  paddle,  row,  and  with  another  verb, 
Samoa  taualo,  to  row,  to  keep  on  rowing. 

The  foregoing  is  cited  from  Dr.  Macdonald's  work,  an  excellent  example 
of  his  dictionary  method :  I  subjoin  a  few  notes  from  the  Melanesian  tract 
as  a  slight  addition  to  the  record. 

Mota:  sua,  to  paddle;  suava,  a  paddling.  Buka:  sschue,  soa,  to 
row.  Matupit :  walua,  to  row.  Baravon :  walue-vue,  to  row 
off.  Tambell :  valiso,  to  paddle.  King:  vulusu,  id.  Lamassa: 
lava's,  id.  Moiki:  ango,  to  row,  is  Polynesian,  Samoan  alo, 
under  the  influence  of  the  local  change  of  /  to  ng. 
281. 
baro-si,  baru-si,  to  rub,  to  grate;  farofaro,  a  thing  which  rasps. 

Samoa :  valu,  to  scratch,  to  scrape  out  (as  coconuts) ;  valu,  to  scrape 
(as  taro) ;  valusanga,  scrapings  (as  of  taro) .  Tonga :  valu,  to 
scrape.  Futuna :  valu,  to  rub,  to  rasp,  to  scrape.  Nuguria: 
valuvalu,  to  peel  taro.  Tahiti:  varu,  vau,  to  shave,  to  bark 
a  tree,  to  scratch.  Mangareva:  varu,  to  scrape  fruit,  to  cut 
the  hair.  Rapanui :  varuvaru,  to  scrape,  to  rasp,  to  shave,  to 
plane,  to  peel ;  hauhau,  to  scrape.  Marquesas :  vau,  to  shave ; 
vavau,  to  scrape  cooked  breadfruit.  Maori:  warn,  to  scrape, 
to  shave,  to  cut  hair  quite  close;  warwwaru,  peeled.  Hawaii: 
■walu,  to  scratch,  to  rub,  to  rasp,  to  polish.  Niue:  halu,  to 
scrape,  to  peel.  Fotuna :  wurusia,  to  scrape. 
Viti :  waluya,  to  rub  or  scrape  pandanus  leaves  to  render  them  pliant 
for  mat-making ;  wandrutha,  to  clear  the  nose  of  mucus,  to  wipe 
dirt  off  a  thing  with  the  hand;  varota,  to  saw,  to  file,  to  rasp. 
Mai:  barusi,  to  scrape. 
Malay :  paras,  to  shave,  to  pare  close  to  the  surface.        Malagasy : 

fara,  to  scrape,  to  scratch,  to  make  smooth. 
Arabic:  faraka,  to  rub,  to  grate. 
The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  varus,  which  reappears  in  Efate,  Viti  (wandru- 
tha), Fotuna,  Mai  and  Malay.  While  the  two  Samoan  words  are  akin  in 
sense  it  would  seem  that  they  have  different  stems,  or  perhaps  that  valu 
is  a  modification  by  vowel  prolongation  entered  upon  when  the  closing  con- 
sonant of  the  stem  had  dropped  from  memory;  the  evidence  for  this  lies 
in  the  objective  aspect  of  the  two  verbs,  of  valu  valusia,  of  valu  valua.  On 
the  other  hand  the  noun  of  action  derived  from  valu,  taro  scrapings,  is 
recorded  by  Pratt  in  the  two  forms  valunga  (without  the  macron)  and  valu- 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  327 

sanga.  Yet  as  this  distinction  of  special  use  by  quantity  is  not  carried  along 
even  into  Nuclear  Polynesia  we  may  be  justified  in  considering  this  an  error 
on  the  part  of  Pratt,  the  more  since  Pere  Violette  marks  diacritically  no 
such  distinction. 

The  fact  that  the  valu  stem  carries  the  specific  action  of  the  rasp  (a  sprig 
of  coral  being  the  common  implement)  through  Futuna  as  far  as  Hawaii 
removes  any  obstacle  which  might  exist  as  to  the  affiliation  of  Efate  faro- 
faro  and  Viti  varo  with  valu.  It  is  interesting  to  find  in  Viti  three  phases 
of  the  same  stem.  The  varying  treatment  of  the  radical  I  suggests  that 
Viti  borrowed  and  twice  repeated  the  borrowing  from  different  sources. 
The  varota  points  to  a  loan  when  the  stem  held  its  r,  and  Efate  farofaro 
hints  at  the  loan  coming  along  the  migration  track  which  I  have  segregated 
as  the  Viti  stream,  but  in  this  the  closing  radical  s  had  vanished.  The 
wandrutha  points  to  a  loan  from  a  source  which  had  rgrasseye  and  the  closed 
stem,  in  local  terms  to  Samoa.  Then  walunga  indicates  a  source  wherein 
the  stem  was  open  and  the  r  had  passed  definitely  into  I.  In  our  knowl- 
edge of  the  Polynesian  waves  over  Viti  this  corresponds  to  theTongan. 

The  Semitic  is  triliteral  frk.  There  is  a  sense  resemblance,  but  stated 
as  a  triliteron  the  Polynesian  is  vrs,  the  difference  in  the  third  element 
being  considerable. 

282. 
bau,  bao,  fau,  fao,  new. 

Tonga:  foou,  foofoou,  fofoou,  new.  Futuna:  fo'ou,  new,  recent. 
Uvea:  foou,  id.  Samoa:  fou,  new,  recent;  fa'afou,  to  make 
new.  Niue:  fou,  new,  young,  recent.  Aniwa,  Vat6:  fou, 
new.  Fotuna:  fau,  id.  Maori,  Nuguria,  Hawaii:  hou,  new, 
fresh,  recent.  Mangareva,  Tahiti,  Nukuoro:  hou,  new.  Mar- 
quesas: hou,  new,  recent.  Rapanui,  Paumotu:  hou,  young, 
new.  Rarotonga:  ou,  id. 
Viti:  vou,  new;  vovou,  young.  Rotuma:  fo'ou,  new. 
Eromanga:  ite-vou,  new.  Malo:  baro,  id.  Malekula:  mermer,  id. 
Motu:  matamata,   id.  Baki:  bou,   id.  Bierian:  feu,  id. 

Aneityum:  mat,  new,  raw.        Taupota,  Wedau,  Galavi:  vou, 
new.       Kubiri,  Raqa:  baubau,  id.       Kiviri,  Oiun:  bobu,  id. 
Malagasy:  vau  (havauzana),  new.         Malay:  baham,  id.         Kisa: 

wohruwohru,  id. 
Arabic:  mahduf  (hadat'a),  new.        Hebrew:  hadas',  id.        Syriac: 
hdaf,  id.         Ethiopic:  hadas,  to  renew. 
No  explanation  is  offered  in  the  Efate"  dictionary  as  to  the  use  of  the 
diaeresis  on  the  former  vowel.    Yet  we  may  be  justified  in  assuming  that 
it  is  clumsily  an  indication  of  long  quality,  for  in  Tonga,  Futuna,  Uvea,  and 
Rotuma  the  doubled  0  is  used  for  the  same  purpose. 

This  stem  is  soundly  identified  throughout  Polynesia,  in  Efat6,  in  Ero- 
manga, in  both  the  Baki  and  Bierian  of  Epi,  in  Malagasy,  and  less  clearly 
in  Malay.  Tregear's  inclusion  of  the  Kisa  wohruwohru  seems  somewhat  to 
reflect  Malo  baro;  but  in  the  great  facility  with  which  our  Sawaiori  retain 
l-r  we  are  not  warranted  in  admitting  this  to  the  company  of  fou.  The 
Malekula  mermer  may  be  a  variant  of  baro,  yet  that  is  hardly  likely,  since 
in  note  207  we  have  seen  that  p-m  is  only  a  rare  possibility. 


328  THE  POLYNESIAN  WANDERINGS. 

In  Motu  and  Aneityum  we  find  the  intrusion  of  another  stem,  yet  even 
this  intrusion  has  both  interest  and  value.  Aneityum  mat  new,  raw,  sup- 
plies a  sense  link  between  Motu  matamata  new  and  Polynesian  mata  (256) 
raw.  The  position  of  these  two  intrusions  is  very  significant.  Motu  in 
Torres  Straits  establishes  for  us  one  point  of  the  migration  through  the 
south  gate;  Aneityum  is  in  that  more  southern  region  which  is  a  second 
determining  point  in  the  Viti  stream. 

The  Semitic  stems  in  the  triliteron  hdt  (hds)  and  it  is  impossible  to 
bring  into  association  therewith  a  stem  whose  only  consonant  is  a  sliding 
labial  centered  at/. 

283. 

bau  si,  fau-si,  bau-fau,  to  fasten  together,  to  plait  a  mat. 

Samoa :  fau,  to  tie  together,  to  fasten  by  tying,  the  tree  {Hibiscus 
tiliaceus)  whose  bast  is  used  for  cord,  the  kava  strainer  made 
therefrom,  strings  in  various  uses;  fajau,  to  lash  on,  to  fasten 
with  sennit;  faufau,  to  fasten  on,  to  tie  together.  Tonga: 
fau,  to  fasten  up  the  hair,  the  name  of  the  hibiscus,  the  kava 
strainer  made  therefrom ;  faufau,  to  fasten  on  the  outriggers  of 
small  canoes;  hau,  to  fasten  to;  fehauaki,  to  tie.  Futuna: 
fau,  the  hibiscus,  the  kava  strainer;  fau,  fafau,  faufau,  to  attach, 
to  tie.  Niue :  fau,  fafau,  to  make  by  tying.  Fotuna :  no-fausia, 
to  tie,  to  fasten.  Tahiti:  fau,  the  hibiscus;  fafau,  to  tie 
together.  Paumotu:  fau,  the  hibiscus.  Nuguria:  hau,  id. 
Maori :  hou,  to  bind,  to  fasten  together ;  whau,  a  shrub ;  whauwhau, 
to  tie.  Hawaii :  hau,  name  of  a  tree  with  a  practicable  bark. 
Marquesas:  hau,  the  hibiscus.  Mangareva:  hau,  id.;  hahau, 
to  join  or  tie  with  cords.  Nukuoro:  hau,  the  hibiscus,  a 
garland.         Mangaia :  au,  the  hibiscus. 

Viti :  vau,  the  hibiscus ;  vautha,  to  bind  together. 

Aneityum:  in-wau,  a  creeper,  a  vine.  Mota:  vau,  a  pandanus; 
to  mat,  to  plait,  to  weave. 

Malay:  baru,  the  hibiscus.  Java:  waru,  id.  Kisa:  warau,  id. 
Malagasy:  fehi,  fehizana,  to  tie,  to  knot. 

Arabic:  habaka,  habikaf,  to  weave,  to  bind,  to  interweave. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  faus. 

In  the  utter  absence  of  perspective  in  which  these  languages  appear 
before  us  it  would  be  idle  to  engage  upon  the  attempt  to  discover  whether 
in  sense  the  tree  or  the  act  of  using  its  bast  is  primordial.  In  the  records 
before  us  the  stem  carries  the  tree  sense  without  the  verb  in  the  Paumotu, 
the  Marquesas,  Nukuoro,  and  Aneityum ;  nowhere  the  verb  where  the  noun 
does  not  designate  a  plant  which  yields  a  string.  Niue  and  Fotuna  are  the 
only  instances  of  the  verb  without  the  noun,  and  these  may  be  negligible 
since  the  vocabularies  on  which  we  rely  do  not  attempt  to  name  this  tree. 
For  comparison  I  add  the  following  hibiscus  names  from  Micronesia  on 
the  authority  of  Mr.  Christian's  researches. 

Ponape:  kal'au.  Mortlocks:  kili-fau.      Ruk:  sili-fau. 

Pulawat:  kini-fau.       Satawal:  kini-fau.         I,amotrek:  gili-fau. 
Sonsorol:  giri-fai.         Uluthi:  gili-fai.  St.  David's:  gini-fai. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  329 

In  Indonesia  we  encounter  a  stem  with  an  intrusive  consonant  and,  as 
in  282,  we  can  not  accept  the  identification.  The  consonant  skeleton  of 
Malagasy  fehi,  fh,  readily  associates  with  the  Polynesian  fs.  But  this 
should  not  lead  us  astray  into  the  idea  that  we  have  an  identification  of 
stems.  If  au  were  diphthongal  and  e  a  very  long  vowel  it  would  be  a  great 
task  to  entertain  the  possibility  of  a  vowel  mutation  au-e.  The  Malagasy 
requires  even  more  than  this :  it  requires  the  extirpation  of  an  inner  and 
protected  vowel,  for  jau  is  not  diphthongal  and  the  proof  thereof  lies  in 
the  preduplication  fafau  in  Samoa,  Futuna,  Niue,  Tahiti,  Mangareva. 

The  Semitic  hbk  is  certainly  far  away  from  the  fs  skeleton. 

284. 

bila,  bilafila,  to  shine,  to  lighten,  to  gleam,  to  flash,  to  appear.  Cf. 
fill  295. 

Samoa:  pula,  pupula,  to  shine.  Futuna:  pula,  to  fix  the  eyes 
on,  to  regard  fixedly.  Niue:  pupula,  to  shine  (of  the  eyes), 
the  new  moon.  Uvea:  pupula,  to  shine,  to  glow,  to  gleam, 
to  beam.  Maori:  kapura,  mapura,  fire.  Tahiti:  pura,  a 
flash  of  light  or  fire,  to  flash,  to  blaze.  Mangareva:  pura, 
a  spark,  to  shine,  to  glow.  Rapanui:  pupura,  to  shine,  to 
be  bright;  hakapura,  to  kindle,  to  light.  Paumotu:  pura, 
phosphorescent.  Nukuoro:  purapura,  bright.  Marquesas: 
pupua,  phosphorescent,  shining. 

Viti:  vula,  white;  vula,  the  moon.     Rotuma:  hula,  hual,  the  moon. 

Nifilole :  polao,  the  light.  Bugotu,  Nggela :  pura,  white.  Santo : 
pula,  light.  Baravon:  puapua,  id.         Mota:  vula,  white. 

Nggela,  Belaga,  Marina,  Arag,  Mota,  Vaturanga,  Bugotu:  vula, 
the  moon.  Pokau:  vula,  id.  Uni:  bulo,  id.  Pokau:  vuia,  id. 
Uni:  buia,  id.  Doura:  huia,  id.  Motu:  tea,  id.  Keapara, 
Galoma :  hue,  id.  Rubkwtti,  id.  Omba :  vule,  id.  Merlav, 
Gog,  Lakon:  vul,  id.  Moanus:  mbul,  id.  Maewo:  wula,  id. 
Vuras,  Mosin,  Motlav,  Volow:  wol,  id.  Wango:  hura,  id. 
Ambrym :  ola,  id.       Aneityum :  laav,  lav,  to  shine  (of  the  moon) . 

Malay,  Ilocan :  bulan,  the  moon.  Tringanu :  bulang,  id.  Solor : 
bur ang,  id.  Molucca:  bulam,  id.  Kaili:  bula,  id.  Gilolo, 
Solor:  wulan,  id.  Aru:  fulan,  id.  Rotti :  fula,  id.  Iyobo: 
furan,  id.  Timor:  funan,  id.  Togean  Islands:  fuya,  id.; 
buy  a,  white.  Kisa:  ulang,  moon.  Magindano:  ulan,  id. 
Utanata:  uran,  id. 

Arabic :  barak,  bara',  to  shine,  to  gleam,  to  flash,  to  glitter,  to  appear, 
to  lighten,  to  open  the  eyes,  to  glance  at. 

The  Proto-Samoan  stem  is  pulaf. 

Dr.  Macdonald's  identification  of  this  and  the  lightning  stem  is,  of 
course,  disposed  of  by  the  comparison  of  this  material  with  that  assembled 
in  item  295. 

In  terms  of  color  psychology  we  are  here  dealing  with  the  unreduced 
ray  of  light,  the  union  of  the  spectrum  colors  in  white. 

Furthermore  we  are  dealing  with  a  singularly  elemental  people,  but  little 
advanced  in  the  arts,  not  yet  emerged  from  the  stone  age.    The  back- 


330  THE)   POLYNESIAN   WANDERINGS. 

ground  of  their  color  life  is  brown — brown  mats  to  sleep  upon,  brown  thatch 
to  shield  them  from  the  gods  and  from  the  rain,  these  the  browns  of  mar- 
cescent  leaves,  brown  tapering  trunks  of  coconuts,  the  brown  of  seasoned 
hard  wood  in  the  club  without  which  in  hand  life  is  not  long  to  be  lived, 
brown  skins  to  look  upon  in  love  or  hate  and  to  live  within.  Not  merely 
the  deductions  of  philology  these  remarks ;  the  eye  trained  in  color  values  has 
looked  upon  these  scenes,  and  those  who  have  gazed  upon  John  LaParge's 
sketches  from  the  South  Sea  have  seen  a  suite  of  studies  in  brown. 

Their  simple  arts  rarely  produce  a  white ;  I  recall  but  the  white  of  siapo 
made  from  the  bast  of  Broussonetia  papyrifera  or  Pipturus  incanus  when 
retted  in  still  waters  and  bleached  in  the  sun.  It  is  beyond  the  resources 
of  their  few  pigments  to  produce  a  synthetic  white.  The  red  of  a  few 
mineral  oxides,  a  purple  from  a  sea  mollusc,  the  yellows  of  the  turmeric,  the 
black  of  soot,  are  all  that  so  advanced  a  people  as  the  Samoans  might  spread 
upon  a  palette.     Mix  these  and  brown  results. 

Bathed  in  white  light  they  see  little  white  in  nature.  Their  eyes  no 
more  than  ours  may  rest  upon  the  sun  undazzled  by  its  glory  long  enough 
to  separate  from  its  heat  and  glare  any  true  sense  of  color.  But  there  is 
one  object  which  never  fails  to  yield  a  white,  the  moon.  Therefore  we  are 
not  surprised  to  note  in  what  number  of  tongues  of  these  remote  islands 
the  word  which  means  to  shine,  to  be  bright  with  the  undissolved  light 
beam,  should  be  used  to  designate  the  moon.  There  are  fewer  exceptions 
than  would  appear.  Niue  alone  among  the  Polynesian  tongues  in  this 
record  has  the  moon  in  this  pula  shine.  But  a  glance  farther  along  at  the 
notes  upon  item  342  will  show  that  these  languages  which  here  omit  the 
moon  present  it  in  that  record  as  masina,  again  the  shining  one,  the  most 
conspicuous  object  in  the  perfect  light,  composite  white. 

Few  of  these  forms  in  our  three  nesiote  areas  but  are  self-explanatory. 
In  Rotuma  we  find  the  metathesis  so  characteristic  of  that  language.  This, 
too,  I  am  convinced  is  found  in  Aneityum  laav-lav. 

The  Semitic  triliteron  is  brk.  While  the  resemblance  in  sense  is  very 
close  and  there  is  a  resemblance  in  form  covering  two  elements  of  the 
consonant  skeleton,  I  hesitate  before  accepting  so  violent  a  mutation  as 
that  involved,  f-k,  when  we  put  alongside  of  brk  the  Proto-Samoan  plf . 

285. 
bong,  black,  dark ;  bongi,  bong,  darkness,  night,  day  in  calendar  reckoning ; 
bongien,  darkness ;  bong,  a  dark  black  powder  used  in  painting. 

Fakaafo,  Niue,  Uvea,  Vate,  Fotuna,  Tahiti,  Manahiki:  po,  night. 
Samoa :  po,  night,  day  in  calendar,  blind ;  pongipongi,  twilight ; 
pongisa,  darkness.  Futuna:  po,  night,  day  in  calendar;  pongia, 
benighted.  Maori:  po,  night,  a  season;  pongia,  benighted. 
Hawaii,  Mangaia :  po,  night,  darkness.  Marquesas:  po,  night, 
day  in  calendar,  darkness.  Mangareva :  po,  night,  darkness, 
obscurity.  Rapanui :  po,  night,  late ;  po  rah,  day  in  calendar. 
Nukuoro:  po,  pongi,  night.  Paumotu:  matapo,  blind  (as 
elsewhere  in  Polynesia) ;  potangotango,  darkness.  Aniwa :  kopo, 
night;  pouri, dark.  Bukabuka:  popo, black.  Tonga:  bo, night. 
Nuguria,  Sikayana:  bo,  po,  night,  dark. 

Viti:  mbongi,  night;  mbombo,  blind.        Rotuma:  boni,  night. 


DATA  AND   NOTES.  331 

Nggao,  Belaga,  Nggela,  Vaturanga,  Bugotu,  Omba,  Sesake :  mbongi, 
night.  Fagani,  Alite,  New  Georgia,  Guadalcanal",  Epi :  bongi,  id. 
Sinaugoro,  Galoma,  Kiriwina :  bogi,  id.  Marina,  Southeast  Epi : 
pongi,  id.  Keapara,  Galoma,  Rubi:  pogi,  id.  Western  Epi: 
ombongi,  id.  Bierian:  im-bong,  id.  Malo:  bong,  id.  Savo: 
pong,  id.  Duke  of  York,  Matupit,  Kabakada,  Pala,  Baravon : 
bung,  id.  Malekula:  ambung,  id.  Tanna :  la-ben,  id.  Santo: 
£o«,  id.       Santo  Wulua:  />om',  id.  Maewo,  Gog,  Motlav, 

Norbarbar:  kmbwon,  id.  Arag,  Vuras,  L,akon:  kpwon,  id. 
Mota:  mpwon,  id.  Eo:  kwon,  id.  Volow:  nggmbwon,  id. 
Aneityum:  £irc#,  night;  aping,  black;  pding,  dark.  Motu, 
Rubi:  boi,  night.  Dobu:  boiboi,  id.  Vaturanga:  fiora,  black. 
Baki :  bongian,  night.  Deni :  mbo,  black ;  mbu,  night.  Nggela : 
pungi,  darkness.  Bugotu :  punt,  darkness.  Bugotu :  puni, 
dark.  Buka:  abung,  evening;  boni,  night.  Pokau,  Sariba, 
Tubetube :  boni,  night.  Baravon :  bobotoi,  darkness.  Eamassa : 
mbung,  dark.  Moanus :  pong,  vong,  day  in  calendar.  Santo : 
pon,  id.  Baki:  bongo,  id.  Bierian:  bong,  id.  Eromanga: 
po-arap,  evening.  Murua:  bo